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Erich Mendelsohn

Hebrew: אריך מנדלסון
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Allenstein, Ostpreussen, Deutschland (Germany)
Death: September 15, 1953 (66)
San Francisco, United States (Cancer)
Immediate Family:

Son of David Mendelsohn and Emma Jaruslawsky
Husband of Luise Mendelsohn
Father of Marie-Louise Esther Joseph
Brother of Henriette Hale; Max Mendelsohn; Jenny Mendelsohn; Paul Mendelsohn and Johannes Julius Mendelsohn

Occupation: Architect
Managed by: David Eli Lisbona
Last Updated:

About Erich Mendelsohn

http://www.deutschesfachbuch.de/info/detail.php?isbn=3775714146&wor...

Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 September 1953)[1] was a Jewish German architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s, as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for department stores and cinemas.


Erich Mendelsohn was born in Allenstein (Olsztyn), East Prussia. He was the fifth of six children; his mother was a hatmaker and his father a shopkeeper. He attended a humanist Gymnasium in Allenstein and continued with commercial training in Berlin.

Einstein Tower in Potsdam In 1906 he took up the study of national economics at the University of Munich. In 1908 he began studying architecture at the Technical University of Berlin; two years later he transferred to the Technical University of Munich, where in 1912 he graduated cum laude. In Munich he was influenced by Theodor Fischer, an architect whose own work fell between neo-classical and Jugendstil, and who had been teaching there since 1907; Mendelsohn also made contact with members of Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke, two groups of expressionist artists.


From 1912 to 1914 he worked as an independent architect in Munich. In 1915 he married the cellist Luise Maas. Through her, he met the cello-playing astrophysicist Erwin Finlay Freundlich. Freundlich was the brother of Herbert Freundlich, the deputy director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie (now the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society in the Dahlem district of Berlin). Freundlich wished to build a suitable astronomical observatory to experimentally confirm Einstein's Theory of Relativity.

Hat Factory in Luckenwalde Through his relationship with Freundlich, Mendelsohn had the opportunity to design and build the Einsteinturm ("Einstein Tower"). This relationship and also the family friendship with the Luckenwalde hat manufacturers Salomon and Gustav Herrmann helped Mendelsohn to an early success. From then until 1918, what is known of Mendelsohn is, above all, a multiplicity of sketches of factories and other large buildings, often in small format or in letters from the front to his wife.


At the end of 1918, upon his return from World War I, he settled his practice in Berlin. The Einsteinturm and the hat factory in Luckenwalde established his reputation. As early as 1924 Wasmuths Monatshefte für Baukunst (a series of monthly magazines on architecture) produced a booklet about his work. In that same year, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius, he was one of the founders of the progressive architectural group known as Der Ring.

Red Flag Textile Factory, Saint Petersburg His practice employed as many as forty people, among them, as a trainee, Julius Posener, later an architectural historian. Mendelsohn's work encapsulated the consumerism of the Weimar Republic, most particularly in his shops: most famously the Schocken Department Stores. Nonetheless he was also interested in the socialist experiments being made in the USSR, where he designed the Red Banner Textile Factory in 1926 (together with the senior architect of this project, Hyppolit Pretreaus). His Mossehaus newspaper offices and Universum cinema were also highly influential on art deco and Streamline Moderne.

Weizmann residence, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot In 1926, he bought an old villa, and in 1928, he designed Rupenhorn, nearly 4000 m², which the family occupied two years later. With an expensive publication about his new home, illustrated by Amédée Ozenfant among others, Mendelsohn became the subject of envy.

De La Warr Pavilion in Bexhill on Sea In the spring of 1933, in the wake of growing antisemitism and the rise of the Nazis in Germany, he fled to England. His fortune was seized by the Nazis, his name struck from the list of the German Architects' Union, and he was excluded from the Prussian Academy of Arts.


In England he began a business partnership with Serge Chermayeff, which continued until the end of 1936. Mendelsohn had long known Chaim Weizmann, later President of Israel. At the start of 1934 he began planning on Weizmann's behalf a series of projects in Palestine during the British Mandate. In 1935, he opened an office in Jerusalem and planned Jerusalem stone buildings in the International Style that greatly influenced local architecture.[2] In 1938, after dissolving his London office, he took UK citizenship and changed his name to "Eric." In Palestine, Mendelsohn built many now-famous buildings: Weizmann House and three laboratories at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Anglo-Palestine Bank in Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus, Rambam Hospital in Haifa and others.


