Du Yu 杜預

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【(京兆杜陵)】 杜預 (元凱)

Birthdate:
Death: 284 (61-62)
Immediate Family:

Son of Du Shu 杜恕
Husband of 司馬氏
Father of 杜錫 (世嘏); 杜躋; 杜耽 and Du Yin 杜尹

Managed by: 炎黃子孫
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Immediate Family

About Du Yu 杜預

Du Yu 杜預 (222–284), zi Yuankai 元凱, Wei and Western Jin period statesman, scholar, and writer.

Du Yu’s ancestral home was Duling 杜陵 in Jingzhao 京兆 (southeast of modern Xi’an, Shaanxi). The Du family of Duling had a distinguished pedigree going back to the late Western Han. Du Yu’s grandfather Du Ji 杜畿 (163–224) served under Cao Cao 曹操 (155–220) and his son Cao Pi 曹丕 (187–226). His father Du Shu 杜恕 (d. 252) was loyal to the Cao family even when the Sima clan had achieved supremacy in the late Wei period. He ran afoul of Sima Yi 司馬懿 (179–251) and was demoted to commoner status. He died in exile in Zhangwu 章武 (modern Dacheng 大城, Hebei). Because of his father’s punishment, Du Yu did not enter official service until 255 after he married the younger sister of Sima Zhao 司馬昭 (211–265). In 257 Du Yu was enfeoffed as Marquis of Fengleting 豐樂亭. He held a series of high civil and military positions. In 263–264 he served as an aide to Zhong Hui 鍾會 (225–264), General Governing the West, in his successful expedition against Shu. In 268, Du Yu assisted Jia Chong 賈充 (217–282) in drafting a new law code for the newly founded Jin dynasty. Du composed a commentary for this work. From 270–274 Du Yu led an army against the Qiang 羌 who had encroached on Jin territory in the northwest. In 274, he returned to the imperial court and was appointed minister of revenue. The petitions he presented to the court concerning agriculture and water conservancy are very much admired. In 276, Yang Hu 羊祜 (221–278) presented to the court a detailed plan for an expedition against the southeastern state of Wu. Most officials at the court opposed him, but both Du Yu and Zhang Hua 張華 (232–300) were in favor. In 278, Yang Hu became ill and he recommended that Du Yu replace him in the position of General Governing the South in Xiangyang 襄陽 (modern Xiangyang, Hubei). Du Yu then led one of the Jin armies that conquered Wu in 280. Du Yu remained in Xiangyang until his death in 284.

In addition to his important achievements in the civil and military realm, Du Yu made important contributions to scholarship. By his own admission he had a “mania for the Zuo zhuan.” He had studied the Zuo zhuan with Yue Xiang 樂詳 from Donghai 東海 (modern Xuzhou 徐州) and his uncle Du Kuan 杜寬. Du Yu compiled the Chungqiu Zuoshi jingzhuan jijie 春秋左氏經傳集解 (Collected explanations of Master Zuo’s tradition of the Spring and Autumn Annals) in thirty juan. This is the earliest extant commentary to the Zuo zhuan, and in the Tang period it became the standard commentary to this work. Du Yu’s preface to the Zuo zhuan was selected for the Wen xuan. Du Yu also wrote three other works on the Zuo zhuan including a linguistic commentary, and set of critical remarks (ping 評). The third work is Chun qiu shi li 春秋釋例 (The rules and formulae of the Spring and Autumn Annals) in fifteen juan in which Du Yu postulates a “code” for reading the Chunqiu. This work was lost but the compilers of the Siku quanshu were able to reconstruct some of it from citations in the Yongle dadian 永樂大典.

The monograph on bibliography of the Sui shu lists Du Yu’s collection in eighteen juan. The two Tang histories record a twenty-juan collection. This was lost during the Song. His extant works consist entirely of prose, most of which are petitions that he presented to the court. There is a fragment of one fu, “Qi gui” 七規 (Seven counsels). He also compiled a fifty-juan anthology, the Shan wen 善文 (Excellent writings).

