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About David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay
Recovery and relapse In the years after 1390 King Robert recovered some measure of political influence within the kingdom by promoting his son and heir, David, earl of Carrick, as an active participant in royal government. In February 1393 the Fife guardianship was brought to an end. But although Robert technically took back full personal authority after the termination of Fife's guardianship, in reality he continued to govern in association with his brother and with Carrick. Nevertheless the period 1393-7 provides instances of his assuming a more active and assertive role. In the winter of 1395-6, for example, he moved decisively to annul Carrick's marriage to Elizabeth Dunbar, daughter of George, earl of March, a match which had been concluded without royal consent.
David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay
David Stewart (24 October 1378 – 26 March 1402) was prince and heir to the throne of Scotland from 1390 and the first Duke of Rothesay from 1398. He was named after his great-great-uncle, David II of Scotland, and also held the titles of Earl of Atholl (1398–1402) and Earl of Carrick (1390–1402). He shares with his uncle and arch-rival, Robert Stewart, first Duke of Albany, the distinction of being first Dukes to be created in the Scottish Peerage. David never became King. His marriage to Marjorie Douglas, daughter of Archibald the Grim, the third Earl of Douglas, was without issue.
David Stewart, as eldest son of the King Robert III of Scotland and his Queen, Anabella Drummond, was heir to the throne of Scotland. In 1399, at the age of 21, he was appointed "Lieutenant" of the kingdom, partly due to the infirmity of his father and at a time of civil unrest and conflict with England. Although this gave him an opportunity to flex political muscle, his room for manoeuvre was significantly constrained, however, by a combination of youthful inexperience and the ultimately mortal rivalry of his uncle, Robert Stewart, who had been protector of the kingdom prior to David's lieutenancy. Albany was a ruthlessly effective politician with a well developed power base, and his designs on the throne were well understood. David's subsequent marriage to Marjorie, forming a Douglas alliance with the throne, also caused a serious rupture with George Dunbar the tenth Earl of March, whose daughter Elizabeth had originally been betrothed to the Prince. David is known to have involved himself in the political life of the kingdom, playing a role for instance in peace negotiations with John of Gaunt in the Marches.
David appears to have had an ally in his mother, the Queen, who had worked to strengthen her son's hand, arranging the great tournament of 1398 in Edinburgh when he was knighted and being present, along with the king, in that same year when David was created Duke of Rothesay, in the same ceremony, performed by Walter Trail, Archbishop of St Andrews, which also created the title Duke of Albany for his uncle. But both the Queen and Archbishop were dead by 1401. His father, the King, appears to have had little ability by that date to influence events effectively.
In late February 1402, while travelling officially to St Andrews, David was arrested just outside the city in a sting operation which had been arranged by Albany, at that time in complicit alliance with Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas. (David's father-in-law, the highly influential third Earl, had died two years before, in 1400.) The pretext for David's arrest was that his lieutenancy had expired. He was initially held captive in St Andrews Castle, and soon afterwards taken to Falkland Palace, Albany's residence in Fife. According to Bower, the prince spent the journey hooded and mounted backwards on a mule. At Falkland David remained a prisoner and shortly died there, reputedly of starvation. A few weeks later, in May 1402, a public enquiry into the circumstances of David's death exonerated Albany of all blame.
Four years later, in 1406, David's younger brother, James Stewart, succeeded Robert III as king (although at that time remaining uncrowned and in captivity in England) while Albany secured himself as de facto ruler of Scotland.
As well as featuring in relevant historical novels by Nigel Tranter, David appears as a principal character in Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth.
