Faltonia Betitia Proba

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Faltonia Betitia Proba

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Death: between circa 353 and circa 366 (30-68)
Rome, Italy
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Faltonius Probus; Consul (322) - Petronius Probianus; Betitia and Anicia Demetrias
Wife of Praefectus urbi of Rome (351) - Clodius Celsinus Adelphius and Clodius Celsinus Adelphius
Mother of Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius; Adelphia Olybria; Praefectus urbi of Rome (391) - Faltonius Probus Alypius; Clodia Celsina .; Adelphia Probia and 3 others
Sister of Petronius Probinus and Faltonia Betitia Proba Rome, van

Occupation: poetka
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Faltonia Betitia Proba

Faltonia Betitia Proba

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Faltonia Proba teaching the history of the world since the Creation through her Cento Vergilianus de laudibus Christi. Miniature from a 15th century manuscript of the De mulieribus claris by Giovanni Boccaccio. Faltonia Betitia Proba (c. 306/c. 315 - c. 353/c. 366) was a Latin Roman Christian poetess, possibly the most influential Latin poetess of Late Antiquity.


A member of one of the most influential aristocratic families, she composed the Cento vergilianus de laudibus Christi, a cento composed with verses by Virgil re-ordered to form an epic poem centred around the life of Jesus.


Contents

[hide] 1 Life
2 Works 2.1 Constantini bellum adversus Magnentium
2.2 De laudibus Christi

3 Notes

4 References
5 External links

[edit] Life


Proba belonged to an influential family of the 4th century, the Petronii Probi. Her father was Petronius Probianus, Roman consul in 322, while her mother was probably called Demetria.[1] She had a brother, Petronius Probinus, appointed consul in 341; also her grandfather, Pompeius Probus, had been a consul, in 310. Proba married Clodius Celsinus Adelphus, praefectus urbi of Rome in 351, thus creating a bond with the powerful gens Anicia. They had at least two sons, Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius and Faltonius Probus Alypius, who become high imperial officers. She also had a nephew, Anicia Faltonia Proba, daughter of Olybrius and Tirrania Anicia Juliana.


Her family was Pagan, but Proba converted to Christianity when she was an adult, influencing her husband and her sons, who converted after her. Proba died before Celsinus. She was probably buried with her husband in the Basilica di Sant'Anastasia al Palatino in Rome, where, until the 16th century, there was their funerary inscription,[2] later moved to Villa Borghese before disappearing. The bond between Proba and this church might be related to saint Anastasia, who probably belonged to the gens Anicia: Proba and Celsinus could have received the honour of being buried ad sanctos (next to the tomb of a saint), because of the particular veneration of the Anicii for this saint.[3]


With her husband she owned the Horti Aciliorum at Rome, on the Pincian Hill.[4]


[edit] Works


To "Proba" are attributed two poems, only one of them preserved. Most of the modern scholars identify this poetess Proba with Faltonia Betitia, the other possible identification being with her nephew, Anicia Faltonia Proba.


[edit] Constantini bellum adversus Magnentium


The first poem, now lost, is called Constantini bellum adversus Magnentium by the Codex Mutinensis. It dealt with the war between Roman Emperor Constantius II and the usurper Magnentius. Proba was involved to this war through her husband Clodius Celsinus Adelphus, who had been praefectus urbi of Rome in 351, that the same year Italy passed from the sphere of influence of Magnetius to Constantius after the Battle of Mursa Major.[3]


The existence of this first poem is based on the first verses of the second poem. Here Proba rejects her first Pagan composition, and scholars think that the Pagan poem was destroyed according to her will.[5]


[edit] De laudibus Christi


After her conversion, around 362,[6] Proba composed a Christian epic poem, the Cento Vergilianus de laudibus Christi, also known as De laudibus Christi.


The poem is a Virgilian cento, a patchwork of verses extracted from several works of Virgil, with minimal modifications (in this case, with the introduction of Biblical names).


