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Tai Ya Gansi Ni (Tsí-yu-gûnsí-ní) "Dragging Canoe" (Tatsi), Principal Chief

Also Known As: "Andrew Brown", "Tsíyu-gûnsíní", "Tsiyu Gansini", "Cheucunsene", "Kunnese", "White Raven"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Overhill Settlements, Monroe, Tennessee, United States
Death: Died in Running Water, Tennessee, United States
Cause of death: Exhaustion/heart attack following dancing all night in celebration of war victory.
Place of Burial: Tennessee, United States
Immediate Family:

Son of Attakullakulla / Onacona and Ollie Nionee Oconostota, Ani'-Wa'Ya (Wolf) Clan
Husband of Nellie 'Leaf' Pathkiller U'ga'lo'gv Canoe (Pathkiller)
Father of Little Dragging Canoe Canoe; Young Dragging Canoe; Little Owl Canoe; Mary Canoe; Turtle At Home Canoe and 17 others
Brother of Hannah "Nikitie" Rebecca Arthur; Little White Owl; Da-Tsi (Tah Chee) "Dutch" Carpenter; Oocumma "The Badger" Attakullakulla; Old Abraham (Ooskiah Oskuah) . of Chillowe/Chillhowie and 8 others
Half brother of Catherine "Rising Fawn" Self, Of Chota; oo loo tsa; chief gray eagle; Jennie Rising Fawn and catherine rising self

Occupation: Principal Chief of the Chickamauga/Lower Cherokee
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Chief Dragging Canoe

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragging_Canoe

Dragging Canoe (ᏥᏳ ᎦᏅᏏᏂ, pronounced Tsiyu Gansini, "he is dragging his canoe") (c.1738–February 29, 1792) was a Cherokee war chief who led a band of disaffected Cherokee against colonists and United States settlers in the Upper South.

During the American Revolution and afterward, Dragging Canoe's forces were sometimes joined by Upper Muskogee, Chickasaw, Shawnee, and Indians from other tribes/nations, along with British Loyalists, and agents of France and Spain. The series of conflicts lasted a decade after the American Revolutionary War. Dragging Canoe became the preeminent war leader among the Indians of the southeast of his time. He served as war chief of the Chickamauga Cherokee (or "Lower Cherokee") from 1777 until his death in 1792, when he was succeeded by John Watts.

Legacy

Dragging Canoe is considered by many to be the most significant Native American leader of the Southeast. Historians such as John P. Brown in Old Frontiers, and James Mooney in his early ethnographic book, Myths of the Cherokee, consider him a role model for the younger Tecumseh, who was a member of a band of Shawnee living with the Chickamauga and taking part in their wars. In Tell Them They Lie, a book written by a direct descendant of Sequoyah named Traveller [sic] Bird, both Tecumseh and Sequoyah are stated to have been among his young warriors.

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NATIVE NAME: Tsi'yu-gunsini

ENGLISH NAME: Dragging Canoe; Andrew Brown

ALTERNATE NAMES:Cui Canacina, Savage Napoleon, Dragon (so called by his enemies).

ALTERNATE SPELLINGS: Cheucunsene, Kunnese

MEANING OF NAMES:

  • Tsi'yu-gunsini - Canoe (tsi'yu), He is Dragging It (gunsini).
  • Dragging Canoe - According to Cherokee legend, his name is derived from an incident in his early childhood in which he attempted to prove his readiness to go on the warpath by hauling a canoe, but he was only able to drag it.

BIRTHPLACE / DATE: Attakullakulla resided in the village of Tenase through 1755 so this is likely the place of Dragging Canoe's birth. Dragging Canoe was said to be a few years older than his cousin Nancy Ward (born 1738), daughter of Tame Doe who was the sister of Attakullakulla, Dragging Canoe's father. Estimated date of birth: 1740.

RESIDENCE: Tellico, and Chota, E. Indian Nation, Tennessee. Later, at the outbreak of the American Revolution, Dragging Canoe moves families downriver to Chickamauga and Chattanooga and Running Water Creek (now Whiteside), and Upper and Lower Towns

DEATH DATE / LOCATION: He died March 1, 1792, in Running Waters, Tennessee from exhaustion or an apparent heart attack after dancing all night celebrating the recent conclusion of an alliance with the Muskogee and the Choctaw. He also had a very small cut from a rifle ball on his side that went unattended and became infected. It was normal after each battle that the Chief and his warriors dance and gave thanks to Yowa (God, Creator) for a great victory. This would go on for several days and nights.

BURIAL PLACE: In traditional Cherokee style he was buried in a sitting position, his possessions heaped around him.

http://www.aaanativearts.com/cherokee/dragging-canoe.htm

"Whole Indian Nations have melted away like snowballs in the sun before the white man's advance. They leave scarcely a name of our people except those wrongly recorded by their destroyers. Where are the Delewares? They have been reduced to a mere shadow of their former greatness.

We had hoped that the white men would not be willing to travel beyond the mountains. Now that hope is gone. They have passed the mountains, and have settled upon Tsalagi (Cherokee) land. They wish to have that usurpation sanctioned by treaty. When that is gained, the same encroaching spirit will lead them upon other land of the Tsalagi (Cherokees). New cessions will be asked. Finally the whole country, which the Tsalagi (Cherokees) and their fathers have so long occupied, will be demanded, and the remnant of the Ani Yvwiya, The Real People, once so great and formidable, will be compelled to seek refuge in some distant wilderness.

There they will be permitted to stay only a short while, until they again behold the advancing banners of the same greedy host. Not being able to point out any further retreat for the miserable Tsalagi (Cherokees), the extinction of the whole race will be proclaimed. Should we not therefore run all risks, and incur all consequences, rather than to submit to further loss of our country?

