Felicia Warwick (de Warwick)
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About Felicia Warwick
FROM BURKE'S COMMONERS:
This family boasts of Saxon blood, and claims distinction for a full century at least before the conquest.
ROHAND, the first of the Saxon Earls of Warwick, temp. ALFRED, the Great, left an only daughter and heiress, FELICIA, who espoused GUY, son of Siward Lord of Wallingford, and conveying the earldom to her husband he became Guy, EARL OF WARWICK, " the memory of whom, (saith Dugdale) for his great valour, hath ever since been, and yet is so famous, that the vulgar are of opinion that he was a man of more than ordinary stature, and the Welsh, taking notice of his brave exploits will needs have him to be descended from British parentage." The achievements of this chivalrous earl, true or fabulous, are so generally known, that it is almost unneccessary to refer to Dugdale's Warwickshire in which they are fully set forth.
FROM CURT HOFEMANN: Guy Wallingford
Unsure if the flwg indicates he didn't exist or that if he did exist, the tales about him are fiction:
GUY of Warwick, hero of romance, is almost wholly a creature of fiction. Dugdale and other historians of Warwickshire literally accepted as historical the series of legends respecting him, to which literary shape seems to have been first given by an Anglo-Norman poet of the twelfth century. Omitting the obviously romantic details in which the story abounds, the legends are to the following effect. Guy, the son of Siward or Seguard of Wallingford was educated by Harald or Heraud of Arden. He became page to Roalt or Rohand, earl of Warwick, Rockingham, and Oxford, and fell in love with Rohand's daughter Felice, who declined to marry him until he had prove his valour. His first expedition to the continent failed to satisfy Felice, and he was sent forth again on another foreign tour, in the course of which he fought against the Saracens at Constantinople. Once more in England, he was welcomed by Athelstan at York, and slew a savage dragon which was devastating Northumberland. Thereupon Felice consented to marry him, but he soon left her at Warwick to journey as a palmer to the Holy Land. Coming back for a third time to England, he found Athelstan besieged in Winchester by the Danes under Anlaf. The Danes boasted among their forces a giant named Colbrand. A duel to decide the war was arranged between Guy and Colbrand, and Guy killed the Danish champion. He then returned to Warwick, and lived as a holy man in a hermit's cell, practising the severest asceticism. Felice long lived in ignorance of his presence in the town, but finally identified him by a ring which he sent her by a herdsman, and she attended his deathbed. She survived her husband only a fortnight. Their son Rembrun or Raynbrun is credited in continuations of the romance with much the same career as his father. These legends seem to embody incoherently several Anglo-Saxon traditions of the tenth and eleventh centuries. The central feature is the fight of Guy and the Danish giant, Anlaf's champion, before Winchester in the reign of Athelstan. It has been suggested that this episode is a tradition of the great battle of Brunanburh, fought by Athelstan against Anlaf of Denmark in 937. There are difficulties in the identification. The site of Brunanburh is not positively known, but it certainly was not at or near Winchester, where Guy is said in the romance to have slain Colbrand, and where the scene of the alleged combat has been identified in local tradition. We know, indeed from authentic history that the Danes under Anlaf never besieged Athelstan in that city. But Olaf (Tryggvason) of Denmark—Olaf and Anlaf are practically idenitical names—undoubtedly threatened Winchester in the reign of Ethelred in 993, and it is possible that the tradition embodied in the romance may spring from a popular confusion between the two Danish invasions. According to the Danish 'Egilssage' (of the eleventh or twelfth century) Athelstan was aided at the battle of Brunanburh by two brothers, northern vikings of repute, named respectively Egil and Thorolf; but the attempt made by George Ellis to identify Guy with Egil is philogically absurd. The name Guy is probably of Teutonic origin. It may possibly be a Norman reproduction of the Anglo-Saxon name 'Wigod,' or some other combination of the Anglo-Saxon 'wig,' i.e. war. Guy's father, Siward, is diescribed in the romance as lord of Wallingford. An historical Wigod of Wallingford was cupbearer to Edward the Confessor, and was in favour with William the Conqueror, while his daughter and granddaughter (Matilda, wife (1) of Miles Crespin, and (2) Brian Fitzcount) held the lordship of Wallingford till the reign of Henry II. Another shadowy historical confirmation of the romance may lie in the fact