She knew Virgil's poems quite well and memorized most of them. She devised a scheme one day that the history of the Bible could be compiled in a pleasant easy to read verse. She researched Bucolics, the Georgics, and the Aeneid. She would then mix various lines from each with great care and skill to complete a story. They were done expertly following all the rules of meter and the respect of verse that a connoisseur had trouble detecting the scheme. The resulting cento presents the Biblical story from the creation of the world up to the coming of the Holy Spirit by using 694 lines from Virgil. This poem was declared apocryphal (not heretic, but also not allowed to be read in public) by Pope Gelasius I and is her only surviving work. She also wrote a Homeric cento with verses taken from Homer that basically followed the same scheme. She was skilled in both the Greek and Latin languages.


The 694 lines are divided into a proemium with invocation (lines 1-55), episodes from the Old Testament (lines 56-345), episodes from the New Testament (lines 346-688) and the end.[7]


Jerome heavily criticized this work, claiming that an "old chatterbox" wanted "to teach Scriptures before understanding them", considering "the Christless Maro a Christian" (Letters 53.7, written from Bethlehem to Paulinus of Nola);[8] Isidore of Seville, on the contrary, praised the author of this work.[9]


Pope Gelasius I (492-496) declared the De laudibus Christi an apocryphal; therefore, even if it was not considered heretical, its public reading was forbidden. Despite this prohibition, the work had some success: it is known that Emperors Arcadius (395-408) and Theodosius II (408-451) requested copies of the poem; furthermore, during the Middle Ages this cento was used in education, and Proba's fame caused Giovanni Boccaccio to include her among the most influential women list, in his De mulieribus claris. The first printed edition of the De laudibus Christi, dating back to 1472, possibly the first printed work composed by a woman.


[edit] Notes


1.^ Fassina.

2.^ CIL VI, 1712.
3.^ a b Lizzi Testa.
4.^ Samuel Ball Platner, "Horti Aciliorum", A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Oxford University Press, 1929.
5.^ Jane Stevenson, Women Latin Poets, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-818502-2, p. 65.
6.^ For the year of composition, see Clark, Elizabeth Ann, "Faltonia Betitia Proba and her Virgilian Poem: The Christian Matron as an Artist", in Clark, Elizabeth Ann, Ascetic Piety and Women's Faith, Studies in Women and Religion 20, Edwin Mellon Press, 1986, p. 124-152.
7.^ Antonio Arbea, El carmen sacrum de Faltonia Betitia Proba, la primera poetisa cristiana, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, [1].
8.^ However, it has been proposed the identification of the garrula anus referred by Jerome with Melania the Elder (see Alessia Fassina, Una patrizia romana al servizio della fede: il centone cristiano di Faltonia Betitia Proba, Doctorate thesis, Università Ca' Foscari di Venezia, 2004, [2].
9.^ Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, i.39.26.

[edit] References

Clark, Elizabeth Ann, "Jesus the Hero in the Virgilian Cento of Faltonia Betitia Proba", Sixth Annual Byzantine Studies Conference, October 24-26 1980, [3]
Fassina, Alessia, "Alterazioni semantiche ed espedienti compositivi nel Cento Probae", Incontri triestini di filologia classica V, 2005-2006, Trieste, Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2006, ISBN 88-8303-192-X, p. 261-272.
Lizzi Testa, Rita, Senatori, popolo, papi: il governo di Roma al tempo dei Valentiniani, Edipuglia, 2004, ISBN 88-7228-392-2, p. 118-119.
Martindale, John Robert, Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, John Morris, Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Cambridge University Press, 1971, p. 732.
Smith, William, "Falconia Proba", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Volume 2, p. 134.
"Faltonia Proba", The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII, 1911, New York, Robert Appleton Company.

[edit] External links

Proba
Matthaeus Sylvagius, Liber de Tribus Peregrinis / Colloquia trium Peregrinorum (Venice, 1542)
 "Faltonia Proba". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faltonia_Betitia_Proba


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faltonia_Betitia_Proba

Faltonia Betitia Proba

  • Faltonia Betitia Proba (c. 306/c. 315 - c. 353/c. 366) was a Roman Christian poet, the most important and influential poet in Latin language of the Late Antiquity.

Life

Proba belonged to an influential family of the 4th century, the Petronii Probi.