Such treaties may be alright for men who are too old to hunt or fight. As for me, I have my young warriors about me. We will hold our land." - Chief Dragging Canoe, Chickamauga Tsalagi (Cherokee) 1775

http://www.prophecykeepers.com/chickamaugacherokee/dragging_canoe.html

On April 19th, 2010, the Carter County government (representing the people known as the Wataugans) passed a resolution acknowledging the tragedy of broken covenant between themselves and the Cherokee. The Wataugans were the first settlement independent of the crowns of Europe and formed the first democratic government in North American (in what is now Carter County) in 1772, preceding and likely giving birth to the American Revolution of 1776. Some of the Wataugans went on to sign the Transylvania Land Treaty which illegally ceded land in middle Tennessee north of the Cumberland River and most of Kentucky. Chief Dragging Canoe was opposed to the Treaty and released a curse, saying, "You have bought a fair land, but there is a cloud hanging over it; you will find its settlement dark and bloody."


http://www.generals.org/prayer/rpn/root-52/prayer-reports/tennessee-report/


9. Tai-ya-gansi-ni (he is) Dragging (the) Canoe (Nionne Ollie - of the Paint Clan3, Oconostota , the Groundhog Sausage, who was2, Smallpx Conjeror of Settico1) was born 1730, and died 1 MAR 1792 in Lookout Town, Tennessee. He married U-ga-lo-gv LEAF , Nelly Pathkiller, daughter of Pathkiller I \\ and Peggy. She was born BET 1730 AND 1734.

	 

Children of Tai-ya-gansi-ni (he is) Dragging (the) Canoe and U-ga-lo-gv LEAF , Nelly Pathkiller are:

	19	  i.	Crying Snake.
	20	  ii.	Eyoostee.
	21	  iii.	Little (Dragging) Canoe was born 1748.
	22	  iv.	Little Owl Canoe was born 1750.

+ 23 v. Naky Sarah CANOE was born 1752.

	24	  vi.	Gi-yo-sti was born 1770.
	25	  vii.	Nettle Carrier TALOTISKEE , Hemp Carrier was born 1782.

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=REG&db=sandrahunter1&id=I061623


DRAGGING CANOE

1740-1792

Dragging Canoe, Cherokee warrior and leader of the Chickamaugas, was born in one of the Overhill towns on the Tennessee River, the son of the Cherokee diplomat Attakullakulla. Historians have identified Dragging Canoe as the greatest Cherokee military leader. Even at an early age Dragging Canoe wanted to be a warrior. He once asked his father to include him in a war party against the Shawnees, but Attakullakulla refused. Determined to go, the boy hid in a canoe, where the warriors found him. His father gave the boy permission to go--if he could carry the canoe. The vessel was too heavy, but undaunted, the boy dragged the canoe. Cherokee warriors encouraged his efforts, and from that time, he was known as Dragging Canoe.

As the head warrior of the Overhill town of Malaquo, Dragging Canoe fought a number of significant battles against white settlers. By the 1770s the increasing encroachment by settlers on Indian land concerned Dragging Canoe, and he worked to achieve their removal. In 1776 fourteen northern tribes sent envoys to the Overhill towns to offer an alliance with the Cherokees. Dragging Canoe thought the opening of the Revolutionary War provided the perfect opportunity to strike the isolated white settlements. The Cherokees planned a three-pronged attack: Old Abram led a contingent against the Watauga and Nolichucky settlements; warriors under the leadership of the Raven struck Carter's Valley; and Dragging Canoe fought at the battle of Island Flats, where he was wounded. The settlers suffered heavy losses initially, but the arrival of reinforcements proved too much for the Cherokees, and they were defeated.

Many Cherokee leaders argued against further fighting, but Dragging Canoe refused to submit. He fled the Overhill towns with like-minded Cherokees and established new towns on Chickamauga Creek in the winter of 1776-77. This group, which included discontented members of various tribes, came to be known as the Chickamaugas. Dragging Canoe and his warriors fought the 1781 "Battle of the Bluffs" near Fort Nashborough and defeated American army troops when they invaded the Chickamauga towns in 1788.

As he aged, Dragging Canoe moved from the position of warrior to that of diplomat. He worked to preserve Cherokee culture and establish an alliance with the Creeks and Shawnees. In 1791 a federation of Indian forces defeated General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory. Shortly after a diplomatic mission with the Chickasaws, Dragging Canoe died on March 1, 1792, in the town of Running Water, one of the towns he had helped to found.

Patricia Bernard Ezzell, Tennessee Valley Authority

http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=D051

Dragging Canoe (c. 1738 – March 1, 1792) was an American Indian war leader who led a dissident band of young Cherokees against the United States in the American Revolutionary War.

Biography

Son of Attakullakulla ("Little Carpenter" in English), who was part Shawnee, and a mother who was a Natchez living in a town of refugees from that tribes who had settled among the Overhill Towns on the Little Tennessee River, he contracted smallpox at a young age, which left his face pock-marked. According to Cherokee legend, his name is derived from an incident in his early childhood in which he attempted to prove his readiness to go on the warpath by hauling a canoe, the attempt resulting in him only being able to drag it.

War leader: allied to the British

Dragging Canoe did later get his chance to take part in war, initially against the Shawnee and Muskogee (later his two closest allies), but he gained his first real taste in the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759-1761), along with prior forays into the Ohio country as well. In the aftermath of this war, he became one of the most vocal opponents of encroachment by settlers from the British colonies onto Indian, especially Cherokee, land. Eventually he became chief of Great Island Town (Amoyeli Egwa in Cherokee, written Mialaquo by the British) on the Little Tennessee River.

When the Cherokee opted to join in the fighting of the American Revolution on the side of the British, Dragging Canoe was at the head of one of the major attacks. After his father and Oconostota refused to continue further after the wholesale destruction of the Cherokee Middle (Hill), Valley, and Lower Towns, Dragging Canoe led a band of the Overhill Cherokee out of the towns to the area surrounding Chickamauga River (South Chickamauga Creek) in the Chattanooga area, where they established eleven towns in 1777, including the one named Chickamauga across river from place where the British commissary John McDonald had set up shop, doing so on the advice of Alexander Cameron, the British agent to the Cherokee. From this location, frontiersmen gave his group the name the Chickamauga.

War leader: fighting on after Yorktown

After the Chickamauga towns were destroyed a second time in 1782, Dragging Canoe's band moved down the Tennessee River to the "Five Lower Towns" below the obstructions of the Tennessee River Gorge: Running Water (now Whiteside), Nickajack (near the cave of the same name), Long Island (on the Tennessee River), Crow Town (at the mouth of Crow Creek), and Lookout Mountain Town (at the site of the current Trenton, Georgia). From Running Water, Dragging Canoe led attacks on white settlements all over the American Southeast, especially against the colonial settlements on the Holston, Watauga, and Nolichucky Rivers in East Tennessee, and the Cumberland River settlements in Middle Tennessee (after 1780), sometimes raiding into Kentucky and Virginia as well. His brothers Tachee, Little Owl, The Badger, The Raven, and Turtle-at-Home are known to have taken part in his wars as well.

