Ferdinand I the Great, King of Castile

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Ferdinand I "the Great" of Navarre, King of Castile

Spanish: Fernando I «el Magno» de Navarra, rey de Castilla, Catalan: Ferran I «el Magne» de Navarra, rei de Castella, Portuguese: Fernando I «o Magno» de Navarra, rei de Castela
Birthdate:
Death: Died
Immediate Family:

Son of Sancho III el Mayor, rey de Navarra and Muniadona de Castilla, reina consorte de Pamplona
Husband of Sancha I, reina de León
Father of Urraca de León, reina titular de Zamora; Sancho II el Fuerte, rey de Castilla; Elvira, reina titular de Toro; García I, rey de Galicia; Alfonso VI the Brave, King of Castile and León and 1 other
Brother of García V el de Nájera, rey de Navarra; Jimena de Navarra, reina consorte de León; Major de Navarre, comtesse consort de Toulouse; Bernardo Sánchez de Navarra and Gonzalo I, conde de Sobrarbe-Ribagorza
Half brother of Ramiro I, rey de Aragón

Occupation: Rey de León y Conde de Castilla, Rey de Castilla (2do 1035) Rey de Leon (18th, 1037), Rey de Galicia (1037), Conde de Castilla y Rey de León, King of Leon/Count of Castile, 1º rey de Castilla desde 1035., Rey de Castilla, Rey de León, King
Managed by: James Fred Patin, Jr.
Last Updated:

About Ferdinand I the Great, King of Castile

http://www.friesian.com/perifran.htm#castile

http://genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00093524&tree=LEO

Ferdinand Ier dit le Grand, (né v. 1016 - mort en 1065), fut roi de Castille (1035-1065), territoire auquel s'ajoutèrent, en 1037, la province de León et, en 1054, celle de Navarre. Fils du roi Sanche iii de Navarre et de Munia Mayor de Castille, Ferdinand épousa la sœur de Bermude iii, roi de León. En 1037, il battit l'armée de Bermude et revendiqua le trône, invoquant le droit de succession de son épouse. En 1054, il remporta la victoire sur les Navarrais près de Burgos, tuant son frère, García iv, roi de Navarre, au cours de la bataille. Ce succès lui permit d'agrandir encore son royaume.

Ferdinand s'illustra également par ses victoires contre les Maures, auxquels il enleva Coimbra en 1064. Avant de mourir, il partagea ses possessions entre ses trois fils, ouvrant une lutte fratricide.

Abbad ii respectueux de la foi chrétienne, autorisa à Ferdinand Ier le Grand, en 1063, le transfert de Séville à León des restes de saint Isidore, le grand docteur de l’Église wisigothique des vie et viie siècles.

Sur mandat de Ferdinand Ier, les évêques leonais et asturiens, Alvito et Ordoño, venaient chercher à Séville les reliques du saint docteur qui furent transférées dans l'église San Juan de León, désormais appelée San Isidoro.

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Ier_de_Castille

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_I_de_Le%C3%B3n_y_Castilla

Fernando I de León, llamado el Magno o el Grande, (c. 1010/1012 – León, 27 de diciembre de 1065), fue conde de Castilla desde 1028 y rey de León desde el año 1037 hasta su muerte, siendo ungido como tal el 22 de junio de 1038.

Era hijo de Sancho Garcés III, llamado «el Mayor», rey de Pamplona, y de Doña Muniadona, hermana de García Sánchez de Castilla, del cual heredó Fernando el Condado de Castilla en 1028, si bien no ejercería el gobierno efectivo hasta la muerte de su padre. Se convirtió en Rey de León por su matrimonio con Doña Sancha, hermana de su rey y señor, Bermudo III, contra el que se levantó en armas, el cual falleció sin dejar descendencia luchando con Fernando en la batalla de Tamarón.