From 1941 until his death, Mendelsohn lived in the United States and taught at the University of California, Berkeley. Until the end of World War II his activities were limited by his immigration status to lectures and publications. However, he also served as an advisor to the U.S. government. For instance, in 1943 he collaborated with the U.S. Army and Standard Oil in order to build "German Village", a set of replicas of typical German working-class housing estates, which would be of key importance in acquiring the know-how and experience necessary to carry out the firebombing of Berlin.

In 1945 he established himself in San Francisco. From then until his death in 1953 he undertook various projects, mostly for Jewish communities.

 

Main article: List of works by Erich Mendelsohn

Interior view of the Hat Factory in Luckenwalde

Mossehaus in Berlin

Petersdorff department store in Breslau, now Wrocław

Schocken department store in Chemnitz

Cohen house in London Work hall of the Herrmann hat factory, Luckenwalde (1919-1920)

Einsteinturm (solar observatory on the Telegraphenberg) in Potsdam, 1917 or 1920-1921 (building), 1921-1924 (technical equipment). The building, its expressionistic form giving the impression of concrete as a building material, was mostly built in brick and then covered with plaster. Mendelsohn explained this was because of delivery problems; however, it is presumed that the real reason for the choice of building materials was problems with constructing the casing.
Steinberg hat factory, Herrmann & Co, Luckenwalde (1921-1923) with a strict, angular form
Mossehaus, conversion of the offices and press of Rudolf Mosse, Berlin (1921-1923)
Schocken department store, Nuremberg (1925-1926)
Red Flag Textile Factory, Leningrad, 1926. Mendelsohn authored the building of the power station of the factory; the other buildings were authored by S. O. Ovsyannikov, E. A. Tretyakov, and Hyppolit Pretreaus, who was the senior architect of this project. The complex of buildings of this factory is included in the List of the objects of historical and cultural heritage issued by the government of Saint Petersburg in 2001 (with additions of 2006).
Extension and conversion of Cohen & Epstein department store, Duisburg (1925-1927)
Schocken department store, Stuttgart (1926-1928). The department store, together with the Tagblatt-Turm (1924-1928) of Ernst-Otto Oßwald across the way, constituted an impressive ensemble of modern architecture, and was damaged only lightly in World War II. In 1960, the city of Stuttgart demolished the store, despite international protest. In its place today stands Egon Eiermann's unremarkable department store building (Galeria Kaufhof, previously Horten).
Exhibition pavilion for the Rudolf Mosse publishing house at the Pressa in Cologne (1928)
Woga-Komplex and Universum-Kino (cinema), Berlin (1925-1931)
Schocken department store, Chemnitz (1927-1930), known for its arched front with horizontal strips of windows.
His own home, Am Rupenhorn, Berlin (1928-1930)
Columbushaus, Potsdamer Platz, Berlin (1928-1932), not to be confused with the "Columbia-Haus" in Berlin-Tempelhof, which was torn down in 1938
Jewish youth center, Essen (1930-1933)
The De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex, England (1934). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Cohen House, Chelsea, London (1934-1936). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Weizmann House, Weizmann Institute campus, Rehovot near Tel Aviv (1935-1936)
Built around the same time: a cluster of three buildings on the Weizmann Institute campus, presently housing high-resolution NMR, biological MRI, and the Kimmel Center for Archeology, respectively
Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1934-1940)
Synagogue B'Nai Amoona, now Center of Creative Arts, University City, Missouri (1946-1950)
Maimonides Hospital, San Francisco (1946-1950)
Park Synagogue, Cleveland Heights, Ohio (1947-1951)
Russell House, San Francisco, California (1951)

[edit] Published works (German)

Erich Mendelsohn: Amerika. Bilderbuch eines Architekten (1976) Berlin: Nachdruck Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-70830-2
Erich Mendelsohn: Rußland - Europa - Amerika. Ein architektonischer Querschnitt. (1929) Berlin
Erich Mendelsohn: Neues Haus - Neue Welt. Mit Beiträgen von Amédée Ozenfant und Edwin Redslob (1932) Berlin. Reprinted, with an afterword by Bruno Zevi (1997) Berlin

[edit] References


1.^ "Erich Mendelsohn". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved Jan. 15, 12.

2.^ Incessant Visions, Something Eternal
3.^ Quoted by Mike Davis in Chapter 3 of his work Dead Cities. The original reference, according to this online version of the chapter, is "Design and Construction of Typical German and Japanese Test Structures at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah" 27 May 1943, by the Standard Oil Development Company.