Dragging Canoe died March 1, 1792, from exhaustion or an apparent heart attack after dancing all night celebrating the recent conclusion of alliance with the Muskogee and the Choctaw, despite a failed similar mission to the Chickasaw, from whence he had just returned, plus a recent victory by a Chickamauga war band on the Cumberland River settlements. He is considered by many to be the most significant Native Americans leader of the Southeast, and provided a significant role model for the younger Tecumseh, who was a member of a band of Shawnee living with the "Chickamaugas" and taking part in their wars.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragging_Canoe

More About DRAGGING CANOE:

Attended: March 1775, Henderson's Treaty, Sycamore Shoals

Blood: 3/4 Cherokee

Clan: Ani'-Wa'ya = Wolf Clan

A Speech Given by Dragging Canoe

- Chief Dragging Canoe, Chickamauga Tsalagi (Cherokee) 1775

"Whole Indian Nations have melted away like snowballs in the sun before the white man's advance. They leave scarcely a name of our people except those wrongly recorded by their destroyers. Where are the Delawares? They have been reduced to a mere shadow of their former greatness. We had hoped that the white men would not be willing to travel beyond the mountains. Now that hope is gone. They have passed the mountains, and have settled upon Tsalagi (Cherokee) land. They wish to have that usurpation sanctioned by treaty. When that is gained, the same encroaching spirit will lead them upon other land of the Tsalagi (Cherokees). New cessions will be asked. Finally the whole country, which the Tsalagi (Cherokees) and their fathers have so long occupied, will be demanded, and the remnant of the Ani Yvwiya, The Real People, once so great and formidable, will be compelled to seek refuge in some distant wilderness. There they will be permitted to stay only a short while, until they again behold the advancing banners of the same greedy host. Not being able to point out any further retreat for the miserable Tsalagi (Cherokees), the extinction of the whole race will be proclaimed. Should we not therefore run all risks, and incur all consequences, rather than to submit to further loss of our country? Such treaties may be alright for men who are too old to hunt or fight. As for me, I have my young warriors about me. We will hold our land."

From the Cherokee Registry

As a 12-14 year old boy he was told he couldn't go with the war party unless he could drag the fully loaded war log canoe on land into the water. His enthusiasm and endeavors earned him the name Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni "Dragging Canoe". This was circa 1750 when his father Atakullakulla led war parties against the French & their Native allies, including Shawnee, in the Ohio Valley.

from James Hicks:

Dragging Canoe

Tsi’yi-gunsi’ni

Tsu-gun-sini

Chuconsene

Cheucunsene

Kunnesee

the Savage Napoleon

  • *************************

from Don Chesnut's web page; www.users.mis.net/~chesnut/pages/cherokee.htm

Tsi’yi-gunsi’ni :

"He is dragging a canoe," from tsi’yu, canoe (cf. Tsi’yu) otter, and gunsi’ni, "he is dragging it." "Dragging Canoe," a prominent leader of the hostile Cherokee in the Revolution. The name appears in documents as Cheucunsene and Kunnesee. (Starr also lists him as Chuconsene)

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As a 12-14 year old boy he was told he couldn't go with the war party unless he could drag the fully loaded war log canoe on land into the water. His enthusiasm and endeavors earned him the name Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni "Dragging Canoe". This was circa 1750 when his father Atakullakulla led war parties against the French & their Native allies, including Shawnee, in the Ohio Valley.

  • **************************
    • *******************

1792 February 17; Chickamauga Chief Glass and Dragging Canoe's brother, Turtle At Home, waylaid the John Collingsworth family near Nashville, killing the father, mother, and a daughter, and capturing an eight-year-old girl. Returning to Lookout Town (near Trenton, Georgia), they held a scalp dance, grinding one of the scalps in his teeth as he performed. Dragging Canoe, recently returned from Mississippi after meeting with Choctaws, celebrated the occasion so strenuously that he died the following morning, age ±54.

John Watts of Will's Town (near Fort Payne, Alabama), became the new Chickamauaga leader of the united war effort. Cherokee resistance continued - led a big campaign against settlements in Nashville (Buchanan Station 1793) and in upper east Tennessee led the combined Cherokee-Creek attack at Cavett's Station in 1793 in which there were no white survivors.

  • ************************

Old Frontiers, pg 5

"Tsu-gun-sini, Dragging Canoe, son of Attakullakulla, was chief of Amo-yeli-egwa, Great Island, one of the smaller Cherokee towns."

March 1775]

  • ***********************

Old Frontiers, pg 161

[1776, Dragging Canoe] "With his followers, he seceded from the Cherokee Nation and withdrew a hundred miles down the Tennessee River where he organized a new tribe. Those Cherokees who met in treaty with the Americans, he denounced as "rogues," or worse, as "Virginians." His own followers called themselves, proudly, "Ani-Yunwiya," the Real People.

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From Kurt Kuhlmann, Dissertation prospectus, November 17, 1994 (http://www.warhorsesim.com/papers/Cherokee.htm):

In 1775, Richard Henderson, a North Carolina land speculator, "purchased" a vast tract of land (essentially all of Kentucky and a large part of Tennessee) from the Cherokee. Henderson's purchase set in motion the last chapter of Cherokee military resistance to European expansion. Land pressure on the Cherokees had increased steadily following the Seven Years War. The Cherokee leadership was reluctant to go to war again after their severe defeat in the early 1760s, but by 1775 European settlers were encroaching on Cherokee lands on three sides. The early 1770s saw the intruders cross the mountains and settle on Cherokee land in the Watauga and Holston valleys to the north. John Stuart, the British Indian agent for the Southern district, had for the most part aided the Cherokee in resisting legal encroachment, but the colonial governments of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia would not or could not prevent settlers from trespassing on land guaranteed to the Cherokee by treaty. Henderson's "purchase" was tainted in several ways. Not only was it illegal under British law (the Proclamation of 1763 prohibited private land deals with the Indians), other tribes had claims on the land in question (it was used as hunting grounds by several tribes, including the Shawnee), and it was even questionable whether the Cherokees actually sold Henderson the land as he claimed. Worse, the cession was denounced during the negotiations by Dragging Canoe, leader of the militant Cherokee faction and the son of Attakullaculla, one of the chiefs who signed the treaty with Henderson.