Casó con Sancha de León, hija de Alfonso V de León y hermana de Bermudo III de León. De esta unión nacieron:[5]

   * Urraca (c. 1033–1101), señora de Zamora.
   * Sancho (1038–1072), rey de Castilla como Sancho I, y de León como Sancho II (1065–1072).
   * Elvira, (¿?–1101), señora de Toro.
   * Alfonso (1040–1109), rey de León (1065–1072) y de León, Castilla y Galicia (1072–1109), como Alfonso VI.
   * García (1042–1090), rey de Galicia (1066–1071 y 1072–1073).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_Castile


Ferdinand I (1017 – 24 June 1065), called the Great (El Magno), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death 1029 and the King of León, through his wife, after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. He was the son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, and is usually recognised as the first King of Castile. He had himself crowned Emperor of Spain in 1056.

[source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_León]


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_Le%C3%B3n_and_Castile
Ferdinand I (1017 – 24 June 1065), called the Great (El Magno), was the son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, and became Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029. Having acquired the Kingdom of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037, he became King of León and Castile. He had himself crowned Emperor of Spain in 1056.

Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III King of Leon. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his younger son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Mayor, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García's intended bride, Sancha of León.

On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula. Ferdinand's brothers García Sánchez III of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the Basilica of San Isidoro. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons, the eldest, Sancho, receiving Castile and Alfonso being given León, while from the latter the region of Galicia was carved off to create a separate state for Garcia. Ferdinand's two daughters each received cities: Elvira, Toro and Urraca, Zamora. In giving them these territories, he expressed his desire that they respect his wishes and abide by the split. However, soon after Fernando's death, Sancho and Alfonso turned on García, and defeating him they then fought each other, the victorious Sancho reuniting their father's possessions under his control in 1072.

[edit] References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Preceded by García Sánchez Count of Castile 1029-1037 Succeeded by Title Extinct Preceded by Bermudo III (in León) King of León and Castile 1037-1065 Succeeded by Alfonso VI (in León) Sancho II (in Castile) Garcia (in Galicia) Vacant Title last held by Bermudo III Emperor of Spain 1056 – 1065 Vacant Title next held by Alfonso VI of León Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_Le%C3%B3n_and_Castile"


Ferdinand I of León From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), was the count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. He was crowned Emperor of All Hispania in 1056. Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of St John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his second legitimate son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Munia, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García'a intended bride, Sancha of León. On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula, and that Iberia was independent of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand's brothers García V of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent. Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the church of Saint Isidore. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings. (note: the Dutch version of Wikipedia says that Ferdinand died on 27 December 1065 ?)


Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, was the count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. He was crowned Emperor of All Hispania in 1056.

Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of St John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his younger son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Mayor, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García'a intended bride, Sancha of León.

On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula, and that Iberia was independent of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand's brothers García V of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the church of Saint Isidore. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings.


Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), was the king of Castile from his father's death in 1035 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. He was crowned Emperor of All Hispania in 1056.

Ferdinand was the second eldest legitimate son of Sancho III of Navarre. He was barely in his teens when he was put in possession of Castile in 1028 or 1029 with his father's backing, on the murder of the last count, as the heir of his mother Munia, daughter of a previous count of Castile and sister of the deceased count. That count, Don García, was about to be married to Doña Sancha, sister of Bermudo III, king of León, but was assassinated as he was entering the church of St John the Baptist in León by a party of Castilian nobles, exiles from their own land, who had taken refuge in León.

Ferdinand now married Sancha of León instead. He reigned in Castile with the title of king from 1033, though his father, King Sancho, did not die until 1035. On 4 September 1037, when his brother-in-law Bermudo was killed in battle with him at Tamarón, Ferdinand took possession of León as well, by right of his wife who was the heiress presumptive. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula, and that Iberia was independent of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand's brothers García V of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the church of Saint Isidore. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings.


BIOGRAPHY: King of Castile (1033-65) and of Leon (1037-65); he was the scond son of King Sancho III of Navarre. In 1037 Ferdinand defeated Burmudo in a battle at Tamaron, acquiring Leon through Sancha's right of succession. Ferdinand won the Battle of Atapuerca over his brother in 1054 and was recognized as the emperor of Spain in 1056. By his territorial acquistions from the Moors between 1058 and 1065, Ferdinand inaugurated the period of Christian reconquest of Spanish land from the Muslims. Before his death, Ferdinand provided that his estates be divided among his three sons, thus bequeathing a legacy of fratricidal strife that did not end until the accession of Alfonso I to the throne of Castile in 1072.