  • Her father was Petronius Probianus, Roman consul in 322, while her mother was probably called Demetria.[1]
  • She had a brother, Petronius Probinus, appointed consul in 341; also her grandfather, Pompeius Probus, had been a consul, in 310.
  • Proba married Clodius Celsinus Adelphus, praefectus urbi of Rome in 351, thus creating a bond with the powerful gens Anicia.
  • They had at least two sons,
  1. Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius and
  2. Faltonius Probus Alypius, who become high imperial officers.
  • She also had a nephew, Anicia Faltonia Proba, daughter of Olybrius and Tirrania Anicia Juliana.
  • Her family was Pagan, but Proba converted to Christianity when she was an adult, influencing her husband and her sons, who converted after her. Proba died before Celsinus. She was probably buried with her husband in the Basilica di Sant'Anastasia al Palatino in Rome, where, until the 16th century, there was their funerary inscription,[2] later moved to Villa Borghese before disappearing. The bond between Proba and this church might be related to saint Anastasia, who probably belonged to the gens Anicia: Proba and Celsinus could have received the honour of being buried ad sanctos (next to the tomb of a saint), because of the particular veneration of the Anicii for this saint.[3]
  • With her husband she owned the Horti Aciliorum at Rome, on the Pincian Hill.[4]

Faltonia Betitia Proba

Faltonia Betitia Proba (c. 306/c. 315 - c. 353/c. 366) was a Latin Roman Christian poet, possibly the most influential Latin poet of Late Antiquity.

A member of one of the most influential aristocratic families, she composed the Cento vergilianus de laudibus Christi, a cento composed with verses by Virgil re-ordered to form an epic poem centred on the life of Jesus.

Life

Proba belonged to an influential family of the 4th century, the Petronii Probi. Her father was Petronius Probianus, Roman consul in 322, while her mother was probably called Demetria. She had a brother, Petronius Probinus, appointed consul in 341; also her grandfather, Pompeius Probus, had been a consul, in 310. Proba married Clodius Celsinus Adelphus, praefectus urbi of Rome in 351, thus creating a bond with the powerful gens Anicia. They had at least two sons, Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius and Faltonius Probus Alypius, who became high imperial officers. She also had a granddaughter Anicia Faltonia Proba, daughter of Olybrius and Tirrania Anicia Juliana.

Her family was Pagan, but Proba converted to Christianity when she was an adult, influencing her husband and her sons, who converted after her. Proba died before Celsinus. She was probably buried with her husband in the Basilica di Sant'Anastasia al Palatino in Rome, where, until the 16th century, there was their funerary inscription, later moved to Villa Borghese before disappearing. The bond between Proba and this church might be related to Saint Anastasia, who probably belonged to the gens Anicia: Proba and Celsinus could have received the honour of being buried ad sanctos (next to the tomb of a saint), because of the particular veneration of the Anicii for this saint.

With her husband she owned the Horti Aciliorum at Rome, on the Pincian Hill.

Works

Two poems are attributed to "Proba", and only one is extant. Most modern scholars identify Faltonia Betitia Proba as the author of these works, with the other possible identification being her niece Anicia Faltonia Proba.

Constantini bellum adversus Magnentium

The first poem, now lost, is called Constantini bellum adversus Magnentium by the Codex Mutinensis. It dealt with the war between Roman Emperor Constantius II and the usurper Magnentius. Proba was involved to this war through her husband Clodius Celsinus Adelphus, who had been praefectus urbi of Rome in 351, that the same year Italy passed from the sphere of influence of Magnetius to Constantius after the Battle of Mursa Major.

The existence of this first poem is based on the first verses of the second poem. Here Proba rejects her first Pagan composition, and scholars think that the Pagan poem was destroyed according to her will.

Cento vergilianus de laudibus Christi

Proba's most famous work is a Virgilian cento, a patchwork of verses extracted from several works of Virgil, with minimal modifications (in this case, with the introduction of Biblical names). The 694 lines are divided into a proemium with invocation (lines 1-55), episodes from the Old Testament (lines 56-345), episodes from the New Testament (lines 346-688), and an epilogue (lines 689-694).

Source :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faltonia_Betitia_Proba