[edit] Bibliography

Bruno Zevi (1999) E. Mendelsohn - The Complete Works. Birkhäuser Verlag ISBN 3-7643-5975-7
Von Eckardt, Wolf (1960) Masters of World Architecture: Eric Mendelsohn London: Mayflower. ISBN 0-8076-0230-2
Whittick, Arnold (1956) Eric Mendelsohn (2nd Ed.). New York: F.W. Dodge Corporation
Erich Mendelsohn: Complete Works of the Architect: Sketches, Designs, Buildings (1992 translation of Berlin, 1930 1st ed.) Princeton Architectural Press
David Palterer (a cura di)"Erich Mendelsohn Nuove riflessioni New reflections" Ed. Tre Lune Edizioni 2004 ISBN 8887355843100 p.ill.
David Palterer, "Tracce di Mendelsohn", in Domus, 646, 1984, pp. 4–9
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Erich and Luise Mendelsohn papers, 1894-1992. Research Library at the Getty Research Institute. Los Angeles, California. The archive, from the estate of Luise Mendelsohn, comprises the personal correspondence and documents of the Mendelsohn family. Includes transcripts or originals of correspondence between Erich and Luise Mendelsohn (1910-1953) reflecting Erich Mendelsohn's architectural, aesthetic, and political development. Other papers concern Erich's architectural legacy and include manuscripts of Luise's unpublished autobiography and biographical notes on her husband, photographs of family life and architectural projects, microfilm copies of typescripts and drawings, audiotapes of lectures, and five drawings by Erich's students.

[edit] Further reading

—, Erich Mendelsohn: Das Gesamtschaffen des Architekten. Skizzen, Entwürfe, Bauten (1930) Berlin, Reprinted by Vieweg-Verlag, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden, 1988, ISBN 3-528-18731-X
—, Erich Mendelsohn - Dynamik und Funktion, Katalog zur Ausstellung des Instituts für Auslandsbeziehungen e. V. (1999) Hatje Canz Verlag
Julius Posener: "Erich Mendelsohn". In: Vorlesungen zur Geschichte der neuen Architektur, special issue of Arch+ for the 75th birthday of Julius Posener. Nr. 48, December 1997, 8-13
Ita Heinze-Mühleib: Erich Mendelsohn. Bauten und Projekte in Palästina (1934-1941)
Sigrid Achenbach: Erich Mendelsohn 1887-1953 : Ideen - Bauten - Projekte. Catalog for an exhibit on the 100th anniversary of his birth, Beständen der Kunstbibliothek, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz. Willmuth Arenhövel Verlag, ISBN 3-922912-18-4

List of works by the German architect Erich Mendelsohn.


Outside view of the Taharah Building in Allenstein (Olsztyn)

Inner view of the Hat Factory in Luckenwalde

Mossehaus in Berlin

Rear view of the Einstein Tower in Potsdam

Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem

Petersdorff Shopping Centre in Breslau, now Wrocław (Detail)

Schocken Shopping Centre in Chemnitz Taharah building in Allenstein (1911)