!Royal Ancestors of some LDS Families by Michel L. Call.

b. 1016/18

d. Dec. 27, 1065, León, Leon

byname FERDINAND THE GREAT, Spanish FERNANDO EL MAGNO, the first ruler of Castile to take the title of king; he was also crowned emperor of Leon.

Ferdinand's father, Sancho III of Navarre, had acquired Castile and established hegemony over the Christian states. On his death in 1035 he left Navarre to his eldest son (García III) and Castile to his second son, Ferdinand, who had married Sancha, sister and heiress of Bermudo III of Leon. Ferdinand's Castilians defeated and killed Bermudo at Tamarón in 1037, and he had himself crowned emperor in the city of León in 1039. In 1054 his Castilian troops defeated and killed his elder brother, García III, at Atapuerca, and he added Navarre to his possessions. In 1062 he forced the Muslim ruler of Toledo to pay him tribute and imposed vassalage on Saragossa and Seville. He conquered Coimbra in central Portugal and laid siege to Valencia, but he failed to capture it.

He followed the custom of dividing his estates, leaving Castile to the eldest, Sancho II; Leon to the second, Alfonso VI; and Galicia to the third. The first two dispossessed the third; and, on the murder of Sancho, Alfonso VI recovered the whole, becoming emperor.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

History: Ferdinand I (of Castile and León), called The Great (1005?-65), king of Castile (1035-65) and of León (1037-65); he was the second son of King Sancho III of Navarre. Ferdinand married Sancha, the sister of Bermudo III, king of León, and heiress to the throne of León. In 1037 Ferdinand defeated Bermudo in a battle at Tamaron, acquiring León through Sancha's right of succession. Ferdinand won the Battle of Atapuerca over his brother in 1054 and was recognized as the emperor of Spain in 1056. By his territorial acquisitions from the Moors between 1058 and 1065, Ferdinand inaugurated the period of Christian reconquest of Spanish land from the Muslims. Before his death Ferdinand provided that his estates be divided among his three sons, thus bequeathing a legacy of fratricidal strife that did not end until the accession of Alfonso I to the throne of Castile in 1072.

 

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, was the count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. He was crowned Emperor of All Hispania in 1056.

Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of St John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his younger son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Mayor, as successor, and further arranged for Ferdinand to marry García'a intended bride, Sancha of León.

On his father's death, Ferdinand continued as count of Castile, now recognizing the suzerainty of his brother-in-law Bermudo III, but they fell out and on 4 September 1037 Bermudo was killed in battle with Fernando at Tamarón. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and the next year had himself formally crowned king of León and Castile. He overran the Moorish section of Galicia, and set up his vassal as count in what is now northern Portugal. With northern Iberia consolidated, Ferdinand, in 1039, proclaimed himself emperor of Hispania. The use of the title was resented by the Emperor Henry III and Pope Victor II in 1055 as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom and as a usurpation of the Roman Empire. It did not, however, mean more than that the sovereign of León was the chief of the princes of the Iberian peninsula, and that Iberia was independent of the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand's brothers García V of Navarre and Ramiro I of Aragón opposed his power, but were both killed in ensuing battles, leaving Ferdinand preeminent.

Ferdinand died on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June 1065, in León, with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the church of Saint Isidore. At his death, Ferdinand divided up his kingdom between his three sons: Sancho, who received Castile; Alfonso, who received León; and Garcia, who received Galicia. His two daughters each received cities: Elvira received Toro and Urraca received Zamora. By giving them his dominion, he wanted them to abide by the split in the kingdom and respect his wishes. However, Sancho (born 1032), being the oldest, believed that he deserved more of the kingdom, and therefore sought to gain possession of the divided parts of the kingdom that had been given to his siblings.


b. 1016/18

d. Jun. 24, 1065, León, Leon

byname FERDINAND THE GREAT, Spanish FERNANDO EL MAGNO, the first ruler of Castile to take the title of king; he was also crowned emperor of Leon.