- David Stewart, Duke Rothesay, Earl Carrick & Atholl, Steward of Scotland1,2,3
- M, #6497, b. 24 October 1378, d. 26 March 1402
- Father Sir Robert III Stewart, King of Scotland, Earl of Atholl & Carrick4,5 b. c 1337, d. 4 Apr 1406
- Mother Annabella Drummond4,5 b. c 1350, d. c Oct 1401
- David Stewart, Duke Rothesay, Earl Carrick & Atholl, Steward of Scotland was born on 24 October 1378.2,3 He and Elizabeth Dunbar obtained a marriage license on 28 August 1395; Date of dispensation for being related in the 3rd degree of consanguinity.2,3 David Stewart, Duke Rothesay, Earl Carrick & Atholl, Steward of Scotland and Elizabeth Dunbar obtained a marriage license on 11 March 1397; 2nd dispensation granted after marriage.2,3 David Stewart, Duke Rothesay, Earl Carrick & Atholl, Steward of Scotland and Elizabeth Dunbar were divorced circa 1400; Repudiated.2,3 David Stewart, Duke Rothesay, Earl Carrick & Atholl, Steward of Scotland married Marjory Douglas, daughter of Sir Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas, Earl of Wigtown, Lord of Galloway & Bothwell and Joanna Moray, in February 1400 at Bothwell, Lanarkshire, Scotland.2,3 David Stewart, Duke Rothesay, Earl Carrick & Atholl, Steward of Scotland died on 26 March 1402 at Falkland, Fifeshire, Scotland, at age 23; Buried at Lundors, Inverness.2,3
- Family 1 Elizabeth Dunbar d. a 24 Apr 1438
- Family 2 Marjory Douglas
- 1.[S523] Unknown author, Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, p. 318.
- 2.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 570.
- 3.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 648.
- 4.[S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 568.
- 5.[S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 646.
- From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p217.htm#i6497
- David Stewart, 1st and last Duke of Rothesay1
- M, #102104, b. 24 October 1378, d. 26 March 1402
- Last Edited=20 Jan 2011
- David Stewart, 1st and last Duke of Rothesay was born on 24 October 1378.1 He was the son of Robert III Stewart, King of Scotland and Annabel Drummond.2 He married Marjorie Douglas, daughter of Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas and Joan Moray, in February 1399/0 at Bothwell Church, Scotland.1 He died on 26 March 1402 at age 23 at Falkland Palace, Fife, Scotland, said to have been starved to death, but more likely died from dysentery, without issue.1,3 He was buried at Lindores Abbey, Fife, Scotland.1
- He was created 1st Earl of Carrick [Scotland] between 19 April 1390 and 2 January 1391.1,4 He was created 1st Duke of Rothesay [Scotland] on 28 April 1398.3 He was created 1st Earl of Atholl [Scotland] on 6 September 1398.3
- On his death, his titles became extinct.4
- 1.[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 227. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
- 2.[S323] Sir James Balfour Paul, The Scots Peerage: founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's The Peerage of Scotland (Edinburgh, Scotland: David Douglas, 1904), volume I, page 17. Hereinafter cited as The Scots Peerage.
- 3.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 311. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
- 4.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 58.
- From: [http://www.thepeerage.com/p10211.htm#i102104]
- 2. Dukes of Scotland
- The Dukedom, the first and highest rank in the peerage, was introduced into Scotland as a peerage title by King Robert III on 28 April 1398 when he created his eldest son, David, known as "the Steward of Scotland", Duke of Rothesay. It would seem that from its creation it was, like the Dukedom of Cornwall in England, intended to be held by the Heir to the Throne. It was not until an Act of Parliament, 27 November 1469, that the Lordship of Bute, with the Castle of Rothesay and other lands, were formally settled on the first born son of the Kings of Scotland. Accordingly each such son has since that period, from either their birth or their father's succession to the Throne, been considered as Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick and Baron of Renfrew as also Prince and Steward of Scotland and Lord of the Isles. The second Dukedom to be created in Scotland was also conferred on 28 April 1398 upon Robert Stewart, Earl of Fife and uncle of the Duke of Rothesay, under the title of Duke of Albany (being defined as those parts of Scotland that are north of the Firths of Clyde and Forth). .... etc.
- 3. The Later Scottish Kings (1371 - 1603)
- Robert III (1390-1406)
- born 1337
- mar. c. 1367 Annabella Drummond (b. c. 1350; d. c. Oct 1401), dau. of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall, by his wife Mary Montifex, dau. of Sir William Montifex
- 1. David, cr. betw. 19 Apr 1390 and 2 Jan 1391 Earl of Carrick, 28 Apr 1398 Duke of Rothesay and 6 Sep 1398 Earl of Atholl (b. 24 Oct 1378; dvp. and sp. 26 Mar 1402), mar. Feb 1399/1400 Lady Marjorie Douglas (mar. (2) 1403 Sir Walter Haliburton of Dirleton; d. bef. 11 May 1421), only dau. of Archibald [Douglas]. 3rd Earl of Douglas, by his wife Lady Joan Moray, widow of Sir Thomas Moray, Lord of Bothwell, and only child and hrss. of Maurice [Moray], 1st Earl of Strathearn
- 2. James, Duke of Rothesay later James I, King of Scotland
- 3. Robert (d. unm.)