Henderson's purchase did not immediately lead to war, but it discredited the leaders who had negotiated the treaty (Attakullaculla, Oconostota, and the Raven), thus strengthening the position of the militant Cherokees. As the turmoil of the Revolution reached the frontiers of European settlement, the militants prevailed and the request for war delivered by a delegation of northern Indians in 1776 was accepted. The result was disastrous for the Cherokee. Three separate militia armies invaded the Cherokee lands during 1776, burning towns and crops and leaving devastation in their wake. At the price of additional land cessions, the Cherokees managed to secure peace with the state governments in 1777. Dragging Canoe refused to accept this policy and his militant faction seceded from the Cherokee, moving west and establishing new towns on the Tennessee River. The Chickamauga, as they became known, remained at war with the foreign settlements west of the mountains almost continually for the next 17 years.

The situation was thus established as it would remain until 1794. The leadership on both sides (the Cherokee chiefs, and the state and federal governments) generally wanted peace, but neither could control their own militants. On the Cherokee side, the Chickamauga provided a rallying point for the disaffected young men of the Cherokee nation proper. The fact that the Chickamauga acted independently of the rest of the Cherokee nation did not stop the frontier settlers from retaliating against the peaceful towns for Chickamauga attacks. On the American side, the settlers constantly violated lands guaranteed to the Cherokee by treaty, and conducted independent warfare against them. During the 1780s the situation was further complicated when several western counties (what became eastern Tennessee) formed themselves into the State of Franklin in open rebellion against North Carolina. When the states' western land claims were ceded to Congress and reorganized into the Southwest Territory in 1790, the federal government became directly involved without having much more control over the situation.

After 1776, the Cherokee were only drawn into general war once more, in 1788-89, when the murder of a negotiating party, including Old Tassel, one of the most distinguished chiefs, inflamed the whole nation. In general, however, the Cherokee as a whole both paid the price and reaped the benefits of the continued Chickamauga warfare. The Chickamauga certainly slowed down the expansion of some foreign settlements, especially the isolated Cumberland towns established in 1779. On the other hand, the Cherokee nation repeatedly suffered for Chickamauga actions, being both easier to attack and in possession of the lands nearest to the expanding settlements of north Georgia, western North Carolina and Virginia, and East Tennessee. Cherokee military resistance finally ended in 1794 when the Chickamauga made peace with the United States at Tellico Blockhouse. Most rejoined the Cherokee; the rest emigrated west across the Mississippi.


Dragging Canoe From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Dragging Canoe–Tsiyu Gansini Born 1738 Died February 29, 1792 (aged 53–54) Running Water Town Occupation War chief of the Chickamauga Cherokee Relatives son of Attakullakulla This article contains Cherokee syllabic characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Cherokee syllabics. Dragging Canoe (ᏥᏳ ᎦᏅᏏᏂ, pronounced Tsiyu Gansini, "he is dragging his canoe")[1] (c.1738–February 29, 1792) was a Cherokee war chief who led a band of disaffected Cherokee against colonists and United States settlers in the Upper South.

During the American Revolution and afterward, Dragging Canoe's forces were sometimes joined by Upper Muskogee, Chickasaw, Shawnee, and Indians from other tribes/nations, along with British Loyalists, and agents of France and Spain. The series of conflicts lasted a decade after the American Revolutionary War. Dragging Canoe became the preeminent war leader among the Indians of the southeast of his time. He served as war chief of the Chickamauga Cherokee (or "Lower Cherokee") from 1777 until his death in 1792, when he was succeeded by John Watts.

He was the son of Attakullakulla ("Little Carpenter"), who was born to the Nipissing. He and his mother were captured when he was an infant, and they were adopted into the Cherokee tribe and assimilated. His mother was Nionne Ollie ("Tamed Doe), born to the Natchez and adopted as a captive by Oconostota's household.[2]

They lived with the Overhill Cherokee on the Little Tennessee River. Dragging Canoe survived smallpox at a young age, which left his face marked. According to Cherokee legend, his name is derived from an incident in his early childhood. Wanting to join a war party moving against a neighboring tribe, the Shawnee, his father told him he could stay with the war party as long as he could carry his canoe. He tried to prove his readiness for war by carrying the heavy canoe, but he could only manage to drag it.[3]

War chief of the Cherokee[edit] Main article: Cherokee–American wars Dragging Canoe first took part in battle during the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759–1761). In its aftermath, he was recognized as one of the strongest opponents to encroachment by settlers from the British colonies onto Cherokee land. Eventually, he became the headman of Mialoquo ("Great Island Town," or "Amoyeli Egwa" in Cherokee) on the Little Tennessee River.

When the Cherokee chose to ally with the British in the American Revolution, Dragging Canoe was at the head of one of the major attacks. After the colonial militias' counter attack, which destroyed the Cherokee Middle, Valley, and Lower Towns, his father and Oconostota wanted to sue for peace. Refusing to admit defeat, in 1777 Dragging Canoe led a band of the Overhill Cherokee out of the towns, further south.[3] They migrated to the area seven miles upstream from where the South Chickamauga Creek joins the Tennessee River, in the vicinity of present-day Chattanooga. Thereafter, frontiersman called them the "Chickamauga" because of their settlement by the creek.[3][4] They established 11 towns, including the one later referred to as "Old Chickamauga Town." This was across the river from where the Scotsman, John McDonald, the assistant superintendent of the British concerns in the area, had a trading post.[4] He supplied the Chickamauga with guns, ammo, and supplies with which to fight.[3]

In 1782, for the second time, their towns were attacked by United States forces. The devastation caused by Colonel John Sevier's troop forced the band to once again move further down the Tennessee River. Dragging Canoe then established the "Five Lower Towns" below the natural obstructions of the Tennessee River Gorge.[3] These were: Running Water Town (now Whiteside), Nickajack Town (near the cave of the same name), Long Island (on the Tennessee River), Crow Town (at the mouth of Crow Creek), and Lookout Mountain Town (at the current site of Trenton, Georgia). Following this move, they were alternately referred to as the "Lower Cherokee."[3]

From his base at Running Water Town, Dragging Canoe led attacks on white settlements all over the American Southeast, especially against the colonists on the Holston, Watauga, and Nolichucky rivers in eastern Tennessee. After 1780, he also attacked settlements in the Cumberland River area, the Washington District, the Republic of Franklin, the Middle Tennessee areas, and raided into Kentucky and Virginia as well. His three brothers, Little Owl, the Badger, and Turtle-at-Home, often fought with his forces.