Ferdinand's father, Sancho III of Navarre, had acquired Castile and established hegemony over the Christian states. On his death in 1035 he left Navarre to his eldest son (García III) and Castile to his second son, Ferdinand, who had married Sancha, sister and heiress of Bermudo III of Leon. Ferdinand's Castilians defeated and killed Bermudo at Tamarón in 1037, and he had himself crowned emperor in the city of León in 1039. In 1054 his Castilian troops defeated and killed his elder brother, García III, at Atapuerca, and he added Navarre to his possessions. In 1062 he forced the Muslim ruler of Toledo to pay him tribute and imposed vassalage on Saragossa and Seville. He conquered Coimbra in central Portugal and laid siege to Valencia, but he failed to capture it.

He followed the custom of dividing his estates, leaving Castile to the eldest, Sancho II; Leon to the second, Alfonso VI; and Galicia to the third. The first two dispossessed the third; and, on the murder of Sancho, Alfonso VI recovered the whole, becoming emperor.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


Died on the day of the feast of St. John the Baptist with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown & royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk & lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the Basilica of San Isidoro.


Ferdinand I (1017 – 24 June 1065), called the Great (El Magno), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death 1029 and the King of León and King of Galicia, through his wife, after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. He was the son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, and is usually recognised as the first King of Castile. He had himself crowned Emperor of Spain in 1056.
1º REI DE CASTELA

Fernando I de Leão

Fernando I de Castela (1016 — 27 de Dezembro de 1065), cognominado o Grande ou o Magno, foi conde de Castela (1035-1065) e também rei de Leão (1037-1065), conquistou Viseu e Coimbra em 1064.

Era filho de Sancho III de Navarra (Sancho I de Castela), e da infanta Maior de Castela. De seu pai herdou o condado de Castela, e conquistou pela força das armas o reino de Leão, coroa da qual se tornou rei consorte pelo casamento com a irmã do rei Bermudo III de Leão, a rainha Sancha I de Leão.

Tal como fez seu pai, também dividiu o seu reino à hora da morte; assim, o seu primogénito, Sancho, herdou o reino principal, Castela; o resto dos seus domínios foi repartido por Afonso (Leão), Garcia (Galiza), e ainda Elvira e Urraca (a quem deixou a posse de dois mosteiros).

Fernando acabou por falecer na Festa de São João Evangelista, a 24 de Junho de 1065.

Filhos

  1. Urraca de Zamora, infanta de Leão (1033-1101), também conhecida por Urraca de Leão. foi senhora de Zamora e casada com Garcia Ordoñes, de quem teve: Osório Garcia, conde de Cabrera casado com Sancha Moniz e Garcia Ordoñez que foi conde de Nájera.
  2. Sancho II de Leão e Castela (1038-1072)
  3. Afonso VI de Leão e Castela (1040-1109)
  4. Elvira
  5. Garcia II da Galiza (1042-1090)

Fora do casamento teve:

  1. Múnio Fernandez (1030 -?)

in: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre <http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_I_de_Le%C3%A3o_e_Castela> _____________________________________________________________________________

Veja também:

Leo: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.), Reference: II 57.

Leo: Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe, London, 1988 , Williamson, David, Reference: biographical details.


Ferdinand I (c. 1015 – 24 December 1065), called the Great (el Magno), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the King of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. According to tradition, he was the first to have himself crowned Emperor of Spain (1056), and his heirs carried on the tradition. He was a younger son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, and by his father's will recognised the supremacy of his eldest brother, García Sánchez III of Navarre. While Ferdinand inaugurated the rule of the Navarrese Jiménez dynasty over western Spain, his rise to preeminence among the Christian rulers of the peninsula shifted the locus of power and culture westward after more than a century of Leonese decline. Nevertheless, "[t]he internal consolidation of the realm of León–Castilla under Fernando el Magno and [his queen] Sancha (1037–1065) is a history that remains to be researched and written."


