Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton

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Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton

Birthdate: (61)
Birthplace: London, UK
Death: January 21, 1722 (61)
Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Immediate Family:

Son of Charles Paulet, 1st Duke of Bolton and Mary Paulet
Husband of Henrietta Crofts and Frances Powlett
Father of Lord Nassau Powlett; Charles Paulet, 3rd Duke of Bolton; Harry Paulet, 4th Duke of Bolton; Mary Powlett and Frances Powlett
Brother of Jane Egerton, Countess of Bridgwater; Lord William Powlett and Mary Paulet
Half brother of John Paulet

Managed by: Linda Karen Howman, U.E.
Last Updated:

About Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton

Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton

Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton KG PC (1661 – 21 January 1722) was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Member of Parliament for Hampshire and a supporter of William III of Orange.

He was son to Charles Paulet, 1st Duke of Bolton and Mary Scrope, daughter of Emanuel Scrope, 1st Earl of Sunderland. From 1675 (when his father acceded as Marquess of Winchetster) until April 1689 (when his father was created 1st Duke of Bolton), he was styled Earl of Wiltshire. From 1689 until his accession to the Dukedom he was styled Marquess of Winchester.

He was Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire and Dorset, a commissioner to arrange the union of England and Scotland; and was twice a lord justice of the kingdom. He was also lord chamberlain of the royal household and governor of the Isle of Wight.

In Jonathan Swift's tract Remarks on the Characters of the Court of Queen Anne, a commentary on the book Memoirs of the Secret Services by John Macky, in response to Macky's statement that the Duke "Does not now make any figure at court", Swift's dismissive reply is "Nor anywhere else. A great booby".

Marriages and Children

Charles married three times:

First, on 10 July 1679 to Margaret Coventry (14 September 1657 – 7 February 1681/1682), daughter to George Coventry, 3rd Baron Coventry and Margaret Tufton. No children resulted from this marriage.

Second on 8 February 1682/1683 to Frances Ramsden (baptised 14 June 1661 – 22 November 1696), daughter of William Ramsden and Elizabeth Palmes. They had four children:

  • Lady Frances Powlett (d. 1715), married John Mordaunt, Viscount Mordaunt (d. 1710) in 1708.
  • Charles Powlett, 3rd Duke of Bolton (3 September 1685 – 26 August 1754).
  • Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Bolton (24 July 1691 – 9 October 1759). He married Catherine Parry (d. 25 April 1744). The marriage resulted in the birth of Charles Paulet, 5th Duke of Bolton, Harry Paulet, 6th Duke of Bolton and daughters Catherine Paulett and Henrietta Paulett.
  • Lady Mary Powlett.

Third, around 1697 to Henrietta Crofts (d. 27 February 1729/1730), a natural daughter of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and Eleanor Needham. They had a son:

  • Lord Nassau Powlett (d. 1741). He married Isabella Tufton, daughter of Thomas Tufton, 6th Earl of Thanet and Lady Catherine Cavendish.



  • Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 44
  • Paulet, Charles (1661-1722) by Thomas Seccombe
  • PAULET or POWLETT, CHARLES, second Duke of Bolton (1661–1722), second and eldest surviving son of Charles, first duke [q. v.], by his second wife, Mary, widow of Henry Carey, lord Leppington, was born in 1661. He entered parliament in 1681 as member for Hampshire, and represented that county until his father's death in 1699. A few months prior to the Revolution, being then styled Lord Wiltshire, he went over to Holland, and returned with the Prince of Orange; he was one of the advanced guard who entered Exeter with William in November 1688 (Dartmouth MSS. f. 192; Whittle, Exact Diary of the late Expedition of the Prince of Orange). He held the office of lord chamberlain to the queen from 1689 to 1694 (Boyer, William III, p. 200), and was bearer of the orb at the coronation on 11 April 1689. He was sworn a privy councillor on 3 June 1690, and in the following year he made the campaign of Flanders, taking part in the engagement of 9 Sept. in that year (ib. p. 323). He was one of the lords justices of Ireland from 1697 to 1699. He entertained William on more than one occasion at Winton, and seems to have stood high in his favour. His consequent dislike for the Princess Anne was intensified by jealousy of the Duke of Marlborough, and he is said, with probable truth, to have been engaged upon an intrigue with the Duke of Newcastle for passing over Anne in the interests of the Princess Sophia (Dartmouth's note on Burnet, iv. 540). He was, however, soon reconciled to the new order of things upon William's death. He was made warden of the New Forest on 1 July 1702, and shortly afterwards was appointed lord lieutenant of the counties of Dorset and Southampton. In April 1705 he waited on the queen at Cambridge, and was made doctor of laws by the university, and in the following September he entertained Anne and the young Duke of Gloucester with great pomp at Winton (Luttrell, v. 589). In 1706 he was appointed a commissioner to treat of the union between England and Scotland, and he was also on the special committee of twenty-two selected by the commissioners in May 1706 (Boyer, p. 234). In 1708 he was appointed governor of the Isle of Wight. Early in 1710 he was much annoyed by the bestowal of the vacant Garter on the Duke of Argyll; but Marlborough, with whom he had gradually become reconciled, was able to conciliate him, and retain his support for the war party. In June of this year he took what was generally considered to be the unwise step of moving the House of Lords to examine if their privileges were not invaded by the action of the queen in sending a message to the commons, solely to enable her to raise 500,000l. upon the civil list. In April 1714 Bolton again signalised himself in the lords by seconding the motion putting a price upon the Pretender's head (ib. p. 684; Wentworth Papers, p. 365); a few weeks afterwards he signed the protest against the Schism Act (Boyer, p. 706; Rogers, Protests of the Lords, i. 221). After the proclamation of George I in 1714 Bolton was named one of the lords justices, and he was installed K.G. on 8 Dec. 1714. From this date until his death he ‘muddled and intrigued’ about the court, where he was usually in high favour. He was created lord chamberlain on 8 July 1715, and on 16 April 1717 he was made lord lieutenant of Ireland. He was at Dublin for the opening of the Irish parliament on 1 July 1719, and is said to have made an excellent speech (Oldmixon, Hist. of England, p. 683); he was, however, satirised by Eustace Budgell in his ‘Letter to the Lord …’ in 1719. He died on 21 Jan. 1722 (Hist. Reg. Chron. Diary, p. 9), and was buried on 1 Feb. at Basing, Hampshire.
  • Swift, in a note on Macky's character, remarked of Bolton that he did not make a figure ‘at court or anywhere else. A great booby.’ It must be questioned, however, whether Swift knew much of him, as in the ‘Journal to Stella’ (Letter xxxiii.) he seems to confuse him with his brother, Lord William. Pope mentioned Bolton to Spence as one of those that had the ‘nobleman look.’ Lady Cowper, in her ‘Diary,’ describes him more specifically as generally to be seen with his tongue lolling out of his mouth (p. 154). His general inaptitude for serious business appears to be one of the objects of Dr. Joseph Browne's satire in his ‘Country Parsons Advice to the Lord Keeper,’ 1706. Bolton was three times married: first, on 7 July 1679, to Margaret (d. 1682), only daughter of George, lord Coventry, by whom he left no issue; secondly, to Frances (d. 1696), daughter of Sir William Ramsden, bart., by whom he had two sons, Charles [q. v.] and Harry, successively dukes of Bolton, and two daughters; thirdly, in 1697, at Dublin, to Henrietta Crofts, youngest natural daughter of James Scot, duke of Monmouth, by Eleanor, younger daughter of Sir Robert Needham of Lambeth, and sister of Jane Myddelton [q. v.], the famous beauty (see Post Boy, 23 Jan. 1722). By his third wife, who became a lady of the bedchamber to the Princess of Wales in 1714, and survived until 27 Feb. 1730, he had a son, Lord Nassau Paulet, who represented successively the county of Southampton and the borough of Lymington in parliament (1714–1734). He was on 9 Oct. 1723 appointed auditor-general of Ireland, and on 27 May 1725 created a K.B. He died on 24 Aug. 1741, leaving one son and two daughters.
  • Dr. Radcliffe, the celebrated physician, was popularly supposed to have been ‘desperately in love’ with the third wife of the second duke, and ‘he declared, said the gossips, that he would make her son his heir, upon which the Duke of Bolton is not at all alarmed, but gives the old amorist an opportunity to make his court’ (Wentworth Papers, p. 97). The portrait of the third duchess by Kneller was engraved by Smith in 1703.
  • [Brydges's Peerage; G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage; Luttrell's Brief Historical Relation, passim; Boyer's Reign of Queen Anne, 1735, passim; Lady Cowper's Diary; Wentworth Papers; White Kennett's Wisdom of Looking Backwards, p. 362; Swift's Works, ed. Scott; Duke of Marlborough's Letters and Despatches, v. 26; Spence's Anecdotes, p. 285; Pope's Works, ed. Elwin and Courthope, vii. 184; Bromley's Catalogue of British Portraits.]
  • From:,_Charles_(1661-1722)_(DNB00)