- 1. Margaret (d. betw. 26 Jan 1449 and Sep 1456), mar. bef. 1390 Alexander [Douglas], 4th Earl of Douglas later 1st Duke of Touraine, and had issue
- 2. Mary (d. c. 1458), mar. (1) after 24 May 1397 George [Douglas], 1st Earl of Angus, (2) 1404 Sir James Kennedy, Yr. of Dunure; (3) 13 Nov 1413 Sir William Graham of Kincardine and Old Montrose; and (4) 1425 Sir William Edmondstone of Duntreath, and had issue by all four husbands
- 3. Egidia (d. unm.)
- 4. Elizabeth (d. bef. 1411), mar. bef. 10 Nov 1387 Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith (d. 1441), and had issue
- died 4 Apr 1406
- suc. by son
- From: http://www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk/online/ - SEARCH SITE FOR STEWART
- Archibald [Douglas], 3rd Earl of Douglas
- illegitimate son of Sir James Douglas "the Good", Lord of Douglas
- born c. 1325
- mar. after 23 Jul 1362 Lady Joan Moray (widow of Sir Thomas Moray, Lord of Bothwell; d. bef. Aug 1409), only child and hrss. of Maurice [Moray], 1st Earl of Strathearn, by his wife Joan Campbell, widow of Malise, 7th Earl of Strathearn, and of John [Campbell], 1st Earl of Atholl, and dau. of Sir John Menteith of Rusky
- 1. Sir Archibald Douglas, later 4th Earl of Douglas later 1st Duke of Touraine
- 2. Sir James Douglas, later 1st Earl of Avondale later 7th Earl of Douglas
- 1. Lady Marjorie Douglas (d. bef. 11 May 1421), mar. (1) Feb 1399/1400 David, Prince of Scotland and Duke of Rothesay (b. 24 Oct 1378; dvp. and sp. 26 Mar 1402), 1st son and heir ap. of Robert III, King of Scotland, by his wife Annabella Drummond, dau. of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall, and (2) 1403 Sir Walter Haliburton of Dirleton, Treasurer of Scotland
- illegitimate child
- 3. Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale (d. c. 1392), mar. c 1387 Lady Egidia Stewart, 2nd dau. of Robert II, King of Scotland, by his second wife Lady Euphemia Randolph, widow of John [Randolph], 3rd Earl of Moray, and dau. of Hugh, 6th Earl of Ross, and had issue: .... etc.
- died bef. 9 Feb 1400/1 (bur. at Bothwell)
- suc. by son
- note named in the settlement of 1342 by his uncle Hugh Douglas, Lord of Douglas; with his cousin the 1st Earl of Douglas at the Battle of Poitiers 1356; Lord Warden of the Marches 1368-1400 ; a Conservator of a truce with the English 1390
- From: http://www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk/online/
Scotland, David van Prince; Earl of Carrick; Duke of Rothesay Male 1378 - 1402 (23 years)
Name Scotland, David van Prince; Earl of Carrick; Duke of Rothesay Suffix Prince; Earl of Carrick; Duke of Rothesay Born 24 Oct 1378 Dumferline, Fife, Scotland Died 26 Mar 1402 Falkland Castle, Fife, Scotland Buried Lindores Abbey, Scotland F
Father Stewart, John (=king Robert III) King of Scots (1390-1406) ; Of Innermeath, b. 1337, Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland , d. 4 Apr 1406, Rothsay castle // Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland Mother Drummond, Annabella of Stobhall; Lady, b. 1340, Perth, Scotland , d. 1401, Scone, Tayside, Scotland Married 13 Mar 1367
Family Douglas, Marjory (Mary), b. Abt 1380, d. 10 May 1421 (Age ~ 41 years) Married 1 Feb 1400 Bothwell Church, Scotland F
. David Stewart, Earl of Carrick (b 24.10.1378, dsp 26.03.1402) m1. (before 1396, div by 1400) Elizabeth Dunbar (dau of George, 10th Earl of Dunbar, 3rd Earl of March) m2. (1400) Mary Douglas (dau of Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas)
Sources [S395] royal_lineage.ged, June 2006.
Scots Peerage states David had a natural son, Nicholas. No source documentation has been found.
David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay's Timeline
October 24, 1378
Dumferline, Fife, Scotland
April 28, 1398
September 6, 1398
March 26, 1402
Falkland Castle, Fife, Scotland
Lindores Abbey, Scotland