Date and order of birth


There is some disagreement concerning the order of birth of Sancho III's sons, and of Ferdinand's place among them. He was certainly a younger son, and he was probably born later than 1011, when his parents' marriage is first recorded. Most, and the most reliable, charters name Sancho's sons in the order Ramiro, García, Gonzalo, then Ferdinand. Three documents from the Cathedral of Pamplona list them in this way, as well as four from the monastery of San Juan de la Peña. One charter from Pamplona, dated 29 September 1023, is witnessed by Sancho's mother, Jimena Fernández, his wife Mayor, her children, listed García, Ferdinand then Gonzalo, and their brother, the illegitimate Ramiro.


In five documents of the monastery of San Salvador de Leire, Ferdinand is listed after Gonzalo. Two of these are dated to 17 April 1014. If authentic, they place Ferdinand's birth before that date. Three further documents from Leire are among the only ones to place Ferdinand second among the legitimate sons, but they suffer from various anachronisms and interpolations. Two preserved diplomas of Santa María la Real de Irache also put Gonzalo ahead of him. On the basis of these documents, Gonzalo Martínez Díez places Ferdinand third of the known legitimate sons of Sancho III (Ramiro being a bastard born before his marriage to Mayor), and his birth no earlier than 1015. The Crónica de Alaón renovada, which Martínez Díez dates to 1154, but which other scholars dismiss as a late medieval concoction, lists García, Ferdinand and Gonzalo as Sancho III's sons by Mayor in that order, but in the same passage mistakenly places Gonzalo's death before his father's.


Count of Castile (1029–37)


Ferdinand was barely in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III, King of León. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his younger son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Mayor, as count of Castile. Although Sancho was recognised as the ruler of Castile until his death, Ferdinand was granted the title "count" (comes) and was prepared to succeed in Castile. On 7 July 1029, before a council in Burgos, the capital of Castile, Óneca, aunt of the late García and queen Mayor, formally adopted Sancho and Mayor, making them her heirs. The record of the council is the first recorded instance of Ferdinand bearing the title of count. A later charter from the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña, dated 1 January 1030, explicits lists Sancho as king in León (the overlord of Castile) and Ferdinand as count in Castile. The first indication that Ferdinand was independently reigning de facto over Castile, or was at least recognised as count in his own right, is a charter of 1 November 1032 from the monastery of San Pedro de Arlanza, which does not mention his father, but dates it to the time of "Fernando Sánchez bearing the county". Sancho's decision to name his son as count in Castile preserved its high degree of autonomy, although no Castilian document after 1028 is dated by the reign of Bermudo III nor is he ever named as king of León. The only sovereign whose regnal year was used was Sancho III, making Ferdinand the first count of Castile not to recognise the suzerainty of the king of León.


'Sancho III arranged for Ferdinand to marry García of Castile's intended bride, Sancha of León, in 1032.[1] The lands between the Cea and Pisuerga rivers went to Castile as her dowry. After his father's death on 18 October 1035, Ferdinand continued to rule in Castile, but he was not, as many later authors have it, king of Castile. Contemporary documents stress his status as count and his relationship of vassalage to the king of León. A document issued by his brother Ramiro on 22 August 1036 at San Juan de la Peña was drawn while "emperor Bermudo [was] reigning in León and count Ferdinand in Castile, king García in Pamplona, king Ramiro in Aragon, and king Gonzalo in Ribagorza." Two private Castilian documents dated 1 January 1037 both express Ferdinand's continuing vassalage to the Leonese monarch explicitly, dating themselves by the reign of "king Bermudo and Ferdinand, count in his realms"."


'In a dispute over the territory between the Cea and Pisuerga, Ferdinand, nominally a vassal of Bermudo III, defeated and killed his suzerain at the Battle of Tamarón on 4 September 1037. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, who was the heiress presumptive, and on 22 June 1038 had himself formally crowned and anointed king in León (1037–65)."