Workers' colony for the Builders' Union in Luckenwalde (1919–1920)
Garden pavilion of the Herrmann family, Luckenwalde (1920)
Work hall of the Herrmann hat factory, Luckenwalde (1919–1920)
Conversion of the administration building of the Hausleben insurance company, Berlin (1920)
Einsteinturm (Observatory on the Telegraphenberg) in Potsdam, 1917 or 1920–1921 (building), 1921–1924 (technical equipment). The building, its expressionistic form giving the impression of concrete as a building material, was mostly built in brick and then covered with plaster. Mendelsohn explained this was because of delivery problems; however, it is presumed that the real reason for the choice of building materials was problems with constructing the casing.
Double villa on Karolingerplatz, Berlin (1921–1922)
Steinberg hat factory, Herrmann & Co, Luckenwalde (1921–1923) with a strict, angular form
Mossehaus, conversion of the offices and press of Rudolf Mosse, Berlin (1921–1923)
Weichmann silk factory, Gleiwitz, Schlesien (1922)
Villa of Dr. Sternefeld, Berlin, (1923–1924)
Furs factory of C. A. Herpich and Sons, Berlin (1924–1929)
Schocken department store, Nuremberg (1925–1926)
Red Flag Textile Factory, Leningrad, (1926)
Extension and conversion of Cohen & Epstein department store, Duisburg (1925–1927)
Cottage of Dr. Bejach, Berlin-Steinstücken (1926–1927)
Schocken department store, Stuttgart (1926–1928). The department store, together with the Tagblatt-Turm (1924–1928) of Ernst-Otto Oßwald across the way, constituted an impressive ensemble of modern architecture, and was damaged only lightly in World War II. In 1960, the city Stuttgart demolished both, despite international protest. In its place today stands Egon Eiermann's unremarkable department store building (Galeria Kaufhof, previously Horten).
Exhibition pavilion for the publishing house Rudolf Mosse at the "Pressa" in Cologne (1928)
Rudolf Petersdorff store, Breslau (1927–1928)
Woga-Komplex and Universum-Kino (cinema), Berlin (1925–1931)
Jüdischer Friedhof (Jewish cemetery), Königsberg, East Prussia (1927–1929)
Schocken department store, Chemnitz 1927–1930, known for its arched front with horizontal strips of windows.
His own home, Am Rupenhorn, Berlin (1928–1930)
House of the German Metal Workers' Union, Berlin-Kreuzberg (1928–1930)
Columbus-Haus, Potsdamer Platz, Berlin (1928–1932), originally a store for Galeries Lafayette, not to be confused with the "Columbia-Haus" in Berlin-Tempelhof, which was torn down in 1938
Jewish youth center, Essen (1930–1933)
Doblouggården store, Oslo, Norway (1932). Built by Rudolf Emil Jacobsen from Mendelsohn's plans
The De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex, England (1934). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Nimmo house, Chalfont St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, England (1933–1935). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Cohen House, Chelsea, London (1934–1936). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Gilbey Firm, Camden, London (1935–1936). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Weizmann House, Weizmann Institute campus, Rehovot near Tel Aviv (1935–1936)
Built around the same time: a cluster of three buildings on the Weizmann Institute campus, presently housing high-resolution NMR, biological MRI, and the Kimmel Center for Archeology, respectively
Zalman Schocken villa and library, Jerusalem (1934–1936)
Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1934–1940)
Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (1934–1939)
Anglo-Palestine-Bank, Jaffa Road Jerusalem (1936–1939)
Haifa Municipal Hospital, Haifa (1937–1938)
Synagogue B'Nai Amoona, now Center of Creative Arts, University City, Missouri (1946–1950)
Maimonides Hospital, San Francisco (1946–1950)
Park Synagogue, Cleveland Heights, Ohio (1946–1953)
Russell house, San Francisco (1947–1951)
Emanu-El Synagogue, Grand Rapids, Michigan, (1948–1954)
Mount Zion Synagogue, St. Paul, Minnesota (1950–1954)

About אריך מנדלסון (עברית)

אריך מנדלסון

''''''(Erich Mendelsohn;‏ 21 במרץ 1887 – 15 בספטמבר 1953)[1] היה אדריכל יהודי בעל שם עולמי, אשר עבודתו הושפעה בעיקר מן האסכולות האקספרסיוניסטית והפונקציונליסטית באדריכלות. חותמו של מנדלסון באדריכלות הארץ ישראלית בא לידי ביטוי בשורת מבנים עירוניים בעלי ערך שתכנן בתקופת היישוב[2].

תוכן עניינים 1 חייו 2 עבודתו 3 לקריאה נוספת 4 קישורים חיצוניים 5 הערות שוליים חייו אריך מנדלסון נולד בשנת 1887 בעיר אלנשטיין בפרוסיה המזרחית שבגרמניה (כיום אולשטין בפולין).

עם עליית היטלר לשלטון בגרמניה עבר לאנגליה ולארץ ישראל, ובהן התגורר ופעל במקביל.

מנדלסון, שהיה אדריכל בעל שם עולמי, לא הסתגל לתנאי החיים בארץ ישראל של תקופת המנדט, היגר בשנת 1941 לארצות הברית, ובה נפטר בסן פרנסיסקו בשנת 1953.

בית חיים ויצמן במכון ויצמן למדע ברחובות עבודתו מנדלסון תכנן בגרמניה מפעלי תעשייה, את מגדל איינשטיין בפוטסדאם ואת "כלבו שוקן", רשת בתי המסחר של זלמן שוקן.

בארץ ישראל פתח מנדלסון משרד אדריכלים שפעל במחצית השנייה של שנות ה-30. בין עובדי משרדו היה האדריכל גד אשר שלימים הפך לאדריכל הראשי של מחלקת העבודות הציבוריות. מנדלסון תכנן את ביתו של חיים ויצמן ברחובות, אשר כונה "הארמון". הבית, שנבנה בשנת 1936, התפרס על שטח של 796 מ"ר. עם היבחרו של ויצמן לנשיאות מדינת ישראל, הפך הבית למעונו הרשמי של הנשיא. בשנת 1966, עם פטירתה של ורה ויצמן, הפך הבית למוזיאון, ובשנת 1999 שופץ המקום ושוקם על ידי האדריכל הלל שוקן ונפתח מחדש לציבור. הבית כולל עשרה חדרי מגורים ועוד כ-40 חדרי שירות, ושטחי הגנים המקיפים את הבית משתרעים על פני 44 דונם. בסמוך ל"בית ויצמן" תכנן מנדלסון מספר מבנים ב"מכון זיו" (שהפך לאחר מכן למכון ויצמן למדע).