  • Charles Powlett, 2nd Duke of Bolton1
  • M, #23855, b. 1661, d. 21 January 1721/22
  • Last Edited=5 Sep 2015
  • Consanguinity Index=0.09%
  • Charles Powlett, 2nd Duke of Bolton was born in 1661.1 He was the son of Charles Powlett, 1st Duke of Bolton and Mary le Scrope.1 He married, firstly, Hon. Margaret Coventry, daughter of George Coventry, 3rd Baron Coventry of Aylesborough and Lady Margaret Tufton, on 10 July 1679 at St. Gile's-in-the-Fields Church, London, England.1 He married, secondly, Frances Ramsden, daughter of William Ramsden and Elizabeth Palmes, on 8 February 1682/83 at Duke Place, St. James's, London, England.1 He married, thirdly, Henrietta Crofts, daughter of James Scott, 1st and last Duke of Monmouth and Eleanor Needham, before 15 October 1697 at Dublin, County Dublin, Ireland.1 He died on 21 January 1721/22 at Dover Street, London, England, from pleurisy.3 He was buried on 1 February 1721/22 at Basing.3 His will was proven (by probate) in February 1724.3
  • He was admitted to Gray's Inn on 10 March 1673/74.1 He was educated in 1675 at Winchester College, Winchester, Hampshire, England.1 He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) (Whig) for Hampshire in 1681.1 He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) (Whig) for Hampshire between 1685 and 1687.1 In 1688 he returned from Holland with the Prince of Orange.1 He held the office of Lord Chamberlain between 1689 and 1694, to the Queen.1 He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) (Whig) for Hampshire between 1689 and 1698.1 He was invested as a Privy Counsellor (P.C.) on 3 June 1690.1 On 20 April 1692 he was among those excepted from pardon in the declaration of King James II.4 He held the office of a Lord Justice [Ireland] between 1697 and 1700.1 He held the office of Warden of the New Forest between 1699 and 1710.1 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Hampshire between 1699 and 1710.1 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Dorset between 1699 and 1710.1 He succeeded to the title of 2nd Duke of Bolton [E., 1689] on 27 February 1698/99.1 He succeeded to the title of 7th Marquess of Winchester on 27 February 1698/99. He held the office of High Steward of Winchester.1 He graduated from Cambridge University, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, on 16 April 1705 with a Doctor of Law (LL.D.).1 He was Commissioner for the Union with Scotland in 1706.1 He held the office of Governor of the Isle of Wight between 1707 and 1710.1 He held the office of Warden of the New Forest between 1714 and 1722.1 He held the office of a Lord Justice of the Realm between 1 August 1714 and 28 September 1714.1 He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) on 16 October 1714.1 He held the office of Lord Chamberlain of the Household between 1715 and 1717.1 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland between April 1717 and November 1719.1 He held the office of a Lord Justice of the Realm in 1720.1
  • Bishop Burnet wrote that he "does not make any figure at Court." Dean Swift added "nor anywhere else. A great Booby."3 Tom Hearne wrote "a most lewd, vicious man, a great dissembler and a very hard drinker."3 Lady Cowper wrote that he could generally be seen with his tongue lolling out of his mouth.3
  • Child of Charles Powlett, 2nd Duke of Bolton and Henrietta Crofts
    • Lord Sir Nassau Powlett+3 d. 24 Aug 1741
  • Children of Charles Powlett, 2nd Duke of Bolton and Frances Ramsden
    • Lady Mary Powlett5
    • Lady Frances Powlett+ d. 30 Jul 1715
    • Lt.-Gen. Sir Charles Powlett, 3rd Duke of Bolton+3 b. 3 Sep 1685, d. 26 Aug 1754
    • Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Bolton+6 b. 24 Jul 1691, d. 9 Oct 1759
  • Citations
  • [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 211. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  • [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 212.
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 210.
  • [S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 1181. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 214.
  • From:


  • POWLETT, Charles II, Earl of Wiltshire (c.1661-1722).
  • b. c.1661, 1st surv. s. of Charles Powlett I, being 1st s. by 2nd w.; bro. of Lord William Powlett. educ. G. Inn, entered 1674; Winchester 1675; travelled abroad (France) 1675-8. m. (1) 10 July 1679, Margaret (d. 7 Feb. 1682), da. of George, 3rd Baron Coventry of Aylesborough, s.p.; (2) 8 Feb. 1683, Frances (d. 22 Nov. 1696), da. of William Ramsden of Byrom, Yorks., 2s. 2da.; (3) by 15 Oct. 1697, Henrietta Crofts (d. 27 Feb. 1730) illegit. da. of James, Duke of Monmouth, 1s. styled Earl of Wiltshire 5 Mar. 1675, Mq. of Winchester 9 Apr. 1689; suc. fa. as 2nd Duke of Bolton 27 Feb. 1699; KG 16 Oct. 1714.1
  • Offices Held
    • Freeman, Lymington 1685, Winchester 1689; commr. for assessment, York, Brec. and Glam. 1689, Hants, Wilts. and Yorks. (N. Riding) 1689-90; j.p. Hants 1689-d., dep. Lt. 1689-99; col. vol. horse, London 1690; militia ft. Hants by 1697-d.; bailiff of Burley, New Forest 1691-1710, 1714-d.; v.-adm. Hants and I.o.W. 1692-1710, 1714-d.; ld. lt. Hants and Dorset 1699-1710, 1714-d.; custos rot. Hants 1699-1710, 1715-d.; warden, New Forest 1699-1710, 1714-d.; high steward, Winchester ?1699-d.; gov. of I.o.W. 1707-10.2
    • Ld. chamberlain to Queen Mary II 1689-94; PC 3 June 1690-d.; one of the lds. justices [I] 1697-1700; commr. for union with Scotland 1706; one of the lds. justices 1714, 1720; ld. chamberlain 1715-17; ld. lt. [I] 1717-19.
  • Although the earldom of Wiltshire had been in the Powlett family since 1550, it had seldom been used as a courtesy title. Lord Wiltshire was first returned for Hampshire in 1681 as an exclusionist, but left no trace on the records of the Oxford Parliament. He may have acted as second to Lord Herbert of Chirbury (Hon. Henry Herbert) in a political duel later in the year. Before the next general election his father (who liked to compare himself to Brutus) wrote to Sunderland: ‘If my son Wiltshire be ungrateful to the King, I would not have him stand, because I cannot pass for him, having been for some time past a stranger to him’. Nevertheless he was re-elected to James II’s Parliament, in which he was appointed only to the committee on the bill for the general naturalization of Huguenot refugees.3
  • Danby listed Wiltshire among the country opposition in 1687. In April 1688 it was reported that he and Lord Campden (Wriothesley Baptist Noel) intended to stand for re-election, ‘and will probably carry it against all other interest’. Shortly afterwards his father sent him to Holland, but in September the King’s electoral agents reported that there was still no opposition to him in Hampshire. He returned with William of Orange, who appointed him a commissioner for managing the revenue. At the meeting of Members of Charles II’s Parliaments on 26 Dec. he moved for the introduction and signature of the association for the defence of the Protestant religion and the ancient laws and liberties of England, and on the next day he told the House that the prince was ready to receive their address asking him to assume the government of the kingdom and hold an election.4
  • Wiltshire was re-elected in 1689 with his brother, probably unopposed. A moderately active Member of the Convention, he proposed Henry Powle as Speaker, and was appointed to 28 committees, including the committee of elections and privileges in both sessions. In the debate in grand committee on the state of the nation on 28 Jan. he moved for putting the question, and he urged the House to defer filling the vacancy on the throne no longer than it must. He was among those ordered to bring in a list of the essentials for securing religion, law and liberty, and to prepare reasons for insisting that James had abdicated and the throne was vacant, after which he was sent to the Lords to desire a conference. On 7 Feb. he said:
    • Now that the Lords have agreed the throne [to be] vacant, I hope you will proceed to fill the throne. The persons formerly named are the most proper that can be thought of, the Prince and Princess of Orange. I have not parts able to set out their merits, and what we owe this great prince for delivering us from Popery and slavery; and there is no way to secure us from the return of it but by placing them on the throne, and to preserve the ancient government. You have been told here of going about to make this an elective government; but I believe nobody here is of any other opinion but that the government is in King, Lords and Commons.
  • With the Leveller John Williams I as seconder ‘to prevent anarchy’, his last point was as good as proved. He was appointed lord chamberlain to the new Queen, and on 21 Feb. the House sent him to ask the King to make a donation to the foreign troops who had assisted in the Revolution. He was named to the committee to inquire into the authors and advisers of recent grievances, and on 15 Mar. he asked the Lords not to rise until the Commons sent them an address on the mutiny. He helped to draw up the address thanking the King for his promise to maintain the Church, and was named to the committees to consider the toleration bill and to inquire into the delay in relieving Londonderry. On 13 June he moved for a committee to inspect the Privy Council registers in order to except from indemnity those ‘who sat with King James from first to last’, and was named to the committee to summarize the proceedings about the Popish Plot as recorded in the Journals. On 3 July he helped to draw up the address for permission to examine the Privy Council records relating to Ireland, and to prepare reasons for disagreeing with the Lords about the rehabilitation of Titus Oates. Before the recess he spoke in favour of dismissing the Tory marquesses, Halifax and Carmarthen.5
  • In the second session Lord Winchester (as Wiltshire had been styled since his father had been raised to a dukedom) was named to the committees for the more effectual tendering of the oaths and for the inquiries into the expenses and miscarriages of the war. Although not prepared to defend the regicide Edmund Ludlow he demanded proof that he had returned to England in defiance of his attainder. He was among those appointed to examine the state of the revenue, to draw up an address asking for provision for Princess Anne and her husband, and to consider the bill to restore corporations. Although a supporter of the disabling clause and present in the Palace of Westminster during the vital division, he did not vote for it. In the debate on Sir Robert Sawyer he said contemptuously: ‘This person is not fit for the King’s mercy’.6
  • Winchester remained a court Whig, and as Duke of Bolton held high office after the Hanoverian succession. He died on 21 Jan. 1722 and was buried at Basing. His descendants continued to sit for Hampshire for most of the century.
  • From:


  • POWLETT, Charles I, Marquess of Winchester (1661-1722), of Hackwood, nr. Basingstoke, Hants and Bolton Hall, Yorks.
  • b. 1661, 1st surv. s. of Charles Powlett†, 1st Duke of Bolton, by his 2nd w. Mary, illegit. da. of Emmanuel Scrope, 1st Earl of Sunderland, wid. of Henry Carey, Ld. Leppington; bro. of Ld. William Powlett*. educ. Winchester 1674; G. Inn 1674; travelled abroad 1675–8. m. (1) 10 July 1679, Margaret (d. 1682), da. of George Coventry, 3rd Baron Coventry, s.p.; (2) 8 Feb. 1683, Frances (d. 22 Nov. 1696), da. of William Ramsden of Byrom, Yorks., 4s. (2 d.v.p.) 2da.; (3) c.Aug. 1697, Henrietta Crofts (d. 1730), illegit. da. of James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, 1s. Styled Earl of Wiltshire 5 Mar. 1675, Mq. of Winchester, 9 Apr. 1689. suc. fa. as 2nd Duke of Bolton 27 Feb. 1699; cr. KG 16 Oct. 1714.1
  • Offices Held
    • Commr. for managing the revenue 1688; ld. chamberlain to Queen Mary 1689–94; PC 3 June 1690; commr. prize appeals and Admiralty cases 1694–8; ld. justice [I] 1697–1700; commr. union with Scotland 1706; ld. justice 1714, 1720; ld. chamberlain 1715–17; ld. lt. [I] 1717–19.2
    • Col. of vol. horse 1690.3
    • Bailiff of Burley, New Forest 1691–1710, 1714–d.; v.-adm. Hants and I.o.W. 1692–?1710, 1714–d.; freeman, Winchester, by 1695, Southampton 1697, Dublin 1697, Cork 1698, Kinsale 1698, W. Looe 1700; high steward, Winchester ?1699–d.; ld. lt. Hants and Dorset 1699–1710, 1714–d.; custos rot. Hants 1699–1710, 1715–d.; warden of New Forest 1699–1710, 1715–d.; recorder, St. Ives 1700–d.; gov. I.o.W. 1707–10.4
    • Commr. Greenwich Hosp. 1695; Q. Anne’s Bounty, 1704.5
  • Winchester's father, who was given his dukedom in 1689, was one of the largest landowners in Hampshire, with electoral influence throughout the county, as well as at St. Ives in Cornwall where the Powletts also owned land, and in Yorkshire where his landholdings included extensive lead mines. Although of the same Whig party principles, Winchester and his father were often at odds, a situation no doubt exacerbated by the latter's unstable temperament.6
  • An Exclusionist under Charles II and James II, Winchester (then Lord Wiltshire) was an active supporter of the Prince of Orange in 1688. He and his brother, Lord William, were sent over to Holland by their father in April 1688 and accompanied the Prince and his invasion force in November. He was denounced by James II and was rewarded by the new King with the office of chamberlain to the Queen. Both father and son seemed to hope for more and in July 1690 the Queen wrote to her husband that Bolton, ‘who, I think, will lose nothing for want of asking’, had requested the lord lieutenancy of Somerset for his son. The request was denied, but in June Winchester was made colonel of a volunteer regiment of horse raised by the city of London.7
  • Returned in 1690 for Hampshire, Winchester was classed as a Whig by Lord Carmarthen (Sir Thomas Osborne†) in a list of the new Parliament. His name appeared on nine further lists of placemen and Court supporters in this Parliament, chiefly those drawn up by Carmarthen, Robert Harley* and Grascome. On 13 June 1691 it was reported that he had fought a duel with the Earl of Scarbrough, the latter taking exception to Winchester's questioning of Sir John Trenchard's* ‘good service to the government’. He spent the summer of 1691 as a volunteer on campaign in Flanders, returning in September in time for the opening of the new session in which he was again inactive. On 26 Jan. 1692 he joined the attack on on the East India Company by presenting a petition from several seamen claiming a share in a number of prize ships captured from the Mogul emperor. He also, on 4 Feb., successfully offered a clause on behalf of the Earl of Monmouth to be added to the bill for vesting forfeited estates in the King and Queen. On 22 Nov., at the beginning of the new session, he moved for a committee of the whole to vote a supply to enable the King to carry on the war. The question of whether the words ‘vigorous war’ should stand in the resolution was subjected to some debate, but was eventually allowed. On 3 Dec. he spoke in favour of putting the question that 54,562 men should be voted for land service, opposing Robert Harley's motion that the army estimate should first be examined head by head, and on 14 Dec. he spoke in favour of committing the bill for preserving the King and Queen and their government. During a debate on 30 Dec. he acted as a teller against a motion to put the question of agreeing to a Lords' request for a conference on the St. Malo expedition. This headed off the possibility of a direct refusal, and allowed a resolution that the Commons would send an answer by messengers of their own. On 1 Feb. 1693 he presented a petition on behalf of Henry Killigrew against the lottery bill. His last recorded speech in this session was on 8 Feb., when he and a number of friends of his father, then warden of the New Forest, spoke against the bill for the increase and preservation of timber in the New Forest, claiming that ‘it would prejudice and waste the timber instead of preserving it ... and was designed only for private advantage’.8
  • In the previous November Sir Robert Holmes*, governor of the Isle of Wight, had died and there had been speculation that Winchester would succeed him, but whatever hopes Winchester may have entertained, they were not realized at this time, Lord Cutts (John*) being appointed instead in March 1693. Winchester received some reward for his services to the court in November 1693 in the form of the profits of a prize ship, and in April 1694 he was granted some Catholic estates in Staffordshire, forfeited to the King. Shortly afterwards, he and his brother, Lord William, were satirized in a political poem, ‘The Club Men of the House of Commons’, as