'Relations with Navarre"


'On 15 September 1054, Ferdinand defeated his elder brother García at the Battle of Atapuerca and reduced Navarre to a vassal state under his late brother's young son, Sancho García IV. Although Navarre at that time included the traditionally Castilian lands of Álava and La Rioja, Ferdinand demanded the cession only of Bureba. Over the next decade, he gradually extended his control over more of the western territory of Navarre at the expense of Sancho IV, although this was accomplished peacefully and is only detectable in the documentary record."


"War with Zaragoza"


"In 1060, according to the Historia silense, Ferdinand invaded the taifa of Zaragoza through the upland valley of the eastern Duero in the highlands around Soria. He captured the fortresses of San Esteban de Gormaz, Berlanga and Vadorrey, and afterwards proceeded through Santiuste, Huermeces and Santamara as far as the Roman road that lay between Toledo and Zaragoza. The success of the campaign was made possible by the preoccupation of the Zaragozan emir, Ahmad al-Muqtadir, with attacking the neighboring taifa of Tortosa and defending his northeastern frontier from Ramiro I of Aragon and Raymond Berengar I of Barcelona. The emir, up until then paying tribute to Sancho IV of Navarre, submitted to Ferdinand and agreed to pay parias. Although probably originally meant to be temporary, Ferdinand managed to enforce the tribute until his death."

"War with Toledo"


"With al-Muqtadir sidelined as a threat, Ferdinand turned his attention to Yahya ibn Ismail al-Mamun, emir of Toledo. It is probable that Ferdinand already maintained close relations with the Toledan court, and was perhaps protector of the Mozarabic Christian community in Toledo. In 1058, the last known Mozarabic bishop of Toledo, Pascual, was consecrated in León. In 1062, Ferdinand invaded the east of al-Mamun's taifa, taking Talamanca and besieging Alcalá de Henares. After seeing his country plundered, al-Mamun agreed to pay parias and Ferdinand left."


"Great raid on Badajoz and Seville"


"In 1063, using the new income from his parias, Ferdinand organised a "great raid, or razzia" into the taifas of Seville and Badajoz. Seville, and probably Badajoz also, paid a ransom for his withdrawal. This attack was probably also designed to remove Badajoz as a threat during his siege of Coimbra the next year."


"Reconquests in Portugal"


"Although the sources are unclear, it is possible that as early as 1055 Ferdinand attacked the taifa of Badajoz. His first serious campaign of Reconquista was an invasion of the lower basin of the Duero between the coast, which had long been held by León, and the mountains. On 29 November 1057 his army conquered Lamego and its valleys.[17] Having secured the Duero, Ferdinand began to bring the valley of the Mondego under his control, first taking Viseu in its middle stretch on 25 July 1058 and then moving down towards the sea. It was "a long and grueling battle" before Coimbra, at the mouth of the Mondego, was taken on 25 July 1064 after a six-month siege."


"War with Valencia"


"In 1065, Ferdinand embarked on his last military campaign. He invaded the taifa of Valencia and got as far as the vicinity of the city itself, where he defeated the emir Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar late in the autumn. The emir's father-in-law, al-Mamun of Toledo, seized control of Valencia, and the frightened emir of Zaragoza renewed his tribute payments to León. Ferdinand fell ill in November and returned to his kingdom.[19]"


"Emperor of Spain"


"Ferdinand was first titled "emperor" not by himself or his own scribes, but by the notaries of his half-brother, the petty king Ramiro I of Aragon, whose notaries were also calling Ferdinand's predecessor as king of León by the same title. In a royal Aragonese charter of 1036, before the Battle of Tamarón, Ramiro refers to his brother as "emperor in Castile and in León and in Astorga".[20] A similarly-worded charter was issued in 1041 and again in 1061, where the order of kingdoms is reversed and Astorga ignored: "emperor in León and in Castile".[21] The first use of the imperial style in a charter of his own, preserved in the cartulary of Arlanza, dates to the year 1056: "under the rule of the emperor King Ferdinand and the empress Queen Sancha ruling the kingdom in León and in Galicia as well as in Castile".[22] On this basis, Ferdinand is sometimes said to have had himself crowned emperor in 1056."