ב- תל אביב תכנן את המבנה הראשון של מכללת מקס פיין, שהוקם בשנת 1931 בגבול מתחם הנפט ושכונת הרכבת, (שכונת העגלונים).

זלמן שוקן, לקוחו של מנדלסון מתקופת עבודתו בגרמניה, שעלה לארץ ישראל בשנת 1934, הזמין את מנדלסון לתכנן עבורו את מעונו (בית זלמן שוקן) ואת ספריית שוקן בשכונת רחביה בירושלים.

בנוסף לאלה תכנן מנדלסון את בניין בנק אנגלו-פלשתינה בירושלים (לשעבר בניין בנק לאומי ברחוב יפו מול כיכר ספרא וכיום סניף של לשכת התעסוקה), את בית החולים הדסה הר הצופים בירושלים ואת בית החולים רמב"ם בחיפה.

מנדלסון היה מבין התומכים במיזם אטלנטרופה[3].

לקריאה נוספת זיוה שטרנהל, "אריך מנדלסון – מברלין לירושלים", אלפיים 32, 2008. David Palterer (a cura di) "Erich Mendelsohn. Nuove riflessioni New riflections Tre Lune Edizioni Mantova 2004 David Palterer, "Tracce di Mendelsohn", in Domus, 646, 1984, pp. 4-9 קישורים חיצוניים מיזמי קרן ויקימדיה ויקישיתוף תמונות ומדיה בוויקישיתוף: אריך מנדלסון בית ויצמן , באתר של מכון ויצמן למדע נועם דביר, לגלות את מנדלסון מחדש , עכבר העיר, 14 בדצמבר 2009 מיכאל יעקובסון: חזיונות בלתי פוסקים: סרט חדש על אריך מנדלסון , 1.12.11, Xnet. דוקי דרור, חסר בית: דוקי דרור על האדריכל אריך מנדלסון , באתר ynet, 18 בדצמבר 2011 קשת רוזנבלום, אריך מנדלסון, האדריכל שחלם על אחוות העמים השמיים , באתר הארץ, 19 בדצמבר 2012 מיכאל יעקובסון: וילה ויצמן, יצירת המופת האדריכלית של אריך מנדלסון, נפתחת מחדש , 5.7.2017, xnet מיכאל יעקובסון: הכי קרובה למעון ראש הממשלה בירושלים: פנינה אדריכלית נפתחת באופן נדיר , 21 ביוני 2018, xnet https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%90%D7%A8%D7%99%D7%9A_%D7%9E%D7%A0...

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http://www.deutschesfachbuch.de/info/detail.php?isbn=3775714146&wor...

Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 September 1953)[1] was a Jewish German architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s, as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for department stores and cinemas.


Erich Mendelsohn was born in Allenstein (Olsztyn), East Prussia. He was the fifth of six children; his mother was a hatmaker and his father a shopkeeper. He attended a humanist Gymnasium in Allenstein and continued with commercial training in Berlin.

Einstein Tower in Potsdam In 1906 he took up the study of national economics at the University of Munich. In 1908 he began studying architecture at the Technical University of Berlin; two years later he transferred to the Technical University of Munich, where in 1912 he graduated cum laude. In Munich he was influenced by Theodor Fischer, an architect whose own work fell between neo-classical and Jugendstil, and who had been teaching there since 1907; Mendelsohn also made contact with members of Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke, two groups of expressionist artists.


From 1912 to 1914 he worked as an independent architect in Munich. In 1915 he married the cellist Luise Maas. Through her, he met the cello-playing astrophysicist Erwin Finlay Freundlich. Freundlich was the brother of Herbert Freundlich, the deputy director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie (now the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society in the Dahlem district of Berlin). Freundlich wished to build a suitable astronomical observatory to experimentally confirm Einstein's Theory of Relativity.

Hat Factory in Luckenwalde Through his relationship with Freundlich, Mendelsohn had the opportunity to design and build the Einsteinturm ("Einstein Tower"). This relationship and also the family friendship with the Luckenwalde hat manufacturers Salomon and Gustav Herrmann helped Mendelsohn to an early success. From then until 1918, what is known of Mendelsohn is, above all, a multiplicity of sketches of factories and other large buildings, often in small format or in letters from the front to his wife.