    • The two Winchester Geese would be just like their Dad
    • Could they tell how to get wit enough to be mad;
    • In pied coats these bawlers by rights should be clad,
  • an illusion to the feigned insanity assumed by the Duke of Bolton during the last years of James II's reign. Winchester has been identified as a member of the Whig Rose Club from his appearance in this satire.9
  • In the 1693-4 session, Winchester was a teller on the government side on 26 Feb. for agreeing with the House's resolution on ways and means. In the next session on 26 Nov. 1694 he laid information before the House from the King on the quotas to be supplied by the allies for the war, and as Queen Mary's lord chamberlain, was first-named on 12 Jan. 1695 to the committee appointed to organize the procession of the Commons at her funeral, from which he reported on 26 Feb. The Queen's death had deprived him of his only court office, but his annual pension of £1,200 was continued. He had a further appointment to a conference committee with the Lords concerning Sir Thomas Cooke*.
  • Winchester was returned again for Hampshire without a contest in 1695, and continued loyally to support the government, now largely dominated by his Junto friends. He was not, however, any more active in the Commons, being first-named to a second-reading committee on a private bill concerning his relations. In addition, he was forecast in January as likely to support the government in connexion with the proposed council of trade, and in March he voted for the government on fixing the price of guineas at 22s. When the assassination conspiracy was discovered in February he was among the first to sign the Association, and on 2 Apr. he reported from the committee sent to examine two of the conspirators, Sir John Friend† and Sir William Parkyns, in Newgate. In the following autumn, when Sir John Fenwick† was attempting to implicate Lord Shrewsbury in the plot, Winchester was approached by Lord Keeper Somers (Sir John*), who reported to Shrewsbury on 3 Nov.: ‘I have, as by your order, acquainted the Marquess of W[inchester] with as much as was expedient of this matter and he desired me to assure your Grace of his hearty, zealous service.’ His absence from the division on Fenwick's attainder, on the 25th, was no doubt due to the death of his wife only three days earlier.10
  • In April 1697 Somers was able to reward Winchester's loyalty. During a meeting with the King and the Earl of Sunderland during which the appointment of new lords justices for Ireland was discussed, Somers recommended Winchester who, he told the King,
    • was very desirous to go, had very particularly deserved well of his Majesty and was in great straits in his fortunes ... The King objected to my Lord Winchester's qualifications, but agreed to the other arguments I had used for his being qualified; but wished it might be done some other way. Lord Sunderland agreed entirely with the first part of his Majesty's discourse; but he said not so much as I expected to the second.
  • Despite the King's misgivings as to Winchester's competence, he was appointed one of the lords justices with the Earl of Galway and Viscount Villiers. The office carried a joint salary of some £6,953 and Winchester also received £1,000 towards his equipage. Others, however, shared doubts as to his suitability for the post. James Vernon I* wrote to Shrewsbury on 15 May:
    • Ben Overton* and I have formerly had some discourse about the Marquess; he thinks him not very governable and apprehends he will busy himself the worng way. The advice he gave him was to enjoy the sweets of his employment, and not to set up for a manager. He did not tell him he would do it awkwardly; but he was to expect others would have the secret and he would find the most ease and perhaps give the greatest satisfaction in yielding to the current.
  • Vernon reported that even Lord Chancellor Somers had a low opinion of Winchester and had ‘long concluded him pretty incapable of instruction and expects he will make but a very indifferent figure in his government’. Unfortunately Winchester did not follow Overton's advice, but allowed himself to fall under the influence of Philip Savage, the Irish chancellor of the exchequer, which rapidly caused a breach with Galway, who suspected Savage of secretly obstructing government business in the Irish parliament. Although Winchester wrote assuring the ministry in England of his diligence for the government, they remained unconvinced. On 3 Feb. 1698 the Irish lord chancellor John Methuen* wrote to Shrewsbury, that this matter ‘if continued, will quickly ruin this government’ and if Winchester did not ‘come to himself’ the King would no doubt consider his recall.11
  • A further cause of trouble to Winchester at this time was his third marriage. A correspondent wrote to Sir Joseph Williamson* on 10 Aug. 1697:
    • It is confidently reported ... that Lord Winchester, going over with fine Mrs Crofts, has fallen in love with her and married her in Dublin, she being certainly the blazing star of that kingdom. I never inquired after her fortune, nor I believe did Lord Winchester.