David R. Knechtges



Du Yu 杜預 [21190] Giles, pp. 785-6. RM, p. 467. Jin Shu, 34.1025-1033. — RMH

杜預 (元凱)生平 (中文)

《晉書》卷34

杜預,字元凱,京兆杜陵人也。祖畿,魏尚書僕射。父恕,幽州刺史。預博學多通,明於興廢之道,常言:「德不可以企及,立功立言可庶幾也。」初,其父與宣帝不相能,遂以幽死,故預久不得調。文帝嗣立,預尚帝妹高陸公主,起家拜尚書郎,襲祖爵豐樂亭侯。在職四年,轉參相府軍事。鐘會伐蜀,以預為鎮西長史。及會反,僚佐並遇害,唯預以智獲免,增邑千一百五十戶。

與車騎將軍賈充等定律令,既成,預為之注解,乃奏之曰:「法者,蓋繩墨之斷例,非窮理盡性之書也。故文約而例直,聽省而禁簡。例直易見,禁簡難犯。易見則人知所避,難犯則幾于刑厝。刑之本在於簡直,故必審名分。審名分者,必忍小理。古之刑書,銘之鐘鼎,鑄之金石,所以遠塞異端,使無淫巧也。今所注皆綱羅法意,格之以名分。使用之者執名例以審趣舍,伸繩墨之直,去析薪之理也。」詔班於天下。

泰始中,守河南尹。預以京師王化之始,自近及遠,凡所施論,務崇大體。受詔為黜陟之課,其略曰:

臣聞上古之政,因循自然,虛己委誠,而信順之道應,神感心通,而天下之理得。逮至淳樸漸散,彰美顯惡,設官分職,以頒爵祿,弘宣六典,以詳考察。然猶倚明哲之輔,建忠貞之司,使名不得越功而獨美,功不得後名而獨隱,皆疇咨博詢,敷納以言。及至末世,不能紀遠而求於密微,疑諸心而信耳目,疑耳目而信簡書。簡書愈繁,官方愈偽,法令滋章,巧飾彌多。昔漢之刺史,亦歲終奏事,不制算課,而清濁粗舉。魏氏考課,即京房之遺意,其文可謂至密。然由於累細以違其體,故歷代不能通也。豈若申唐堯之舊,去密就簡,則簡而易從也。夫宣盡物理,神而明之,存乎其人。去人而任法,則以傷理。今科舉優劣,莫若委任達官,各考所統。在官一年以後,每歲言優者一人為上第,劣者一人為下第,因計偕以名聞。如此六載,主者總集采案,其六歲處優舉者超用之,六歲處劣舉者奏免之,其優多劣少者敘用之,劣多優少者左遷之。今考課之品,所對不鈞,誠有難易。若以難取優,以易而否,主者固當准量輕重,微加降殺,不足復曲以法盡也。《己丑詔書》以考課難成,聽通薦例。薦例之理,即亦取於風聲。六年頓薦,黜陟無漸,又非古者三考之意也。今每歲一考,則積優以成陟,累劣以取黜。以士君子之心相處,未有官故六年六黜清能,六進否劣者也。監司將亦隨而彈之。若令上下公相容過,此為清議大頹,亦無取於黜陟也。

司隸校尉石鑒以宿憾奏預,免職。時虜寇隴石,以預為安西軍司,給兵三百人,騎百匹。到長安,更除秦州刺史,領東羌校尉、輕車將軍、假節。屬虜兵強盛,石鑒時為安西將軍,使預出兵擊之。預以虜乘勝馬肥,而官軍懸乏,宜並力大運,須春進討,陳五不可、四不須。鑒大怒,復奏預擅飾城門官舍,稽乏軍興,遣御史檻車征詣廷尉。以預尚主,在八議,以侯贖論,。其後隴右之事卒如預策。

是時朝廷皆以預明於籌略,會匈奴帥劉猛舉兵反,自并州西及河東、平陽,詔預以散侯定計省闥,俄拜度支尚書。預乃奏立藉田,建安邊,論處軍國之要。又作人排新器,興常平倉,定穀價,較鹽運,制課調,內以利國外以救邊者五十餘條,皆納焉。石鑒自軍還,論功不實,為預所糾,遂相仇恨,言論喧嘩,並坐免官,以侯兼本職。數年,復拜度支尚書。