At the end of 1918, upon his return from World War I, he settled his practice in Berlin. The Einsteinturm and the hat factory in Luckenwalde established his reputation. As early as 1924 Wasmuths Monatshefte für Baukunst (a series of monthly magazines on architecture) produced a booklet about his work. In that same year, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius, he was one of the founders of the progressive architectural group known as Der Ring.

Red Flag Textile Factory, Saint Petersburg His practice employed as many as forty people, among them, as a trainee, Julius Posener, later an architectural historian. Mendelsohn's work encapsulated the consumerism of the Weimar Republic, most particularly in his shops: most famously the Schocken Department Stores. Nonetheless he was also interested in the socialist experiments being made in the USSR, where he designed the Red Banner Textile Factory in 1926 (together with the senior architect of this project, Hyppolit Pretreaus). His Mossehaus newspaper offices and Universum cinema were also highly influential on art deco and Streamline Moderne.

Weizmann residence, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot In 1926, he bought an old villa, and in 1928, he designed Rupenhorn, nearly 4000 m², which the family occupied two years later. With an expensive publication about his new home, illustrated by Amédée Ozenfant among others, Mendelsohn became the subject of envy.

De La Warr Pavilion in Bexhill on Sea In the spring of 1933, in the wake of growing antisemitism and the rise of the Nazis in Germany, he fled to England. His fortune was seized by the Nazis, his name struck from the list of the German Architects' Union, and he was excluded from the Prussian Academy of Arts.


In England he began a business partnership with Serge Chermayeff, which continued until the end of 1936. Mendelsohn had long known Chaim Weizmann, later President of Israel. At the start of 1934 he began planning on Weizmann's behalf a series of projects in Palestine during the British Mandate. In 1935, he opened an office in Jerusalem and planned Jerusalem stone buildings in the International Style that greatly influenced local architecture.[2] In 1938, after dissolving his London office, he took UK citizenship and changed his name to "Eric." In Palestine, Mendelsohn built many now-famous buildings: Weizmann House and three laboratories at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Anglo-Palestine Bank in Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus, Rambam Hospital in Haifa and others.


From 1941 until his death, Mendelsohn lived in the United States and taught at the University of California, Berkeley. Until the end of World War II his activities were limited by his immigration status to lectures and publications. However, he also served as an advisor to the U.S. government. For instance, in 1943 he collaborated with the U.S. Army and Standard Oil in order to build "German Village", a set of replicas of typical German working-class housing estates, which would be of key importance in acquiring the know-how and experience necessary to carry out the firebombing of Berlin.

In 1945 he established himself in San Francisco. From then until his death in 1953 he undertook various projects, mostly for Jewish communities.

 

Main article: List of works by Erich Mendelsohn

Interior view of the Hat Factory in Luckenwalde

Mossehaus in Berlin

Petersdorff department store in Breslau, now Wrocław

Schocken department store in Chemnitz

Cohen house in London Work hall of the Herrmann hat factory, Luckenwalde (1919-1920)

Einsteinturm (solar observatory on the Telegraphenberg) in Potsdam, 1917 or 1920-1921 (building), 1921-1924 (technical equipment). The building, its expressionistic form giving the impression of concrete as a building material, was mostly built in brick and then covered with plaster. Mendelsohn explained this was because of delivery problems; however, it is presumed that the real reason for the choice of building materials was problems with constructing the casing.
Steinberg hat factory, Herrmann & Co, Luckenwalde (1921-1923) with a strict, angular form
Mossehaus, conversion of the offices and press of Rudolf Mosse, Berlin (1921-1923)
Schocken department store, Nuremberg (1925-1926)
Red Flag Textile Factory, Leningrad, 1926. Mendelsohn authored the building of the power station of the factory; the other buildings were authored by S. O. Ovsyannikov, E. A. Tretyakov, and Hyppolit Pretreaus, who was the senior architect of this project. The complex of buildings of this factory is included in the List of the objects of historical and cultural heritage issued by the government of Saint Petersburg in 2001 (with additions of 2006).
Extension and conversion of Cohen & Epstein department store, Duisburg (1925-1927)
Schocken department store, Stuttgart (1926-1928). The department store, together with the Tagblatt-Turm (1924-1928) of Ernst-Otto Oßwald across the way, constituted an impressive ensemble of modern architecture, and was damaged only lightly in World War II. In 1960, the city of Stuttgart demolished the store, despite international protest. In its place today stands Egon Eiermann's unremarkable department store building (Galeria Kaufhof, previously Horten).
Exhibition pavilion for the Rudolf Mosse publishing house at the Pressa in Cologne (1928)
Woga-Komplex and Universum-Kino (cinema), Berlin (1925-1931)
Schocken department store, Chemnitz (1927-1930), known for its arched front with horizontal strips of windows.
His own home, Am Rupenhorn, Berlin (1928-1930)
Columbushaus, Potsdamer Platz, Berlin (1928-1932), not to be confused with the "Columbia-Haus" in Berlin-Tempelhof, which was torn down in 1938
Jewish youth center, Essen (1930-1933)
The De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex, England (1934). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Cohen House, Chelsea, London (1934-1936). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Weizmann House, Weizmann Institute campus, Rehovot near Tel Aviv (1935-1936)
Built around the same time: a cluster of three buildings on the Weizmann Institute campus, presently housing high-resolution NMR, biological MRI, and the Kimmel Center for Archeology, respectively
Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1934-1940)
Synagogue B'Nai Amoona, now Center of Creative Arts, University City, Missouri (1946-1950)
Maimonides Hospital, San Francisco (1946-1950)
Park Synagogue, Cleveland Heights, Ohio (1947-1951)
Russell House, San Francisco, California (1951)