that an historical Siward, a grandson of Alwin, who was sheriff of Warwickshire shortly before the Norman conquest, had, according to documents quoted by Dugdale, a daughter of the unusual name of Felicia (Guy's mistress in the romance is Felice). The historical Siward's family seems, moreover, to have at some time alienated land to Wigod of Wallingford. It is clear, nevertheless, that the mass of details in the romance is pure fiction. It was during the thirteenth century that the story in the original Norman-French verse became generally familiar in both France and England, and was translated into English. The oldest manuscript of the French poem is in the library at Wolfenbüttel (cf. G. A. Herbing's description of this manuscript, Wismar, 1848), and may be as early as the end of the thirteenth century. The oldest English version—the Auchinleck MS. in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh—is of little later date. (This manuscript was first printed by the Abbotsford Club in 1840, and has been reprinted by Professor Zupitza for the Early English Text Society.) 'Sir Gye of Warike' is referred to as a knight 'of grete renown' in Hampole's prologue 'Speculum Vitæ' (c. 1350), and Chaucer mentions the romance about him in his 'Rime of Sir Thopas' (c. 1380). In 1430 reference was made to Guy in the Spanish romance 'Tirante el blanco.' It was in the fourteenth century that the story was first adopted as authentic history by the chronicles. Peter Langtoft, in his rhyming chronicle (1308?), which Robert Mannyng or de Brunne translated about 1338, describes Guy of Warwick as slaying 'Colbrant' the Dane. Walter of Exeter [fl. 1301] is said to have written a life of Guy while living at St. Caroc in Cornwall, and some fifty years later Girardus Conubiensis produced his 'De Gestis Regum West-Saxonum,' which contained in serious prose a very full account of Guy's heroic exploits. Walter of Exeter's biography is known only through a mention of it by Bale. The suggestion that this work was the original Norman-French poem has nothing to support it. Girardus's work only survives in quotation imbedded in the 'Liber de Hyda,' or Rudborne's 'Chronicle,' both completed in the fifteenth century. The 'Liber de Hyda' preserves Girardus's version of the fight between Guy and the giant Colbrand, which is stated to be cap. xi. of the original chronicle. This is quoted again at the end of a manuscript of Higden's Polychronicon' (Magdalen College, Oxford, 147), and was printed by Hearne in an appendix to the 'Annals of Dunstable,' ii. 825-30). It has been suggested that Walter of Exeter and Girardus Conubiensis are one and the same person. At any rate it seems probable that the lives of Guy which went under their two names were at most points identical. Girardus identifies the scene of Guy's duel with Colbrand as 'The Hyde's Mede,' afterwards the site of Hyde Abbey, near Winchester. Henry Knighton (fl. 1366), another chronicler who treats Guy as historical, locates his battles in the vale of Chilcombe, which belonged to the cathedral priory of St. Swithun's, or Old Minster, a monastic establishment in Winchester, in perpetual rivalry with Hyde Abbey. That the story, as Girard and Knighton prove, was well known in Winchester in the fourteenth century is further shown by the fact that the bishop, Adam de Orleton, on visiting the priory of St. Swithun's about 1338, was entertained by a 'canticum Colbrandi.' Lydgate versified Girard's story about 1450. There are manuscripts of Lydgate's version in the Bodleian Library (Laud Misc. 683) and the British Museum (Harl. MS. 7333, f. 35 b). Revised by John Lane, it was licensed for the press in 1617 (cf. _Harl. MS._ 5243), but it was never printed. Whatever place Guy held in Winchester tradition, it was at Warwick that his traditional history received its final development. In 1268, under Henry IIII, William de Beauchamp succeeded his uncle William Mauduit as Earl of Warwick, and was the first of the many powerful earls of Warwick of the Beauchamp line. William named his son Guy because (it has been suggested) he claimed descent from the legendary Guy. This Guy de Beauchamp died in 1315. It was doubtless in his honour rather than in that of the Guy of legend that a descendant, Thomas, earl of Warwick [Thomas de Beauchamp], built Guy's Tower at Warwick Castle at the end of the fourteenth century. Thomas's son, Earl Richard [Richard de Beauchamp, 1382-1439], a chivalric warrior, who was the hero of almost as many adventures as the legendary Guy, asserted unmistakably his descent from that hero. Two miles from Warwick is a rock overlooking the Avon, which was until the fifteenth century known as 'Kibbecliue' or "Gibbeclyve.' This spot Earl Richard seems to have identified, in accord with some vague local tradition, with the hermitage