元皇后梓宮將遷于峻陽陵。舊制,既葬,帝及群臣即吉。尚書奏,皇太子亦宜釋服。預議「皇太子宜復古典,以諒闇終制」,從之。

預以時曆差舛,不應晷度,奏上《二元乾度曆》,行於世。預又以孟津渡險,有覆沒之患,請建河橋于富平津。議者以為殷周所都,曆聖賢而不作者,必不可立故也。預曰:「『造舟為梁』,則河橋之謂也。」及橋成,帝從百僚臨會,舉觴屬預曰:「非君,此橋不立也。」對曰:「非陛下之明,臣亦不得施其微巧。」周廟欹器,至漢東京猶在御坐。漢末喪亂,不復存,形制遂絕。預創意造成,奏上之,帝甚嘉歎焉。咸寧四年秋,大霖雨,蝗蟲起。預上疏多陳農要,事在《食貨志》。預在內七年,損益萬機,不可勝數,朝野稱美,號曰「杜武庫」,言其無所不有也。

時帝密有滅吳之計,而朝議多違,唯預、羊祜、張華與帝意合。祜病,舉預自代,因以本官假節行平東將軍,領征南軍司。及祜卒,拜鎮南大將軍、都督荊州諸軍事,給追鋒車,第二駙馬。預既至鎮,繕甲兵,耀威武,乃簡精銳,襲吳西陵督張政,大破之,以功增封三百六十五戶。政,吳之名將也,據要害之地,恥以無備取敗,不以所喪之實告于孫皓。預欲間吳邊將,乃表還其所獲之眾於皓。皓果召政,遣武昌監劉憲代之。故大軍臨至,使其將帥移易,以成傾蕩之勢。

預處分既定,乃啟請伐吳之期。帝報待明年方欲大舉,預表陳至計曰:

自閏月以來,賊但敕嚴,下無兵上。以理勢推之,賊之窮計,力不兩完,必先護上流,勤保夏口以東,以延視息,無緣多兵西上,空其國都。而陛下過聽,便用委棄大計,縱敵患生。此誠國之遠圖,使舉而有敗,勿舉可也。事為之制,務從完牢。若或有成,則開太平之基;不成,不過費損日月之間,何惜而不一試之!若當須後年,天時人事不得如常,臣恐其更難也。陛下宿議,分命臣等隨界分進,其所禁持,東西同符,萬安之舉,未有傾敗之慮。臣心實了,不敢以曖昧之見自取後累。惟陛下察之。

預旬月之中又上表曰:

羊祜與朝臣多不同,不先博畫而密與陛下共施此計,故益令多異。凡事當以利害相較,今此舉十有八九利,其一二止於無功耳。其言破敗之形亦不可得,直是計不出已,功不在身,各恥其前言,故守之也。自頃朝廷事無大小,異意鋒起,雖人心不同,亦由恃恩不慮後難,故輕相同異也。昔漢宣帝議趙充國所上,事效之後,詰責諸議者,皆叩頭而謝,以塞異端也。自秋已來,討賊之形頗露。若今中止,孫皓怖而生計,或徙都武昌,更完修江南諸城,遠其居人,城不可攻,野無所掠,積大船于夏口,則明年之計或無所及。

時帝與中書令張華圍棋,而預表適至。華推枰斂手曰:「陛下聖明神武,朝野清晏,國富兵強,號令如一,吳主荒淫驕虐,誅殺賢能,當今討之,可不勞而定。帝乃許之。

預乙太康元年正月,陳兵於江陵,遣參軍樊顯、尹林、鄧圭、襄陽太守周奇等率眾循江西上,授以節度,旬日之間,累克城邑,皆如預策焉。又遣牙門管定、周旨、伍巢等率奇兵八百,泛舟夜渡,以襲樂鄉,多張旗幟,起火巴山,出於要害之地,以奪賊心。吳都督孫歆震恐,與伍延書曰:「北來諸軍,乃飛渡江也。」吳之男女降者萬餘口,旨、巢等伏兵樂鄉城外。歆遣軍出拒王浚,大敗而還。旨等發伏兵,隨歆軍而入,歆不覺,直至帳下,虜歆而還。故軍中為之謠曰:「以計代戰一當萬。」於是進逼江陵。吳督將伍延偽請降而列兵登陴,預攻克之。既平上流,於是沅湘以南,至於交廣,吳之州郡皆望風歸命,奉送印綬,預仗節稱詔而綏撫之。凡所斬及生獲吳都督、監軍十四,牙門、郡守百二十餘人。又因兵威,徙將士屯戍之家以實江北,南郡故地各樹之長吏,荊土肅然,吳人赴者如歸矣。

