About Fernando VII "El Deseado", King of Spain
- Reign 2nd 11 December 1813 – 29 September 1833
Fernando VII, Rey de España
M, #101888, b. 13 October 1784, d. 29 September 1833
- Fernando VII, Rey de España was born on 13 October 1784 at San Ildefonso, Spain. He was the son of Carlos IV, Rey de España and Maria Luisa di Borbone, Principessa di Parma. He married, firstly, Maria Antonietta di Borbone, Principessa di Borbone delle Due Sicilie, daughter of Ferdinando I di Borbone, Re delle Due Sicilie and Marie Caroline Erzherzogin von Österreich, on 6 October 1802 at Barcelona, Spain. He married, secondly, Maria Isabel de Bragança, Infanta de Portugal, daughter of Dom João VI de Bragança, Rei de Portugal e Brasil and Carlota Joaquina de Borbón, Infanta de España, on 29 September 1816 at Madrid, Spain. He married, thirdly, Marie Josepha Prinzessin von Sachsen, daughter of Maximilian Prinz von Sachsen and Carolina Maria di Borbone, Principessa di Parma, on 20 October 1819 at Madrid, Spain. He married, fourthly, Maria Cristina di Borbone, Principessa delle Due Sicilie, daughter of Francesco I di Borbone, Re delle Due Sicilie and Maria Isabel de Borbón, Infanta de España, on 11 December 1829.
- He died on 29 September 1833 at age 48 at Madrid, Spain.
- Fernando VII, Rey de España was a member of the House of Bourbon. He gained the title of Rey Fernando VII de España in 1808. He was deposed as King of Spain in 1808. He succeeded to the title of Rey Fernando VII de España in 1814. (2)
- Children of Fernando VII, Rey de España and Maria Isabel de Bragança, Infanta de Portugal
-1. Maria Isabel de Borbón, Infanta de España b. 21 Aug 1817, d. 1818
-2. unnamed daughter de Borbón b. 26 Dec 1818, d. 26 Dec 1818
Children of Fernando VII, Rey de España and Maria Cristina di Borbone, Principessa delle Due Sicilie
-1. Isabel II, Reina de España+ b. 10 Oct 1830, d. 9 Apr 1904
-2. Maria Luisa Fernanda de Borbón, Infanta de España+ (3) b. 30 Jan 1832, d. 1 Feb 1897
Forrás / Source:
Ferdinand VII of Spain
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833.
The eldest son of Charles IV, king of Spain, and of his wife Maria Louisa of Parma, he was born in the vast palace of El Escorial near Madrid.
In his youth he occupied the painful position of an heir apparent who was jealously excluded from all share in government by his parents and the royal favorite Manuel de Godoy, his mother's lover. National discontent with a feeble government produced a revolution in 1805. In October 1807, Ferdinand was arrested for his complicity in the Conspiracy of the Escorial in which liberal reformers aimed at securing the help of the emperor Napoleon. When the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand betrayed his associates and grovelled to his parents.
Abdication and restoration
When his father's abdication was extorted by a popular riot at Aranjuez in March 1808, he ascended the throne but turned again to Napoleon, in the hope that the emperor would support him. He was in his turn forced to make an abdication and imprisoned in France for almost seven years at the Chateau of Valençay in the town of Valençay.
In March 1814 the Allies returned him to Madrid. The Spanish people, blaming the liberal, enlightened policies of the Francophiles (afrancesados) for incurring the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that while Spain was fighting for independence in his name and while in his name juntas had governed in Spanish America, a new world had been born of foreign invasion and domestic revolution. Spain was no longer an absolute monarchy under the liberal Constitution of 1812. Ferdinand, in being restored to the throne, guaranteed the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the existing constitution, but, encouraged by conservatives backed by the Church hierarchy, he rejected the constitution within weeks (May 4) and arrested the liberal leaders (May 10), justifying his actions as rejecting a constitution made by the Cortes in his absence and without his consent. Thus he had come back to assert the Bourbon doctrine that the sovereign authority resided in his person only.
Meanwhile, the South American Wars of Independence were under way, though many of the republican rebels would quarrel among themselves and Royalist sentiment was strong in many areas. In the case of the forces led by Bolívar himself, his first permanent victory did not occur until 1817. The Manila galleons and tax revenues from the Spanish Empire were interrupted, and Spain was all but bankrupt.
Ferdinand's restored autocracy was guided by a small camarilla of his favourites. He changed his ministers every few months, whimsical and ferocious by turns. The other autocratic powers of the Quintuple Alliance, though forced to support him as the representative of legitimacy in Spain, watched his proceedings with disgust and alarm. "The King", wrote Friedrich von Gentz to the hospodar Caradja on December 1, 1814, "himself enters the houses of his first ministers, arrests them, and hands them over to their cruel enemies"; and again, on January 14, 1815, "The king has so debased himself that he has become no more than the leading police agent and gaoler of his country."
As the Spanish king he was the head of the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece and in this capacity he made the Duke of Wellington the first Protestant member of the order.