Death Dragging Canoe died February 29, 1792 at Running Water Town,[3] from exhaustion (or possibly a heart attack) after dancing all night celebrating the recent conclusion of an alliance with the Muskogee and the Choctaw.[5] He had not brought the Chickasaw into the alliance. The Chickamauga were also celebrating a recent victory by one of their war bands against the Cumberland settlements.

Legacy Dragging Canoe is considered by many to be the most significant Native American leader of the Southeast. Historians such as John P. Brown in Old Frontiers, and James Mooney in his early ethnographic book, Myths of the Cherokee, consider him a role model for the younger Tecumseh, who was a member of a band of Shawnee living with the Chickamauga and taking part in their wars. In Tell Them They Lie, a book written by a direct descendant of Sequoyah named Traveller [sic] Bird, both Tecumseh and Sequoyah are stated to have been among his young warriors.

further reading...

Chickamauga Cherokee From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Chickamauga Cherokee, referred to themselves as Chicomogie as found in a letter signed by Little Turkey, Hanging Maw, and Dragging Canoe [1] also known as the Lower Cherokee, were a group of Cherokee who supported Great Britain at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. Followers of the Cherokee headman Dragging Canoe, in the winter of 1776–1777, they moved with him down the Tennessee River away from the historic Overhill Cherokee towns. In this more isolated area, they established almost a dozen new towns to gain distance from colonists' encroachment. The frontier Americans associated Dragging Canoe and his band with their new town on the Chickamauga Creek, and began to refer to them as the Chickamaugas. Neither this group nor other Cherokee considered them to be distinct from or independent of the overall 19th-century Cherokee peoples is a false narrative. The Upper Cherokee wrote Thomas Jefferson on May 4th 1808 asking for separation from the Lower Towns quoted here from the letter, "You propose My Children, that your Nation shall be divided into two and that your part the Upper Cherokees, shall be separated from the lower by a fixed boundary, shall be placed under the Government of the U.S. become citizens thereof, and be ruled by our laws; in fine, to be our brothers instead of our children.". [2]

After the Cherokee moved further west and southwest five years later, they were more commonly known as the "Lower Cherokee." This term was associated with the people of the "Five Lower Towns," who originally formed the new settlements.

Contents [hide] 1 Migration 1.1 "Chickamauga" towns 1.2 "Five Lower Towns" 2 Constant war 3 Cherokee interactions 4 Aftermath of the wars 4.1 Resettling 4.2 Peacetime leaders of the Lower Towns 5 Later events 5.1 Tecumseh's return 5.2 War with the Creek 6 References 7 External links Migration[edit] "Chickamauga" towns[edit]

The original 'Chickamauga Towns' of Dragging Canoe's followers, along with the Hiwassee towns and the towns on the Tellico. In the winter of 1776–1777, Cherokee followers of Dragging Canoe, who had supported the British at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, moved down the Tennessee River and away from their historic Overhill Cherokee towns. They established nearly a dozen new towns in this frontier area in an attempt to gain distance from encroaching European-American settlers.

Dragging Canoe and his followers settled at the place where the Great Indian Warpath crossed the Chickamauga Creek, near present-day Chattanooga, Tennessee. They named their town Chickamauga after the stream. The entire adjacent region was referred to in general as the Chickamauga area. American settlers adopted that term to refer to the militant Cherokee in this area as "Chickamaugas". In 1782, militia forces under John Sevier and William Campbell destroyed the eleven Cherokee towns. Dragging Canoe led his people further down the Tennessee River.

After the war, migration west increased by pioneers from the new states of Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia.

"Five Lower Towns"[edit] Dragging Canoe relocated his people west and southwest, into new settlements centered on Running Water (now Whiteside) on Running Water Creek. The other towns founded at this time were: Nickajack (near the cave of the same name), Long Island (on the Tennessee River), Crow Town (at the mouth of Crow Creek), and Lookout Mountain Town (at the site of the current Trenton, Georgia). In time more towns spread south and west, and all these were referred to as the Lower Towns.

Constant war[edit] Main article: Cherokee–American wars The Chickamauga Cherokee became known for their uncompromising enmity against United States settlers, who had pushed them out of their traditional territory. From Running Water town, Dragging Canoe led attacks on white settlements all over the American Southeast. Later, his Chickamauga warriors raided as far as Indiana, Kentucky and Virginia (along with the Western Confederacy —which they helped establish). Due to a growing belief in the Chickamauga cause, as well as the destruction of the homes of the other Native Americans, a majority of the Cherokee eventually came to be allied against the United States.

After the death of Dragging Canoe in 1792, his hand-picked successor, John Watts, assumed control of the Lower Cherokee. Under Watts' lead, the Cherokee continued their policy of Indian unity and hostility toward European-Americans. Watts moved his base of operations to Willstown to be closer to his Muscogee allies. Prior to this, he had concluded a treaty in Pensacola with the Spanish governor of West Florida, Arturo O'Neill de Tyrone, for arms and supplies with which to carry on the war. The Chickamauga/Lower Cherokee and the frontiersmen were continuously at war until 1794.

Cherokee interactions[edit] In 1799, Brother Steiner, a representative of the Moravian Brethren, met with Richard Fields at Tellico Blockhouse. Fields was a Lower Cherokee who had previously served as a warrior. Steiner hired him as guide and interpreter, as the missionary had been sent south by the Brethren to scout for an appropriate location for a mission and school in the Nation. It was ultimately located at Spring Place on land donated by James Vann, who supported gaining some European-American education for his people. On one occasion, Br. Steiner asked his guide, "What kind of people are the Chickamauga?". Fields laughed, then replied, "They are Cherokee, and we know no difference."[3]

The Chickamauga Towns and the later Lower Towns were no different from the rest of the Cherokee than were other groups of historic settlement, known as the Middle Towns, Out Towns, (original) Lower Towns, Valley Towns, or Overhill Towns, when the Europeans first encountered these people. The groupings did not constitute separate political entities as much as groupings for geographic convenience. The only real government among the Cherokee was by town and clan, and though there were regional councils, these had no binding powers.