[edit] Published works (German)

Erich Mendelsohn: Amerika. Bilderbuch eines Architekten (1976) Berlin: Nachdruck Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-70830-2
Erich Mendelsohn: Rußland - Europa - Amerika. Ein architektonischer Querschnitt. (1929) Berlin
Erich Mendelsohn: Neues Haus - Neue Welt. Mit Beiträgen von Amédée Ozenfant und Edwin Redslob (1932) Berlin. Reprinted, with an afterword by Bruno Zevi (1997) Berlin

[edit] References


1.^ "Erich Mendelsohn". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved Jan. 15, 12.

2.^ Incessant Visions, Something Eternal
3.^ Quoted by Mike Davis in Chapter 3 of his work Dead Cities. The original reference, according to this online version of the chapter, is "Design and Construction of Typical German and Japanese Test Structures at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah" 27 May 1943, by the Standard Oil Development Company.

[edit] Bibliography

Bruno Zevi (1999) E. Mendelsohn - The Complete Works. Birkhäuser Verlag ISBN 3-7643-5975-7
Von Eckardt, Wolf (1960) Masters of World Architecture: Eric Mendelsohn London: Mayflower. ISBN 0-8076-0230-2
Whittick, Arnold (1956) Eric Mendelsohn (2nd Ed.). New York: F.W. Dodge Corporation
Erich Mendelsohn: Complete Works of the Architect: Sketches, Designs, Buildings (1992 translation of Berlin, 1930 1st ed.) Princeton Architectural Press
David Palterer (a cura di)"Erich Mendelsohn Nuove riflessioni New reflections" Ed. Tre Lune Edizioni 2004 ISBN 8887355843100 p.ill.
David Palterer, "Tracce di Mendelsohn", in Domus, 646, 1984, pp. 4–9
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Erich and Luise Mendelsohn papers, 1894-1992. Research Library at the Getty Research Institute. Los Angeles, California. The archive, from the estate of Luise Mendelsohn, comprises the personal correspondence and documents of the Mendelsohn family. Includes transcripts or originals of correspondence between Erich and Luise Mendelsohn (1910-1953) reflecting Erich Mendelsohn's architectural, aesthetic, and political development. Other papers concern Erich's architectural legacy and include manuscripts of Luise's unpublished autobiography and biographical notes on her husband, photographs of family life and architectural projects, microfilm copies of typescripts and drawings, audiotapes of lectures, and five drawings by Erich's students.

[edit] Further reading

—, Erich Mendelsohn: Das Gesamtschaffen des Architekten. Skizzen, Entwürfe, Bauten (1930) Berlin, Reprinted by Vieweg-Verlag, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden, 1988, ISBN 3-528-18731-X
—, Erich Mendelsohn - Dynamik und Funktion, Katalog zur Ausstellung des Instituts für Auslandsbeziehungen e. V. (1999) Hatje Canz Verlag
Julius Posener: "Erich Mendelsohn". In: Vorlesungen zur Geschichte der neuen Architektur, special issue of Arch+ for the 75th birthday of Julius Posener. Nr. 48, December 1997, 8-13
Ita Heinze-Mühleib: Erich Mendelsohn. Bauten und Projekte in Palästina (1934-1941)
Sigrid Achenbach: Erich Mendelsohn 1887-1953 : Ideen - Bauten - Projekte. Catalog for an exhibit on the 100th anniversary of his birth, Beständen der Kunstbibliothek, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz. Willmuth Arenhövel Verlag, ISBN 3-922912-18-4

List of works by the German architect Erich Mendelsohn.