where Guy in the legend died, although the romance describes the cell as in the woods of Arden. The place, 'Kibbecliue,' has long been known as Guy's Cliffe. There Earl Richard erected a chantry or chapel for the repose of the souls of the legendary Guy and others of his ancestors, and provided endowment for the maintenance of two priests (1422-3). In the chapel was placed a stone statue said to represent the legendary Guy. One of the first priests of the chantry was John Rous, who adopted all the legends of the hero Guy of Warwick. He assumed without hesitation that the Beauchamp earls of Warwick were Guy's lineal descendants, and asserted that when Earl Richard was traveling in Palestine in 1410 the Soldan's lieutenant, having read the story of his ancestor in books of his own language, invited the earl to his palace and feasted him royally. Rous's manuscript account of Guy's life is among Asmolean MSS. at Oxford, and was literally followed by Dugdale in his 'History of Warwickshire.' Since Leland's time visitors to Warwick and its neighbourhood have been shown reputed relics of the hero in Warwick Castle and elsewhere. John Caius in 1552 describes at length the rib of a gigantic cow said to have been slain by Guy, and exhibited at Warwick Castle (see _De Canibus_, &c.) This is still on view there, together with a large vesel made of bell-metal (said to contain 120 gallons, and called Guy's Porridge Pot), and several enormous pieces of armour said to have been worn by Guy. The pot is obviously a garrison crock of the sixteenth century, and the armour is horse-armour of the same date. The French romance was first printed at Paris 1525, and again in 1550. The English poem was first printed by William Copland (without date) about the middle of the sixteenth century, and was soon reprinted by John Cawood. A tradition that it was first printed by Wynkyn de Worde is not corroborated. According to Puttenham (_Arte of England Poesie_, 1589, ed. Arber, p. 57) the story was commonly sung to the harp in places of assembly in the sixteenth century. Portions of the story were converted into short ballads (cf. 'Guy and Colbrante' in _Percy Folio MS._, ii. 527-39). It formed the subject of a poem by Samual Rowlands, 'The Famous History of Guy, Earle of Warwick,' which seems to have been first issued in 1607, and was reissued in 1649 and in 1654. An extract entitled 'Guy and Amarant' figures as a separate poem in Percy's 'Reliques.' Probably Rowland's verse suggested 'A Play called the Life and Death of Guy of Warwicke, written by John Day and Thomas Decker,' which was entered on the Stationer's Register on 15 Jan. 1618-19, but is not now extant; it may be identical with 'Guy, Earl of Warwick: a Tragical History, by B. J.,' London, 1661, 4to. The romance seems to have been first reduced to prose by Martin Parker, who issued prose versions of the history of King Arthur and similar heroes, but all that is known of Parker's 'Guy, Earl of Warwick' is an entry licensing the publication in the Stationer's Registers for 1640. A ballad in the Roxburghe collection by Humphrey Crouch was first printed in 1655. A chapbook, apparently first issued in London in 1684 in 4to, was republished in the next century at Newcastle, Derby, Nottingham, and Leamington. Another chapbook (London, 1706, 12mo) was repeatedly reissued down to 1821. Pegge in his 'Dissertation' in Nichols's 'Topographica Britannica' (1781) was the first to critically examine the story as credulously told by Dugdale, and to show that it is at almost all points fictitious. Pegge supplies an engraving of the statue placed by Earl Richard at Guy's Cliffe. [Pegge's Dissertation in Nichols's Top. Brit. vol. iv.; Ward's Cat. of Romances in the British Museum, i. 470 et seq. (an exhaustive criticism of the legend and an account of the manuscripts in the Brit. Mus.); Die Sage von Guy von Warwick, Untersuchung über ihr Alter und ihre Geschichte von A. Tanner, Bonn, 1877; Zur Literatur-Geschichte des Guy von Warwick von Julius Zupitza, Vienna, 1873; Guy of Warwick, ed. Zupitza for Early English Text Soc.; Percy Relques (Folio MS., ed. Hales and Furnivall), ii. 509 et seq.; Collier's Bibliographical Catalogue, i. xxxviii, ii. 104, 298; Halliwell's Dict. of Old English Plays, p. 113; Cox and Jones's Popular Romances of the Middle Ages (1871), pp. 63-4, 297-319; Dunlop's Hist. of Fiction, ed. Wilson; Ten Brink's Early English Literature, transl. by Kennedy, pp. 150, 245-7.] S. L. [Ref: DNB, Editors, Leslie Stephen & Sidney Lee, MacMillan Co, London & Smith, Elder & Co., NY, 1908, vol. viii, pp. 829-831]
- Sidney Lee, D. Litt., LL.D., author of this article & co-editor of this volume of the DNB.
Guy of Warwick Guy of Warwick is a legendary English hero of Romance popular in England and France from the 13th to the 17th century.