Over time, the different groups of towns developed differing ideas about relations with European-Americans, in part related to the degree of interaction and intermarriage they had with them through trading and other partnerships.

The only "national" position which existed among the people before 1788 was First Beloved Man, which was a chief negotiator from the Towns of the Cherokee farthest from the reach of the intruders. After 1788 there was a national council of sorts, but it met irregularly and at the time had no prescriptive or proscriptive powers. Even after the peace of 1794, the Cherokee were broken up into five groups: the Upper Towns (formerly the Lower Towns of western Carolina and northeastern Georgia), the Overhill Towns, the Hill Towns, the Valley Towns, and the (new) Lower Towns, each with their own regional ruling councils (considered more important than the "national" council at Ustanali).

Dragging Canoe had addressed the National Council at Ustanali, and publicly acknowledged Little Turkey as the senior leader of all the Cherokee. He was memorialized by the council following his death in 1792. Leaders of the "Chickamauga" frequently communicated with the Cherokee of other regions, and they were supported in warfare against the colonists and later pioneers by warriors from the Overhill Towns. Numerous Chickamauga headmen signed treaties with the federal government, along with other leaders of the Cherokee.

Aftermath of the wars[edit] Following the Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse in late 1794, leaders from the Lower Cherokee dominated national affairs of the people. When the national government of all the Cherokee Nation was organized, the first three persons to hold the office of Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation: Little Turkey (1788–1801), Black Fox (1801–1811), and Pathkiller (Nunnehidihi; 1811–1827), had previously served as warriors under Dragging Canoe. Doublehead and Turtle-at-Home, the first two Speakers of the Cherokee National Council, which was established in 1794, had also served with Dragging Canoe.[citation needed]

The domination of the Cherokee Nation by the former warriors from the Lower Towns continued well into the 19th century. Even after the revolt of the young chiefs of the Upper Towns, the representatives of the Lower Towns were a major voice. The "young chiefs" of the Upper Towns who dominated that region had also previously been warriors with Dragging Canoe and Watts.

Resettling[edit] Many of the former warriors returned to the original settlements in the Chickamauga area, some of which had already been reoccupied. They also established new towns in the area, plus several in north Georgia. Others moved into those towns established after the earlier migration, such as Itawa (or Etowah).

Still others joined the remnant populations of the Overhill towns on the Little Tennessee River that were referred to as the Upper Towns. These were centered on Ustanali in Georgia. James Vann and his protégés The Ridge (Ganundalegi; formerly known as Pathkiller, or Nunnehidihi) and Charles R. Hicks (also named Nunnehidihi in Cherokee) rose to be their top leaders, along with John Lowery, George Lowery, Bob McLemore, John Walker, Jr., George Fields, and others. The leaders of these towns were the most progressive among the Cherokee, favoring extensive acculturation, formal education adapted from European-Americans, and modern methods of farming.[4]

The primary areas of operations during the Chickamauga Wars, showing the more prominent settlements of the war and postwar Lower Towns in the lower left quarter For a decade or more after the end of the hostilities, the northern section of the Upper Towns had their own council and acknowledged the top headman of the Overhill Towns as their leader. They gradually had to move south due to ceding of their land to the United States.

John McDonald returned to his old home on the Chickamauga River, across from Old Chickamauga Town, and lived there until selling it in 1816. It was purchased by the Boston-based American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions for use as the Brainerd Mission, which served as both a church (named the Baptist Church of Christ at Chickamauga) and a school offering academic and vocational training. His daughter, Mollie McDonald, and son-in-law, Daniel Ross, developed a farm and trading post near the old village of Chatanuga (Tsatanugi) from the early days of the wars. Settled near them were sons Lewis and Andrew Ross, and a number of daughters. Their son John Ross, born at Turkey Town, later rose to become a principal chief, guiding the Cherokee through the Indian Removals of the 1830s and relocation to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.

The majority of the Lower Cherokee remained in the towns they inhabited in 1794, known as the Lower Towns, with their seat at Willstown. Their leaders were John Watts, Bloody Fellow, Doublehead, Black Fox, Pathkiller, Dick Justice, The Glass, Tahlonteeskee (brother of Doublehead); his nephew John Jolly (Ahuludiski, who was the adoptive father of Sam Houston); John Brown (owner of Brown's Tavern, Brown's Landing, and Brown's Ferry, as well as judge of the Chickamauga District of the young Cherokee Nation); Young Dragging Canoe, Richard Fields, and red-headed Will Weber, for whom Titsohili was called Willstown, among others. The former warriors of the Lower Towns dominated the political affairs of the Nation for the next twenty years. They were more conservative than leaders of the Upper Towns, adopting many elements of assimilation but keeping as many of the old ways as possible.[5]

Roughly speaking, the Lower Towns were south and southwest of the Hiwassee River along the Tennessee down to the north border of the Muscogee nation, and west of the Conasauga and the Ustanali in Georgia, while the Upper Towns were north and east of the Hiwassee and between the Chattahoochee River and the Conasauga. This latter was approximately the same area as the later Amohee, Chickamauga, and Chattooga districts of the Cherokee Nation East.[6]

Also traditional were the settlements of the Cherokee in the highlands of western North Carolina, which had become known as the Hill Towns, with their seat at Quallatown. Similarly, the lowland Valley Towns, with their seat at Tuskquitee, were more traditional, as was the Upper Town of Etowah. It was notable both for being inhabited mostly by full-bloods (as many Cherokee of the other towns were of mixed race but identified as Cherokee) and for being the largest town in the Cherokee Nation. The Overhill towns remaining along the Little Tennessee remained more or less autonomous, and kept their seat at Chota.

All five regions had their own councils. These were more important to their people than the nominal nation council until the reorganization in 1810, which took place after the national council held that year at Willstown.