Outside view of the Taharah Building in Allenstein (Olsztyn)

Inner view of the Hat Factory in Luckenwalde

Mossehaus in Berlin

Rear view of the Einstein Tower in Potsdam

Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem

Petersdorff Shopping Centre in Breslau, now Wrocław (Detail)

Schocken Shopping Centre in Chemnitz Taharah building in Allenstein (1911)

Workers' colony for the Builders' Union in Luckenwalde (1919–1920)
Garden pavilion of the Herrmann family, Luckenwalde (1920)
Work hall of the Herrmann hat factory, Luckenwalde (1919–1920)
Conversion of the administration building of the Hausleben insurance company, Berlin (1920)
Einsteinturm (Observatory on the Telegraphenberg) in Potsdam, 1917 or 1920–1921 (building), 1921–1924 (technical equipment). The building, its expressionistic form giving the impression of concrete as a building material, was mostly built in brick and then covered with plaster. Mendelsohn explained this was because of delivery problems; however, it is presumed that the real reason for the choice of building materials was problems with constructing the casing.
Double villa on Karolingerplatz, Berlin (1921–1922)
Steinberg hat factory, Herrmann & Co, Luckenwalde (1921–1923) with a strict, angular form
Mossehaus, conversion of the offices and press of Rudolf Mosse, Berlin (1921–1923)
Weichmann silk factory, Gleiwitz, Schlesien (1922)
Villa of Dr. Sternefeld, Berlin, (1923–1924)
Furs factory of C. A. Herpich and Sons, Berlin (1924–1929)
Schocken department store, Nuremberg (1925–1926)
Red Flag Textile Factory, Leningrad, (1926)
Extension and conversion of Cohen & Epstein department store, Duisburg (1925–1927)
Cottage of Dr. Bejach, Berlin-Steinstücken (1926–1927)
Schocken department store, Stuttgart (1926–1928). The department store, together with the Tagblatt-Turm (1924–1928) of Ernst-Otto Oßwald across the way, constituted an impressive ensemble of modern architecture, and was damaged only lightly in World War II. In 1960, the city Stuttgart demolished both, despite international protest. In its place today stands Egon Eiermann's unremarkable department store building (Galeria Kaufhof, previously Horten).
Exhibition pavilion for the publishing house Rudolf Mosse at the "Pressa" in Cologne (1928)
Rudolf Petersdorff store, Breslau (1927–1928)
Woga-Komplex and Universum-Kino (cinema), Berlin (1925–1931)
Jüdischer Friedhof (Jewish cemetery), Königsberg, East Prussia (1927–1929)
Schocken department store, Chemnitz 1927–1930, known for its arched front with horizontal strips of windows.
His own home, Am Rupenhorn, Berlin (1928–1930)
House of the German Metal Workers' Union, Berlin-Kreuzberg (1928–1930)
Columbus-Haus, Potsdamer Platz, Berlin (1928–1932), originally a store for Galeries Lafayette, not to be confused with the "Columbia-Haus" in Berlin-Tempelhof, which was torn down in 1938
Jewish youth center, Essen (1930–1933)
Doblouggården store, Oslo, Norway (1932). Built by Rudolf Emil Jacobsen from Mendelsohn's plans
The De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex, England (1934). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Nimmo house, Chalfont St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, England (1933–1935). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Cohen House, Chelsea, London (1934–1936). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Gilbey Firm, Camden, London (1935–1936). In collaboration with Serge Chermayeff.
Weizmann House, Weizmann Institute campus, Rehovot near Tel Aviv (1935–1936)
Built around the same time: a cluster of three buildings on the Weizmann Institute campus, presently housing high-resolution NMR, biological MRI, and the Kimmel Center for Archeology, respectively
Zalman Schocken villa and library, Jerusalem (1934–1936)
Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1934–1940)
Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (1934–1939)
Anglo-Palestine-Bank, Jaffa Road Jerusalem (1936–1939)
Haifa Municipal Hospital, Haifa (1937–1938)
Synagogue B'Nai Amoona, now Center of Creative Arts, University City, Missouri (1946–1950)
Maimonides Hospital, San Francisco (1946–1950)
Park Synagogue, Cleveland Heights, Ohio (1946–1953)
Russell house, San Francisco (1947–1951)
Emanu-El Synagogue, Grand Rapids, Michigan, (1948–1954)
Mount Zion Synagogue, St. Paul, Minnesota (1950–1954)
view all

Erich Mendelsohn's Timeline

1887
March 21, 1887
Allenstein, Ostpreussen, Deutschland (Germany)
1916
May 4, 1916
Berlin, Berlin, Germany
1941
1941
Age 53
USA
1953
September 15, 1953
Age 66
San Francisco, United States