In 1820 his misrule provoked a revolt in favor of the Constitution of 1812 which began with a mutiny of the troops under Col. Rafael Riego and the king was quickly made prisoner. He grovelled to the insurgents as he had done to his parents. Ferdinand had restored the Jesuits upon his return; now the Society had become identified with repression and absolutism among the liberals, who attacked them: twenty-five Jesuits were slain in Madrid in 1822. For the rest of the 19th century, expulsions and re-establishment of the Jesuits would continue to be touchmarks of liberal or authoritarian political regimes.
When at the beginning of 1823 as a result of the Congress of Verona the French invaded Spain "invoking the God of St Louis, for the sake of preserving the throne of Spain to a descendant of Henry IV, and of reconciling that fine kingdom with Europe," and in May the revolutionary party carried Ferdinand to Cádiz, he continued to make promises of amendment until he was free.
When freed after the Battle of Trocadero and the fall of Cadiz he revenged himself with a ferocity which disgusted his far from liberal allies. In violation of his oath to grant an amnesty he revenged himself, for three years of coercion, by killing on a scale which revolted his "rescuers" and against which the Duke of Angoulême, powerless to interfere, protested by refusing the Spanish decorations offered him for his military services.
During his last years Ferdinand's energy was abated. He no longer changed ministers every few months as a sport, and he allowed some of them to conduct the current business of government. His habits of life were telling on him. He became torpid, bloated and horrible to look at. After his fourth marriage, with Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in 1829, he was persuaded by his wife to set aside the law of succession of Philip V, which gave a preference to all the males of the family in Spain over the females. His marriage had brought him only two daughters. The change in the order of succession established by his dynasty in Spain angered a large part of the nation and made civil war, the Carlist Wars, inevitable.
When well he consented to the change under the influence of his wife. When ill he was terrified by priestly advisers who were partisans of his brother Carlos. What his final decision was is perhaps doubtful. His wife was mistress by his death-bed and she could put the words she chose into the mouth of a dead man and could move the dead hand at her will. Ferdinand died on September 29, 1833.
It had been a frequent saying with the more zealous royalists of Spain that a King must be wiser than his ministers for he was placed on the throne and directed by God. Since the reign of Ferdinand VII no one has maintained this unqualified version of the great doctrine of divine right.
King Ferdinand VII kept a diary during the troubled years 1820-1823 which has been published by the Count de Casa Valencia.
Marriages and children
Ferdinand VII married four times. In 1802 he married his cousin Princess Maria Antonietta of the Two Sicilies (1784-1806), daughter of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Marie Caroline of Austria. There were no children, because her two pregnancies (in 1804 and 1805) ended in miscarriages.
In 1816, he married his niece Maria Isabel de Bragança, Princess of Portugal (1797-1818), daughter of his older sister Carlota Joaquina and John VI of Portugal. Their only daughter lived only four months.
In 1819, he married Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony (1803-1829), daughter of Maximilian, Prince of Saxony and Caroline of Bourbon-Parma. No children were born from this marriage.
Lastly, in 1829, he married another niece, Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1806–1878), daughter of his younger sister Maria Isabella of Spain and Francis I of the Two Sicilies. She bore him two daughters:
Luisa Fernanda (1832-1897). Married Anton d'Orleans, Duke of Montpensier, and had issue.
Assessment of the Encyclopædia Britannica 1911
We have to distinguish the part of Ferdinand VII in all these transactions, in which other and better men were concerned. It can confidently be said to have been uniformly base. He had perhaps no right to complain that he was kept aloof from all share in government while only heir apparent, for this was the traditional practice of his family. But as heir to the throne he had a right to resent the degradation of the crown he was to inherit, and the power of a favourite who was his mother's lover. If he had put himself at the head of a popular rising he would have been followed, and would have had a good excuse. His course was to enter on dim intrigues at the instigation of his first wife, Maria Antonietta of Naples. After her death in 1806 he was drawn into other intrigues by flatterers. At Valancay, where he was sent as a prisoner of state, he sank contentedly into vulgar vice, and scruples did not deter him from applauding the French victories over the people who were suffering unutterable misery in
Ferdinand VII oli Espanjan kuningas vuosina 1813–1833 sekä lyhyen aikaa vuonna 1808. Wikipedia Syntyi: 14. lokakuuta 1784, El Escorial, Espanja Kuoli: 29. syyskuuta 1833, Madrid, Espanja
Vanhemmat: Maria Luisa of Parma, Kaarle IV Lapset: Isabella II, Infanta Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier
Sisarukset: Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, Carlota Joaquina of Spain, Infante Francisco de Paula of Spain, María Isabella of Spain, Maria Luisa of Spain, Duchess of Lucca
Puolisot: Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies (v. 1819–1833), Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony (v. 1819–1829), Maria Isabel of Portugal (v. 1816–1818), Princess Maria Antonia of Naples and Sicily (v. 1804–1806)
Fernando VII "El Deseado", King of Spain's Timeline
October 14, 1784
El Escorial, Comunidad de Madrid, España
November 14, 1784
El Escorial, Madrid, Community of Madrid, Spain
August 21, 1817
October 10, 1830
Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España
January 30, 1832
Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España
September 29, 1833