Peacetime leaders of the Lower Towns[edit] John Watts remained the head of the council of the Lower Cherokee at Willstown until his death in 1802. Afterward, Doublehead, already a member of the triumvirate, moved into that position and held it until his death in 1807. He was assassinated by The Ridge, Alexander Saunders (best friend to James Vann), and John Rogers. The latter was a white former trader who had first come west with Dragging Canoe in 1777. By 1802 he was considered a member of the nation, and was allowed to sit on the council.[citation needed] He was succeeded on the council by The Glass, who was also assistant principal chief of the nation to Black Fox. The Glass was head of the Lower Towns council until the unification council of 1810.

The Ridge (Ganundalegi), formerly known as Pathkiller (Nunnehidihi), illustration from History of the Indian Tribes of North America. By the time John Norton (a Mohawk of Cherokee and Scottish ancestry) visited the area in 1809–1810, many of the formerly militant Cherokee of the Lower Towns were among the most assimilated members. James Vann, for instance, became a major planter, holding more than 100 African-American slaves, and was one of the wealthiest men east of the Mississippi. Norton became a personal friend of Turtle-at-Home as well as John Walker, Jr., and The Glass, all of whom were involved in business and commerce. At the time of Norton's visit, Turtle-at-Home owned a ferry with a landing on the Federal Road between Nashville, Tennessee and Athens, Georgia, where he lived at Nickajack. This community had expanded down the Tennessee as well as across it to the north, eclipsing Running Water.

When Georgia and the US government increased pressure for the Cherokee Nation to cede its lands and remove to the west of the Mississippi River, such leaders of the Lower Towns as Tahlonteeskee, Degadoga, John Jolly, Richard Fields, John Brown, Bob McLemore, John Rogers, Young Dragging Canoe, George Guess (Tsiskwaya, or Sequoyah) and Tatsi (aka Captain Dutch) were forerunners. Believing that removal was inevitable in the face of settlers' greed, they wanted to try to get the best lands and settlements possible. They moved with followers to Arkansas Territory, establishing what later became known as the Cherokee Nation West. They next moved to Indian Territory following an 1828 treaty between their leaders and the US government. They were called the "Old Settlers" in Indian Territory and lived there nearly a decade before the remainder of the Cherokee were forced to join them.

Likewise, the remaining leaders of the Lower Towns proved to be the strongest advocates of voluntary westward emigration, in which they were most bitterly opposed by those former warriors and their sons who led the Upper Towns. Ultimately such leaders as Major Ridge (as The Ridge had been known since his military service during the Creek and First Seminole Wars), his son John Ridge, his nephews Elias Boudinot and Stand Watie, came to believe that they needed to try to negotiate the best deal with the federal government, as they believed that removal would happen. Other emigration advocates were John Walker, Jr., David Vann, and Andrew Ross (brother of then Principal Chief John Ross). They agreed to the Treaty of New Echota in 1835, which resulted in the Cherokee removal in 1838–1839.

Later events[edit] Tecumseh's return[edit] in November 1811, Shawnee chief Tecumseh returned to the South hoping to gain the support of the southern tribes for his crusade to drive back the Americans and revive the old ways. He was accompanied by representatives from the Shawnee, Muscogee, Kickapoo, and Sioux peoples. Tecumseh's exhortations in the towns of the Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Lower Muscogee found no traction. He did attract some support from younger warriors of the Upper Muscogee. But, the Upper Muscogee headman, The Big Warrior, repudiated Tecumseh before the assembly.[citation needed]

The Cherokee delegation under The Ridge who visited Tecumseh's council at Tuckabatchee strongly opposed his plans; Tecumseh cancelled his visit to the Cherokee Nation, as The Ridge threatened him with death if he went there. But, during his recruiting tour, Tecumseh was accompanied by an enthusiastic escort of 47 Cherokee and 19 Choctaw, who presumably went north with him when he returned to the "Northwest Territory."[7][8]

War with the Creek[edit] Main article: Creek War Tecumseh's mission sparked a religious revival, referred to by anthropologist James Mooney as the "Cherokee Ghost Dance" movement.[9] It was led by the prophet Tsali of Coosawatee, a former Chickamauga warrior. He later moved to the western North Carolina mountains, where he was executed by US forces in 1838 for violently resisting Removal.

Tsali met with the national council at Ustanali, arguing for war against the Americans. He moved some leaders, until The Ridge spoke even more eloquently in rebuttal, calling instead for support of the Americans in the coming war with the British and Tecumseh's alliance. During the War of 1812, William McIntosh of the Lower Muscogee sought Cherokee help in the Creek War, to suppress the "Red Sticks" (Upper Muscogee). More than 500 Cherokee warriors served under Andrew Jackson in this effort, going against their former allies. [10][11]

A few years later, Major Ridge led a troop of Cherokee cavalry who were attached to the 1400-strong contingent of Lower Muscogee warriors under McIntosh in the First Seminole War in Florida. They were allied with and accompanied a force of U.S. regular Army, Georgia militia, and Tennessee volunteers into Florida for action against the Seminoles, refugee Red Sticks, and escaped slaves fighting against the United States.[12]

Warriors from the Cherokee Nation East traveled to the lands of the Old Settlers (or Cherokee Nation West) in Arkansas Territory to assist them during the Cherokee-Osage War of 1817–1823, in which they fought against the Osage. Following the Seminole War, Cherokee warriors, with only one exception, did not take to the warpath in the Southeast again until the time of the American Civil War, when William Holland Thomas raised the Thomas Legion of Cherokee Indians and Highlanders in North Carolina to fight for the Confederacy.