  • Winchester openly acknowledged his marriage in October, ‘at which the Duke of Bolton is not a little displeased, and it is probable that Lord William Powlett will have a great advantage by it’. Bolton, however, wrote to his son at the end of October that ‘I freely forgive you as the King has commanded me’, and by November that ‘I ... have so much kindness for you that I shall always show it to you and yours’. Bolton wrote in January the following year that he was pleased to hear from Charles Montagu* that Winchester and Galway ‘go on so amiably, and that the people are well pleased with your government’. Evidently the Junto were keen to conceal their true opinion of Winchester. Bolton was at first active in promoting Winchester's re-election in 1698 and in April believed (mistakenly) that he had secured it. However, Ben Overton wrote to Winchester in May, his letter indicating some decline in Bolton:
    • I pity the poor Duke of Bolton for your lordship's sake, for he hath really contrived the matter so as to be the last man in the nation on all sides ... even those who profit themselves of his mistakes exposed him, and they do not value him who have him, because they are not sure to have him half an hour.
  • Overton, who in the past had relied on Bolton's interest, now asked for Winchester's assistance for his own election, as Bolton's promise six months ago to bring him in was not to be depended on. Moreover, in another letter of 16 May, Winchester's agent wrote to him that Bolton had said ‘that he cared not whether either of his sons were chosen’, would interest himself only for Mr Norton [Richard II*], and was ‘so full of his supporting liberty and property that for what I can find, he cares for nobody nor nothing that does not’. After the county elections, which Winchester lost, his brother William wrote to him indicating that Bolton had been more of a liability than an asset.12
  • Winchester had not lost hopes of being returned on petition when Overton wrote again on 7 Nov. 1698 advising him that ‘the ministry do all pretend to be your friends’, and to keep in with Galway. Overton also felt compelled to offer moral advice, being concerned by what he had heard of Winchester's extravagant living, drinking, and non-payment of creditors, reports which his enemies used against him. It was soon apparent that he would not gain a seat, Bolton writing to him on 2 Dec. that despite all efforts no grounds could be found for petitioning against either the county or Andover elections. Winchester appears to have suffered further disappointment on Bolton's death in February 1699, for the late Duke's will was widely understood to have been very ungenerous to his eldest son, although as it had been written in 1694 Winchester's third marriage cannot have been the reason for such treatment. Indeed, Winchester (much less his third wife and their children) scarcely rated a mention in the will, and had ‘nothing added to his marriage settlement, which is £10,000 per annum’. By contrast, Bolton's second son, Lord William, was given considerable legacies and Bolton's daughter, the Countess of Bridgwater, and her husband (John Egerton†) inherited all the residue which, according to Vernon, amounted to more than £30,000. Moreover, Winchester was not even named one of his father's executors.13
  • Bolton's death gave rise to some political intrigue, with Galway suggesting to Shrewsbury that the new Duke would no doubt make every effort to succeed his father as lord lieutenant of Hampshire and might now consider his position in Ireland beneath him, which would necessitate an ‘entire change’. However, this subtle suggestion that the Duke's return to England on this occasion should be used as an opportunity to oust him from the government of Ireland was not acted upon. His commission as a lord justice was renewed in April 1699 although it is not clear that he went back to Ireland. When a single lord lieutenant was to be appointed in 1700, Bolton hoped to be chosen, although his patron Somers had already been dismissed. Hearing that Shrewsbury might get Ireland, Bolton wrote angrily to him on 30 May 1700:
    • I was struck with admiration when the news ... was told me that your going for Ireland was determined ... But this false report, as you call it, was told to me by Lord Sunderland (who I did then suppose was agreed on to break it to me), and others that my Lord Albemarle told it to, did tell me of it ... I think that ... you had not used me with that friendship that I did hope ...
    • And from the usage I have received, after having been 12 years in his service, after my coming over with him, during all which time I have served him with zeal and integrity, and with some good success which, to be plain, makes me believe that though my Lord Nottingham [Daniel Finch†] is removed, that I am so unfortunate that the only thing that remains of him is the impressions that he made in the King of me, to my disadvantage.
  • Bolton continued to be politically active. He retained the lord lieutenancies of Dorset and Hampshire on Anne’s accession but remained a faithful adherent of the Junto: in February 1707 he had been one of the first of the Junto’s close followers to be given a post of real electoral influence, when he was made governor of the Isle of Wight. Not surprisingly, he was deprived of all his offices in September 1710, ‘in order to a new Parliament’, but came back into favour in the reign of George I, when he ‘muddled and intrigued about the court’ until his death at his house in Dover Street, London, on 21 Jan. 1722, aged 60. He was buried at Basing. Regarded as a ‘great booby’ by Swift, he was described by Hearne as ‘a most lewd, vicious man, a great dissembler and a very hard drinker’. His three sons, Charles*, Henry† and Nassau†, all sat in the Commons.14
  • From:


  • POWLETT, Charles, Mq. of Winchester (1685-1754).
  • b. 3 Sept. 1685, 1st s. of Charles Powlett, M.P., and Duke of Bolton, by his 2nd w. Frances, da. of William Ramsden of Byram, Yorks.; bro. of Lord Harry and half-bro. of Lord Nassau Powlett. educ. Enfield. m. (1) 21 July 1713, Lady Anne Vaughan (d. 20 Sept. 1751), da. and h. of John Vaughan, M.P., 3rd Earl of Carberry [I], s.p.; (2) 20 Oct. 1751, Mrs. Lavinia Beswick, said to be da. of a lt. in the navy, actress, known as Lavinia Fenton, by whom he had had 3 illegit. s., s.p. legit. cr.Lord Pawlet of Basing, 12 Apr. 1717. suc. fa. as 3rd Duke 21 Jan. 1722; K.G. 10 Oct. 1722.
  • .... etc.
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  • POWLETT, Lord Nassau (1698-1741).
  • b. 23 June 1698, 3rd s. of Charles Powlett, M.P., 2nd Duke of Bolton, but 1st by his 3rd w. Henrietta Crofts, nat. da. of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth; half-bro. of Charles Powlett, Mq. of Winchester, and Lord Harry Powlett. m. Dec. 1731, Lady Isabella Tufton, da. and coh. of Thomas Tufton, M.P., 6th Earl of Thanet, who subsequently m. Sir Francis Blake Delaval, 3s. 2da. K.B. 27 May 1725.
  • .... etc.
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Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton's Timeline

London, UK
September 3, 1685
Age 24
Chawton, East Hampshire, England, United Kingdom
July 24, 1691
Age 30
June 23, 1698
Age 37
January 21, 1722
Age 61
Dublin, Dublin, Ireland