Damiana Domínguez de Mendoza

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Damiana Domínguez de Mendoza

Birthdate: (50)
Birthplace: Ciudad de México, Reino de México, Reino de Nueva España
Death: circa August 12, 1680 (42-58)
Santa Fé or Angostura, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España (Killed by Pueblo Indians during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680)
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Juan Bartolomé Domínguez and Elena Ramírez de Mendoza
Wife of Capitán Agustín de Carvajal and Álvaro de Paredes
Mother of María de Paredes
Sister of Francisco Domínguez de Mendoza; María Domínguez de Mendoza; Elena Domínguez de Mendoza; Juan Bartolome (Tome) "El Mozo" Domínguez de Mendoza; Leonor Domínguez de Mendoza and 3 others

Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Damiana Domínguez de Mendoza

Nothing confirming her death in Santa Fe, but if she did die there during Popeh's rebellion, this was the series of events she experienced around the time of her death (all dates in Gregorian calendar):

Popeh's Rebellion in New Mexico, August 1680.

  • August 8 (Thursday), New Mexico: In the morning two young men from Tetsugeh/Tesuque pueblo start out for the Tanogeh pueblos to announce the start of Popeh's rebellion, and they reach Pecos first. Unfortunately for them, they are seen by Christian Pecoseños, who report to Fray Fernando de Velasco that the two Tewa had been seen stopping in at the war chief’s home and were likely announcing the start of a rebellion rumored to be planned. Fray Velasco dispatches a message with Pecos Governor Juan de Ye to Governor Otermin in Santa Fe. Meanwhile, the two runners continue onward to Galisteo, San Cristobal, and San Marcos pueblo. Their passage from Galisteo was reported by Juan Bernal to Santa Fe. At the time, New Mexico consisted of about 2,800 Spaniards, and 170 professional soldiers (trained in the best military traditions of the day).
  • August 9 (Friday), three messengers had arrived in Santa Fe by this afternoon, including one from the alcalde of Taos/Teotho, who was warned by a Tewa of the impending rebellion. Governor Otermin assigns his maestro de campo (field officer) Francisco Gomez Robledo to seize the two runners from Tetsugeh/Tesuque. They are found south of Santa Fe and taken back to the Spanish colonial capitol and placed under house arrest. By that evening, the entire pueblo countryside was aware that the two runners had been captured and Popeh (age 50) orders the rebellion to begin on the morrow, rather than August 11, to prevent it from being quelled. Meanwhile, Cristobal de Herrera was killed in Tesuque, home of the two messengers, increasing tensions in New Mexico, and Fray Juan Pio decided to leave Tetsugeh/Tesuque that evening for the safety of Santa Fe.
  • August 10 (Saturday), in the morning of the Feast Day of San Lorenzo, Fray Pio sets out with soldier Pedro Hidalgo to Tetsugeh/Tesuque to say mass for his people at Tesuque. He arrives to find the village deserted. Thinking that the villagers were attempting to defend themselves against incursion by rebels, he seeks them out and finds them in the nearby hills, with the men all armed with bows and arrows, lances and shields, and their faces painted red. Fray Pio asks them if they have all gone mad, and asks them to return to the village to attend mass. He then passes into a ravine to talk to the main mass of warriors there. He does not emerge from the ravine alive. Hidalgo flees the scene, and manages to get away unharmed. Meanwhile, runners began their journey from Tetsugeh/Tesuque immediately, heading north, west, and south. As the runners arrived at a pueblo war chief’s home, the war chief immediately climbed up a nearby hill and issued a war cry. Men and older boys collected weapons and reported to the chiefs of their war societies. One party went to the home of the priest, another to the home of the alcalde, and other officers of the pueblo. The Spaniards were ordered to leave or face death. Some priests attempted to stay and save souls, and were slaughtered. Other Spaniards chose to defend their homes, and were killed.
  • August 12 (Monday), the Taos/Teotho, Picuris/Welai, and other Tewa pueblos rose in revolt, which spread quickly from the Pecos and Galisteo Rivers in the east to the deserts in the west. Of the 33 Franciscans in New Mexico, 21 were killed, and 380 resisting Spaniard men, women, and children were massacred as the entire colony of New Mexico is burned, farmhouse by farmhouse, settlement by settlement. Governor Antonio de Otermin ordered the defense of Santa Fe by arming the able bodied men, be they soldier or servant, to rally at the casas reales, or royal houses that defended the city. A total of 1,000 people remained in Santa Fe out of 2,500 that had survived to that point (the remaining 1,500, including many from haciendas and ranchos in the South Valley, fled to the safety of Isleta pueblo under Lieutenant Governor Alonso Garcia; Isleta was the largest pueblo in New Mexico colony that had refused to take part in the rebellion). Only 100 able bodied men and soldiers were present to defend the city.