"The imperial title was only used on one other occasion during his reign. A document of 1058 dates itself "in the time of the most serene prince Lord Ferdinand and his consort Queen Sancha" and later qualifies him as "this emperor, the aforesaid Ferdinand".[23]"


"Death and succession"

"After becoming ill during the Siege of Valencia and the Battle of Paterna, Ferdinand died on 24 December 1065, in León,[24] with many manifestations of ardent piety, having laid aside his crown and royal mantle, dressed in the robe of a monk and lying on a bier covered with ashes, which was placed before the altar of the Basilica of San Isidoro.[25] By his will, Ferdinand divided his kingdom among his three sons: the eldest, Sancho, received Castile; the second, Alfonso, León; and from the latter the region of Galicia was carved off to create a separate state for García. Ferdinand's two daughters each received cities: Elvira that of Toro and Urraca that of Zamora. In giving them these territories, he expressed his desire that they respect his wishes and abide by the split. However, soon after Fernando's death, Sancho and Alfonso turned on García and defeated him. They then fought each other, the victorious Sancho reuniting their father's possessions under his control in 1072. However, Sancho was killed that same year and the territories passed to Alfonso."


"Posthumous reputation"


"See also: Crucifix of Ferdinand and Sancha"


"The Chronicon complutense, probably written shortly after Ferdinand's death, extols him as the "exceedingly strong emperor" (imperator fortissimus) when mentioning the siege of Coimbra.[26] After his death, Ferdinand's children took to calling him "emperor" and "the great" (magnus). In 1072, Alfonso, Fedinand's second son, referred to himself as "offspring of the Emperor Ferdinand".[27] Two years later (1074), Urraca and Elvira referred to themselves as "daughters of the Emperor Ferdinand the Great [or, the great emperor Ferdinand]".[28] In a later charter of 1087, Ferdinand is referred to first as "king", then as "great emperor", and finally just as "emperor" alongside his consort, who is first called "queen" then "empress".[29]"


"In the fourteenth century a legend appeared in various chronicles according to which the Pope, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the King of France demanded a tribute from Ferdinand. In certain versions the Pope is named Urban (although it could not have been either Urban I or Urban II) and in other versions Victor (which is plausibly identifiable with Victor II).[30] Ferdinand was prepared to pay, but one of his vassals, later known as El Cid, who in reality was a youth during Ferdinand's reign, declared a war on the Pope, the Emperor and the Frank, and the latter rescinded their demand. For this reason "Don Fernando was afterwards called ‘the Great’: the peer of an emperor".[31] In the sixteenth century this account re-appeared, extended and elaborated, in Juan de Mariana, who wrote that in 1055, at a synod in Florence, the Emperor Henry III urged Victor II to prohibit under severe penalties the use of the imperial title by Ferdinand of León.[32]"


"This story is generally regarded as apocryphal, although some modern authors have accepted it uncritically or seen a kernel of historical truth in it. Spanish historian A. Ballesteros argued that Ferdinand adopted the title in opposition to Henry III's imperial pretensions.[33] German historian E. E. Stengel believed the version found in Mariana on the grounds that the latter probably used the now lost acts of the Council of Florence.[34] Juan Beneyto Pérez was willing to accept it as based on tradition and Ernst Steindorff, the nineteenth-century student of the reign of Henry III, as being authentically transmitted via the romancero.[35] Menéndez Pidal accepted the account of Mariana, but placed it in the year 1065.[36]"

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_Le%C3%B3n_and_Castile"

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Ferdinand I the Great, King of Castile's Timeline

1016
1016
1033
1033
Age 17
Burgos, Burgos, Castilla-Leon, Spain
1036
1036
Age 20
1039
1039
Age 23
Burgos, Burgos, Castilla-Leon, Spain
1042
1042
Age 26
Of, Burgos, Burgos, Castile
1047
1047
Age 31
Compostela, Ourense, Galicia, España
1065
December 27, 1065
Age 50
????