George Douglas , 4th Earl of Angus

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George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus

Also Known As: "The Red Douglas", "George Douglas 4th Earl of Angus Lord Douglas Abernethy and Jedburgh Forest", "Lord Douglas", "Abernethy and Jedburgh Forest"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Mar, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
Death: November 14, 1463 (42-50)
Abernathy, Perth and Kinross, Scotland
Place of Burial: Abernethy, Perthshire, Scotland
Immediate Family:

Son of William Douglas, 2nd Earl of Angus and Margaret Hay, of Yester
Husband of Isabella Douglas and Isabel Sibbald of Balgony
Father of Elizabeth Douglas; Isabella Douglas; Archibald "Bell the Cat" Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus; Janet Douglas of Angus; Johanna (Douglas) Scott and 7 others
Brother of Hugh Douglas, Rector of St. Andrews; James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Angus; William Douglas, of Cluny; Catherine Douglas; Margaret Douglas and 1 other

Occupation: Scottish nobleman, 4th Earl of Angus, 4th Earl of Douglas, Ambassador to England
Managed by: Private User
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About George Douglas , 4th Earl of Angus

George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus 

  • Father  William Douglas, 2nd Earl of Angus, b. Abt 1398, Mar, Aberdeenshire, Scotland  
  • Mother  Margaret Hay
  • Died  12 Mar 1463 
  • Buried  Abernethy, Scotland   

 The Earls of Angus remained loyal to James II even as their kinsmen, the Black Douglases, were making war on him. George, 4th Earl of Angus led the King's Army against his kinsman, James, 9th Earl of Douglas, at the Battle of Arkinholm in 1455. The result was the end of the Black Douglases. After the battle an act of parliament gave Angus the lordship of Douglas with the original possessions of his ancestors in Douglasdale. The 4th Earl died in 1463.  

Family

George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus married prior to his accession, Isabella Sibbald. They had nine children:

  1. Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus
  2. John Douglas
  3. Anne Douglas, married William Graham, 3rd Lord Graham
  4. Isabella Douglas, married Sir Alexander Ramsay
  5. Elizabeth Douglas, married Sir Robert Graham of Fintry
  6. Margaret Douglas, married sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy
  7. Janet Douglas, married 1st Duncan Scott younger of Buccleuch, 2nd George Leslie, 1st Earl of Rothes
  8. Egidia Douglas
  9. Alice Douglas

George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus

From Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus, Lord Douglas, Abernethy and Jedburgh Forest (1429-1462) was a Scottish Nobleman. He was the son of William Douglas, 2nd Earl of Angus and Margaret Hay of Yester. He succeeded to the Earldom at the age of 16, following the death of his brother James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Angus in 1446. He was to become the first Red Chief of Douglas.

The chief line of the family were the Earls of Douglas which represented the "Black" line, whereas Angus represented the "Red" Line. Both branches were descended through bastardy to William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas. The Earl of Douglas descended through Archibald the Grim, an illegitimate son of Sir James Douglas. The 4th Earl of Angus' grandfather was an illegitimate child of William, 1st Earl of Douglas.

Although the representatives of both lines of the House wore the "three stars argent" and "Man's Heart gules" on their arms the 4th Earl of Angus and the 8th Earl of Douglas were third cousins. Angus had closer ties with the House of Stewart than his Douglas cousins however, being the great-grandson of Robert III of Scotland through his grandmother Princess Mary of Scotland, Countess of Angus. This was to have major implications in the downfall of the Black Douglases and the rise of the Red line.

Douglases united

In June 1448, Angus joined with his kinsmen the Earl of Douglas and his brother Hugh Douglas, Earl of Ormonde on a punitive raid into England and despoiled the countryside as far as Alnwick which they burnt and "come hame wele". This was in response to attacks led by the Earl of Northumberland and Robert Ogle in which they had burnt Dunbar Castle in the east, and by the Earl of Salisbury who had laid waste to Dumfries in the west. The score was evened in July when the Douglases invested Warkworth Castle and "did gret scaith"[1] and the victory over Northumberland at the Battle of Sark.

This action in 1448 would be the last time that the two branches of the House of Douglas would act in partnership, and ride together against their hereditary foes of Percy and Neville.

The Douglas Rebellion

In 1452 the 8th Earl of Douglas was murdered at Stirling Castle, by his monarch James II while under assurances of safe-conduct. Other notable magnates assisted the drunken King James in the act. The whole of Douglasdale rose in rebellion under the late Earl's younger brothers, James the new 9th Earl of Douglas, his twin Archibald Douglas, Earl of Moray, and the younger Hugh Douglas, Earl of Ormonde, and John Douglas, Lord of Balvenie. During this time of intermittent internecine strife in Scotland, it would have been expected that Angus would have thrown his lot in with his Douglas cousins. If this had been the case it could have spelled disaster for the House of Stewart. Contemporary opinion would not have been surprised if he had, but as alluded above the ties of kinship were closer between Angus and King James were close, being first cousins within one degree. A magnate as powerful as Angus could not abstain from declaring himself either way. So, when the rebellion began in earnest in early 1455, and the King took to the field against the Douglas brothers, Angus came out in full support of his Monarch, and was given high command within the Royal army. It has been suggested that Angus accompanied the King at the siege of Abercorn. Following the defection of James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton, Douglas' chief lieutenant to the King's side, the Earl of Douglas fled to England in an attempt to gain support from Henry VI of England. Douglas' brothers stayed in Scotland to continue the struggle. The brothers had appeared in force in Annandale and King James sent Angus to deal with them. Angus mustered the Border Clans and encountered the rebels on the 18th of May near Langholm. The ensuing Battle of Arkinholm was a rout for the Douglas brothers, Moray was killed and Ormonde captured (to be executed soon after) and only Balvenie escaped to England. That summer the Black Douglases were attainted and their estates declared forfeit. Angus appended his seal to the charter in token of approval.