  • August 13 (Tuesday), the warriors of pueblos closest to Santa Fe attacked. These included the Pecos, the Tanos from east of the Sangre de Cristos, and Kerasan warriors from San Marcos and La Cieneguilla de Cochiti/Ku-htihth. These totaled 500, led by Juan el Tano of the Galisteo pueblo. The pueblo warriors crossed the Agua Fria River and were met by resistance from city defenders under direct command of Governor Antonio de Otermin. The initial attack was blunted, but additional warriors from the northern pueblos of Jemez/Walatowa and the Tewa villages arrived late in the day. As the sun set, the pueblo retreated to the eastern hills and awaited the next day.
  • August 14 (Wednesday), the outlying buildings around Santa Fe were looted and burned.
  • August 16 (Friday), the pueblo warriors attack Santa Fe again, but the Spanish gain the upper hand in the fighting. Tewa reinforcements arrive from Teotho/Taos and Welai/Picuris. Also Kerasan reinforcements arrive from Rio Abajo under Alonzo Catiti of Santo Domingo/Khe-wa pueblo. Up to 2500 warriors laid siege to Santa Fe by this time, most of which lay entrenched in ruined buildings. The warriors in the hills cut off the water supply to the town, and in a desperate battle to restore the water supply, the Spanish failed. The two sides were able to talk to one another, and from this the Spanish found out that the supreme head of all rebel forces was Luis Tupatu, the governor of Welai/Picuris.
  • August 17 (Saturday), the pueblo warriors pressed against the Spaniards at dawn. By this time, the people within Santa Fe had grown to be very thirsty, and their animals were dying of thirst. Governor Antonio de Otermin chose to make an all out attempt to defeat the pueblo warriors with a cavalry charge that resulted in over 300 pueblo tribesmen killed, and up to 47 captured. The victory only proved that their situation was untenable, as no further water or food made it into the city, and the entire pueblo had to do was flee into the hills and wait. The decision was made at the end of the day to withdraw from Santa Fe.
  • August 21 (Wednesday), after interrogating and executing the 47 captured pueblo warriors, Governor Antonio de Otermin left Santa Fe with 400 animals and two loaded carts alongside a convoy of 1,000 refugees. The pueblo warriors chose to remain in the hills as the Spaniards left, and occupied the town after they had vanished into the south.
  • A last caravan of 33 wagons from New Spain containing the new Procurator Fray Francisco Abeyta is turned back at Isleta pueblo and follows the fleeing Spanish southward.
  • From Isleta pueblo, the 2,500 Spanish survivors from across New Mexico colony withdrew southward to El Paso del Norte. When the group of refugees reaches the Piro pueblos of Teypana and Pilabo (near present Socorro), the people of these pueblos are given the opportunity to flee southward as well to escape their neighbor’s reprisals (those that stay behind are killed by Apache, warriors from Pope’s nation, and other tribes; no settlement would exist south of Sabinal, 30 miles north of present Socorro, for over a century). Of the surviving Spanish that start out from Teypana and Pilabo, fewer than 1,200 survive the crossing of the Jornada del Muerto, the desert that separates New Mexico colony from El Paso del Norte.

Based on the above passages, it seems likely that Damiana was killed between August 12 (day of the massacre out in the countryside) and August 14 (end of the attack on Santa Fe). Burial might have taken place if she were killed in the city, but the graves would not have survived the rebellion.

Alternative suggestions through Smart Matches seem to indicate that she was killed at Angostura, presumably the narrows of the Rio Grande north of present Albuquerque.

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Damiana Domínguez de Mendoza's Timeline

Ciudad de México, Reino de México, Reino de Nueva España
Age 29
Santa Fé, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
August 12, 1680
Age 50
Santa Fé or Angostura, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
November 1, 1989
Age 50
November 1, 1989
Age 50
July 12, 1990
Age 50
July 12, 1990
Age 50
July 13, 1990
Age 50
July 13, 1990
Age 50