王浚先列上得孫歆頭,預後生送歆,洛中以為大笑。時眾軍會議,或曰:「百年之寇,未可盡克。今向暑,水潦方降,疾疫將起,宜俟來冬,更為大舉。」預曰:「昔樂毅藉濟西一戰以並強齊,今兵威已振,譬如破竹,數節之後,皆迎刃而解,無復著手處也。」遂指授群帥,徑造秣陵。所過城邑,莫不束手。議者乃以書謝之。

孫皓既平,振旅凱入,以功進爵當陽縣侯,增邑並前九千六百戶,封子耽為亭侯,千戶,賜絹八千匹。

初,攻江陵,吳人知預病癭,憚其智計,以瓠系狗頸示之,每大樹似癭,輒斫使白,題曰:「杜預頸。」及城平,盡捕殺之。

預既還鎮,累陳家世吏職,武非其功,請退。不許。

預以天下雖安,忘戰必危,勤于講武,修立泮宮,江漢懷德,化被萬里。攻破山夷,錯置屯營,分據要害之地,以固維持之勢。又修邵信臣遺跡,激用滍淯諸水以浸原田萬餘頃,分疆刊石,使有定分,公私同利。眾庶賴之,號曰「杜父」。舊水道唯沔漢達江陵千數百里,北無通路。又巴丘湖,沅湘之會,表裏山川,實為險固,荊蠻之所恃也。預乃開楊口,起夏水達巴陵千餘里,內瀉長江之險,外通零桂之漕。南土歌之曰:「後世無叛由杜翁,孰識智名與勇功。」預公家之事,知無不為。凡所興造,必考度始終,鮮有敗事。或譏其意碎者,預曰:「禹稷之功,期於濟世,所庶幾也。」

預好為後世名,常言「高岸為谷,深谷為陵」,刻石為二碑,紀其勳績,一沈萬山之下,一立峴山之上,曰:「焉知此後不為陵谷乎!」

預身不跨馬,射不穿劄,而每任大事,輒居將率之列。結交接物,恭而有禮,問無所隱,誨人不倦,敏於事而慎於言。既立功之後,從容無事,乃耽思經籍,為《春秋左氏經傳集解》。又參考眾家譜第,謂之《釋例》。又作《盟會圖》、《春秋長曆》,備成一家之學,比老乃成。又撰《女記贊》。當時論者謂預文義質直,世人未之重,唯秘書監摯虞賞之,曰:「左丘明本為《春秋》作傳,而《左傳》遂自孤行,《釋例》本為《傳》設,而所發明何但《左傳》,故亦孤行。」時王濟解相馬,又甚愛之,而和嶠頗聚斂,預常稱「濟有馬癖,嶠有錢癖」。武帝聞之,謂預曰:「卿有何癖?」對曰:「臣有《左傳》癖。」

預在鎮,數餉遺洛中貴要。或問其故,預曰:「吾但恐為害,不求益也。」

預初在荊州,因宴集,醉臥齋中。外人聞嘔吐聲,竊窺於戶,止見一大蛇垂頭而吐。聞者異之。其後徵為司隸校尉,加位特進,行次鄧縣而卒,時年六十三。帝甚嗟悼,追贈征南大將軍、開府儀同三司,諡曰成。預先為遺令曰:「古不合葬,明於終始之理,同於無有也。中古聖人改而合之,蓋以別合無在,更緣生以示教也。自此以來,大人君子或合或否,未能知生,安能知死,故各以己意所欲也。吾往為台郎,嘗以公事使過密縣之邢山。山上有塚,問耕父,云是鄭大夫祭仲,或云子產之塚也,遂率從者祭而觀焉。其造塚居山之頂,四望周達,連山體南北之正而邪東北,向新鄭城,意不忘本也。其隧道唯塞其後而空其前,不填之,示藏無珍寶,不取於重深也。山多美石不用,必集洧水自然之石以為塚藏,貴不勞工巧,而此石不入世用也。君子尚其有情,小人無利可動,曆千載無毀,儉之致也。吾去春入朝,因郭氏喪亡,緣陪陵舊義,自表營洛陽城東首陽之南為將來兆域。而所得地中有小山,上無舊塚。其高顯雖未足比邢山,然東奉二陵,西瞻宮闕,南觀伊洛,北望夷叔,曠然遠覽,情之所安也。故遂表樹開道,為一定之制,至時皆用洛水圓石,開遂道南向,儀制取法于鄭大夫,欲以儉自完耳。棺器小斂之事,皆當稱此。」子孫一以遵之。子錫嗣。