The core of the legend is that Guy falls in love with the lady Felice, ("Happiness") who is of much higher social standing. In order to wed Felice he must prove his valour in chivalric adventures and become a knight; in order to do this he travels widely, battling fantastic monsters such as dragons, giants, a Dun Cow and great boars. He returns and weds Felice but soon, full of remorse for his violent past, he leaves on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land; later he returns privately and lives out his long life as a hermit (according to local legend in a cave overlooking the River Avon, situated at Guys Cliffe).
In one recension, Guy, son of Siward or Seguard of Wallingford, by his prowess in foreign wars wins in marriage Felice (the Phyllis of the well-known ballad), daughter and heiress of Roalt, earl of Warwick. Soon after his marriage he is seized with remorse for the violence of his past life, and, by way of penance, leaves his wife and fortune to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. After years of absence he returns in time to deliver Winchester for Athelstan of England from the invading northern kings, Anelaph (Anlaf or Olaf) and Gonelaph, by slaying in single fight their champion, the giant Colbrand. Winchester tradition fixes the duel at Hyde Mead, before the Abbey near Winchester. Making his way to Warwick, he becomes one of his wife's beadsmen, and presently retires to a hermitage in Arden, only revealing his identity, like Saint Roch, at the approach of death.
Velma Bourgeois Richmond has traced the career of Guy of Warwick from the legends of soldier saints to metrical romances composed for an aristiocratic audience that widened in the sixteenth century to a popular audience that included Guy among the Nine Worthies, passing into children's literature and local guidebooks before dying out in the twentieth century. The kernel of the tradition evidently lies in the fight with Colbrand, which symbolically represents some kernel of historical fact. The religious side of the legend finds parallels in the stories of St Eustachius and St Alexius, and makes it probable that the Guy-legend, as we have it, has passed through monastic hands. Tradition seems to be at fault in putting Guy's adventures anachronistically in the reign of Athelstan; the Anlaf of the story is probably Olaf Tryggvason, who, with Sweyn I of Denmark, harried the southern counties of England in 993 and pitched his winter quarters in Southampton. Winchester was saved, however, not by the valour of an English champion, but by the payment of money. This Olaf was not unnaturally confused with Anlaf Cuaran or Havelok the Dane.
The Anglo-Norman warrior hero of Gui de Warewic, marked Guy's first appearance in the early thirteenth century. Topographical allusions show the popem's composer to be more familiar with the area of Wallingford, near Oxford, than with Warwickshire.
Guy was transformed in the fourteenth century with a spate of metrical romances written in Middle English. The versions which we possess are adaptations from the French, and are cast in the form of a roman; the adventures open with a long recital of Guy's wars in Lombardy, Germany and Constantinople, embellished with fights with dragons and surprising feats of arms. The name Guy entered the Beauchamp family, earls of Warwick, when William de Beauchamp IV inherited the title in 1269 through his mother's brother, named his heir "Guy" in 1298. A tower added to Warwick Castle in 1394 was named "Guy's Tower", and Guy of Warwick relics began to accumulate.
"Filicia", who belongs to the twelfth century, was perhaps the Norman poet's patroness, occurs in the pedigree of the Ardens, descended from Thurkill of Warwick and his son Siward. Guys Cliffe, near Warwick, where in the fourteenth century Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, erected a chantry, with a statue of the hero, does not correspond with the site of the hermitage as described in the Godfreyson (see Havelok).
The narrative detail of the legend is obvious fiction, though it may have become vaguely connected with the family history of the Ardens and the Wallingford family, but it was accepted as authentic fact in the chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft (Peter of Langtoft) written at the end of the thirteenth century.
The adventures of Reynbrun, son of Guy, and his tutor Heraud of Arden, who had also educated Guy, have much in common with his father's history, and form an interpolation sometimes treated as a separate romance. A connection between Guy and Count Guido of Tours (flourished about 800) was made when Alcuin's advice to the count was transferred to the English hero in the Speculum Gy de Warewyke (c. 1327), edited for the Early English Text Society by G. L. Morrill, 1898.
The French romance has not been printed, but is described by Emile Littré in Histoire littéraire de la France (xxii., 841-851, 1852). A French prose version was printed in Paris, 1525, and subsequently (see G. Brunet, Manuel du libraire sub "Guy de Warvich"); the English metrical romance exists in four versions dating from the early fourteenth century; the text was edited by J. Zupitza (187.51876) for the Early English Texts Society from Cambridge University Library, Paper MS. Ff. 2, 38, and again (pts. 1883-1891, extra series, Nos. 42, 49, 59), from the Auchinleck and Caius College MSS.