Ascendancy of the Red Douglas

Following the acts of attainder Angus received the vast fiefdom and superiority of the Lordship of Douglas, obtaining a charter of confirmation in 1457

In 1460, Angus accompanied King James' to the siege of English held Roxburgh Castle. The castle, as well as having been a thorn in the side of successive Scottish monarchs, also contained a garrison loyal to the House of York, James had decided to back the House of Lancaster. On the 3rd of August James' queen, Mary of Gueldres had arrived to inspire enthusiasm amongst the besiegers. Perhaps too much, James overseeing the cannonade to greet his wife, was standing too close to one of the bombards when it exploded, killing him, and wounding his constant companion Angus. Angus, though wounded, was still able to take command of much of the siege, and the castle was successfully stormed and taken within the week. Furthermore, he was able to attend the coronation of James III at Kelso Abbey on the 10th of August, where he placed the Crown upon the nine year old King's head, as was his right as Lord Abernethy, apparently proclaiming: "There! Now that I have set it upon your Grace's head,let me see who will be so bold as to move it."[2]

Angus' had already become enormously powerful during the reign of James II and during the Regency for his son, his power continued to grow. The Scots parliament had decreed following the forfeiture of the Black Douglases, that no Douglas should have the hereditary right to the wardenship of the Marches, Angus continued to exercise command over the East and Middle Marches, and was appointed lieutenant of the Realm by the Queen-regent Mary of Gueldres.

In the following year Angus spent a great deal of time consolidating his estates, placing trusted vassals in charge of the more far flung estates. 1462 saw Angus receive all of the goods lands and rents of the adherents of the forfeited Douglases in Roxburghshire, apart from those already owned by his brother William Douglas of Cluny.

In the same year Angus was involved in negotiations with the Lancastrian Henry VI of England. Henry had obtained a bond from Angus to aid him with "a stipulated force for the recovery of that realm [England] from Henry's rebels and enemies". For Henry's part he promised Angus, on the recovery of his kingdom "to make the saide erle sufficiently and suerly after the lawes of England a duke withynne the said reavme of England, with stile, astate, honure and name of a duke", the dukedom was to come with a castle and land to the value of 2000 marks.[3]

Angus was unable to pursue his plans for an English dukedom, when he died on the 11th of March 1463 at Abernethy.

Offices held

  • Angus was a commissioner sent to treat with the English twice, in 1449 and in 1459.
  • Ambassador to England in 1451
  • Warden of the East and Middle Marches 1455-1462
  • Peerage of Scotland: Preceded by James Douglas Earl of Angus 1446-1462 Succeeded by Archibald Douglas

Refs

  1. Maxwell, Sir Herbert. A History of the House of Douglas. Freemantle, London 1902

The chief line of the family were the Earls of Douglas which represented the "Black" line, whereas Angus represented the "Red" Line. Both branches were descended through bastardy to William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas. The Earl of Douglas descended through Archibald the Grim, an illegitimate son of Sir James Douglas. The 4th Earl of Angus' grandfather was an illegitimate child of William, 1st Earl of Douglas.

Although the representatives of both lines of the House wore the "three stars argent" and "Man's Heart gules" on their arms the 4th Earl of Angus and the 8th Earl of Douglas were third cousins. Angus had closer ties with the House of Stewart than his Douglas cousins however, being the great-grandson of Robert III of Scotland through his grandmother Princess Mary of Scotland, Countess of Angus. This was to have major implications in the downfall of the Black Douglases and the rise of the Red line.

Sources

  1. Scots Peerage. James Balfour Paul.  Publication: 1904 - 1914 Vol. 7, page 279
  2. Historical records of the family of Leslie from 1067 to 1868-69. Collected from public records and authentic private sources. by Colonel Leslie, K. H., of Balquhain. Published 1869 by Edmonston and Douglas in Edinburgh . Vol 2, pp 45-46

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George Douglas , 4th Earl of Angus's Timeline

1417
1417
Mar, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
1448
1448
Age 31
Earldom of Mar, Scotland
1448
Age 31
1449
October 16, 1449
Age 32
Kilmaurs, East Ayrshire, Scotland, United Kingdom
1450
1450
Age 33
Earldom of Mar, Scotland
1452
1452
Age 35
Kilmaurs, Ayrshire, Scotland
1455
1455
Age 38
1456
January 1, 1456
Age 39
Kilmaurs, Ayrshire, Scotland
1457
1457
Age 40