In 1830, however, the State of Georgia seized land in its south that had belonged to the Cherokee since the end of the Creek War, land separated from the rest of the Cherokee Nation by a large section of Georgia territory, and began to parcel it out to settlers. Major Ridge dusted off his weapons and led a party of thirty south, where they drove the settlers out of their homes on what the Cherokee considered their land, and burned all buildings to the ground, but harmed no one


In any genealogy there are many sources that if listed would produce more data than the tree itself and many would likely be left out. I normally do not list sources. There are a few sources though that are so invaluable that they dare no be omitted. For example, all of my information as it applies to the Native Americans in my genealogy are the product of my Son, Jonathan R. Rex. In genealogy sources there is very little to no information about the people who first lived in this land. Finding this data is a challenge worthy of his efforts. I list these names only that they should be remembered and those from whom they descended should be able to know. For you though it might be only the start as there is far more to know and it is after all your heritage. In time without any doubt Jonathan will publish his work in detail and that will be a thing to see. Keep an eye out for him and his writing. You will not be disappointed.
Dragging-Canoe

Dragging-canoe (translation of his Indian name, Tsíyu-gûnsíní known also as Cheucunsene and Kunnese). A prominent leader of those Cherokee who were hostile to the Americans during the Revolutionary war. He moved with his party to the site of Chickamauga, where he continued to harass the Tennessee settlements until 1782, when the Chickamauga towns were broken up. His people then moved farther down the river and established the “five lower towns,” but these also were destroyed in 1794. In accounts of the Creek war Dragging-canoe is mentioned as one of the prominent Cherokee chiefs in alliance with Jackson, and a participant in the last great encounter at Horseshoe Bend

Dragging Canoe

Tsiyu Gansini (ᏥᏳ ᎦᏅᏏᏂ), "He is dragging his canoe", known to whites as Dragging Canoe, (c. 1738 – March 1, 1792) was a Cherokee war chief who led a band of Cherokee against colonists and United States settlers. Beginning during the American Revolution, his forces were sometimes joined by Upper Muskogee, Chickasaw, Shawnee, and Indians from other tribes/nations, along with British Loyalists, French and Spanish agents. The series of conflicts, lasting for a decade after the American Revolutionary War, were known as Chickamauga Wars. Dragging Canoe became the pre-eminent war leader among the Indians of the Southeast of his time. He served as principal chief of the Lower Cherokee from 1777 until his death in 1792, when he was succeeded by his pick, John Watts.

Biography He was the son of Attakullakulla ("Little Carpenter" in English), who was born to the Nipissing and captured and adopted as an infant by the Cherokee, making him one of the tribe. His mother was Nionne Ollie, born to the Natchez and adopted as a captive by Oconostota's household.[1] They lived with the Overhill Cherokee on the Little Tennessee River. Dragging Canoe survived smallpox at a young age, which left his face marked. According to Cherokee legend, his name is derived from an incident in his early childhood. He tried to prove his readiness for war by carrying a canoe, but could only drag it.

War chief of the Cherokee Dragging Canoe first took part in battle during the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759–1761). In its aftermath, he was recognized as one of the strongest opponents to encroachment by settlers from the British colonies onto American Indian, especially Cherokee, land. Eventually he became the chief of Great Island Town (Amoyeli Egwa in Cherokee, written Mialaquo by the British) on the Little Tennessee River. When the Cherokee opted to join in the fighting of the American Revolution on the side of the British, Dragging Canoe was at the head of one of the major attacks. After the colonial militias' destruction of the Cherokee Middle (Hill), Valley, and Lower Towns, his father and Oconostota wanted to sue for peace. Refusing to give up, Dragging Canoe led a band of the Overhill Cherokee out of the towns. They migrated to the area surrounding Chickamauga River (South Chickamauga Creek) in the present-day Chattanooga area, where they established eleven towns in 1777, including the one later referred to as "Old Chickamauga Town." It was across the river from where John McDonald had a trading post. From their location, they were called the Chickamauga by frontiersmen, who later called them the Lower Cherokee. In 1782 their towns were destroyed again. The band moved further down the Tennessee River, establishing the "Five Lower Towns" below the obstructions of the Tennessee River Gorge: Running Water (now Whiteside), Nickajack (near the cave of the same name), Long Island (on the Tennessee River), Crow Town (at the mouth of Crow Creek), and Lookout Mountain Town (at the site of the current Trenton, Georgia). From his base at Running Water, Dragging Canoe led attacks on white settlements all over the American Southeast, especially against the colonists on the Holston, Watauga, and Nolichucky rivers in East Tennessee. He also attacked the Cumberland River settlements in Middle Tennessee (after 1780), and raided into Kentucky and Virginia as well. His brothers Little Owl, the Badger, and Turtle-at-Home fought with his forces.

Dragging Canoe 2

Death Dragging Canoe died March 1, 1792, from exhaustion or an apparent heart attack after dancing all night celebrating the recent conclusion of alliance with the Muskogee and the Choctaw. He did not succeed in reaching such an agreement with the Chickasaw. They were also celebrating a recent victory by a Chickamauga war band on the Cumberland River settlements.

Legacy He is considered by many to be the most significant Native Americans leader of the Southeast. Some historians consider him a role model for the younger Tecumseh, who was a member of a band of Shawnee living with the Chickamauga/Lower Cherokee and taking part in their wars. He picked John Watts, also known as Young Tassel, as his successor as war chief.

References [1] Klink and Talman, The Journal of Major John Norton, p. 42 • Alderman, Pat. Dragging Canoe: Cherokee-Chickamauga War Chief, (Johnson City: Overmountain Press, 1978) • Brown, John P. Old Frontiers: The Story of the Cherokee Indians from Earliest Times to the Date of Their Removal to the West, 1838, (Kingsport: Southern Publishers, 1938). • Evans, E. Raymond. "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Dragging Canoe," Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 176–189. Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian, • Haywood, W.H. The Civil and Political History of the State of Tennessee from its Earliest Settlement up to the Year 1796, (Nashville: Methodist Episcopal Publishing House, 1891). • Klink, Karl, and James Talman, ed. The Journal of Major John Norton, (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1970). • McLoughlin, William G., Cherokee Renascence in the New Republic. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992). • Mooney, James. Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee. (Nashville: Charles and Randy Elder-Booksellers, 1982). • Moore, John Trotwood and Austin P. Foster. Tennessee, The Volunteer State, 1769–1923, Vol. 1. (Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1923). • Ramsey, J. G. M., The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century, 1853 (2007 Online Edition). (Rockwood, TN: RoaneTNHistory.org, 2007) (http:/ / www. roanetnhistory. org/ ramseysannalscontents. html).

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Chief Dragging Canoe's Timeline

1734
1734
Overhill Settlements, Monroe, Tennessee, United States
1745
1745
Age 11
Tennessee, United States
1750
1750
Age 16
Tennessee, United States
1752
1752
Age 18
1752
Age 18
Cherokee, Swain, Tennessee, United States
1753
1753
Age 19
VA, USA
1755
1755
Age 21
Tennessee, United States
1760
1760
Age 26
North Carolina, United States
1761
1761
Age 27
Nat, Punjab, Pakistan