The popularity of the legend is shown by the numerous versions in English: Guy of Warwick, translated from the Latin of Giraldus Cambrensis (fl. 1350) into English verse by John Lydgate between 1442 and 1468; Guy of Warwick, a poem (written in I617 and licensed, but not printed) by John Lane, the manuscript of which (British Library) contains a sonnet by John Milton, father of the poet; The Famous Historie of Guy, Earl of Warwick (c. 1607) by Samuel Rowlands; The Booke of the moste Victoryous Prince Guy of Warwicke (William Copland, no date); other editions by J. Cawood and C. Bates; chapbooks and ballads of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: The Tragical History, Admirable Atchievements and Curious Events of Guy, Earl of Warwick, a tragedy (1661) which may possibly be identical with a play on the subject written by John Day and Thomas Dekker, and entered at Stationers' Hall on the 15th of January 1618/19; three verse fragments are printed by Hales and #
F. J. Furnivall in their edition of the Percy Folio MS. vol. ii.; an early French MS. is described by J. A. Herbert (An Early MS. of Gui de Warwick, London, 1905).
Today Guy of Warwick's Sword can be seen at Warwick Castle.
1. ^ The fictive narratives of Guy were taken as history in chronicles of Thomas Rudborne and John Hardyng (Richmond 1996:ch 4.5), and Guy appears in the Dictionary of National Biography along with Arthur and Robin Hood, and so is not simply a figure in fiction but a character of legend. 2. ^ Richmond, The Legend of Guy of Warwick. (New York and London: Garland) 1996. 3. ^ The Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 suggested a historic connection through etymology: "The name Guy (perhaps a Norman form of Early English wig, "war") may be fairly connected with the family of Wigod, lord of Wallingford under Edward the Confessor." 4. ^ Richmond 1996: 37. 5. ^ British Library, Han MS. 3775
* This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. * Crane, Ronald S. “The Vogue of Guy of Warwick from the Close of the Middle Ages to the Romantic. Revival,” PMLA 30 (1915):125-194. The first modern comparative study. * Richmond, Velma Bourgeois The Legend of Guy of Warwick. (New York and London: Garland) 1996. # * See also M. Weyrauch, Die mittelengl. Fassungen der Sage von Guy (2 pts., Breslau, 1899 and 1901); J. Zupitza in Sitzungsber. d. phil.hist. KI. d. kgl. Akad. d. Wiss. (vol. lxxiv., Vienna, 1874), and Zur Literaturgeschichte des Guy von Warwick (Vienna, 1873); a learned discussion of the whole subject by H. L. Ward, Catalogue of Romances (i. 47 1-501, 1883); and an article by S. L. Lee in the Dictionary of National Biography. Date: 9 Jul 2008
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- Title: Guy of Warwick & Felice
- FORM: jpeg
- Note: Guy entered popular literature, not just through ballads, chapbooks, and travel literature, but also through adaptations aimed at children. The image below shows one of Gammer Gurton's Story Books, a mid 19th-century collection which also included a version of the story of Bevis. [faculty.arts.ubc.ca/sechard/guy]
- Date: 9 Jul 2008
- FILE: GENEALOGY/Pics/Guy of Warwick 6.jpg 4
1. Title: WIKIPEDIA Publication: www Date: 1 Jan 2008 Page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_of_Warwick 2. Title: The Dictionary of National Biography: From the Earliest Times to 1900 Abbrev: The Dictionary of National Biography Author: Sir Leslie Stephen & Sir Sidney Lee (Editors) Publication: Oxford University Press Date: 1993 Place: Oxford, England Date: 4 Jul 2008 Page: vol. viii, pp. 829-831 3. Title: Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition Abbrev: Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition Author: Edited by Hugh Chisholm Publication: Horace Everett Hooper Date: FROM 1910 TO 1911 Date: 17 Dec 2006 4. Title: Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain, and Ireland Enjoying Terrirtorial Possessions or High Offical Rank; But Uninvested With Heritable Honours Abbrev: Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners Author: John Burke Publication: Published for Henry Colburn, by R. Bentley Text: Original from Oxford University Digitized 19 May 2006 by GoogleBooks Date: 1835 Date: 9 Jul 2008 Page: vol 1, p 637
Om Felicia Warwick (Norsk)
Felicia, husfrue av Warwick
Hun var gift med Gay, de hadde sønnen Reynburn
Kilde: FROM BURKE'S COMMONERS: Page: vol 1, p 637