Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester

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Gilbert "the Red Earl" de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester

Also Known As: "red", "The red earl", "The Red", "3rd Earl of Gloucester", "The Red Earl"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Christchurch, Hampshire, England
Death: Died in Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire, Wales
Place of Burial: Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Maud Matilda de Lacy
Husband of Alice de Lusignan, de Angouleme and Joan of Acre
Father of Isabella de Clare, Baroness Berkeley; Johanna MacDuff; Eleanor de Clare, Baroness Despenser; Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester; Margaret de Clare, Countess of Gloucester and 1 other
Brother of Isabel de Clare; Robert (Richard) De Clare; Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond; Bogo de Clare, Clerk; Margaret de Clare, Countess of Cornwall and 2 others

Occupation: 7th Earl of Hertford, 3rd Earl of Gloucester, EARL OF CLARE (9TH), HEREFORD (7TH) AND GLOUCESTER, 'THE RED', Hertford, Caerleon
Managed by: Ofir Friedman
Last Updated:

About Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester

"Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester (2 September 1243 – 7 December 1295) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare or "The red earl", probably because of his hair colour or fiery temper in battle"

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Links:

http://www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/gdeclare.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_de_Clare,_7th_Earl_of_Gloucester

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=84189824

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I1155&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I602&tree=Nixon

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I785&tree=PagetHeraldicBaronag

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I116316&tree=Welsh

http://www.mathematical.com/claregilbert1243.html

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=16441470

http://thepeerage.com/p10223.htm#i102230

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Citations / Sources:

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 82. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 244. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.

[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 177.

[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 129.

[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume I, page 243.

[S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995), de Clare, Gilbert. Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.

[S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.

[S2411] #11915 British Genealogy (filmed 1950), Evans, Alcwyn Caryni, (Books A to H. National Library of Wales MSS 12359-12360D. Manuscript filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), FHL microfilms 104,355 and 104,390 item 2., book 5 p. E2, 69*.

[S2420] #11886 The Golden Grove books of pedigrees (filmed 1970), (Manuscript, National Library of Wales manuscript number Castell Gorfod 7. Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), FHL microfilms 104,349-104,351., book 5 p. C623, 624*; book 16 p. M1925.

[S673] #1079 A History of Monmouthshire from the Coming of the Normans into Wales down to the Present Time (1904-1993), Bradney, Sir Joseph Alfred, (Publications of the South Wales Record Society, number 8. Five volumes in 13. London: Mitchell, Hughes and Clarke, 1904-1993), FHL book 942.43 H2b., vol. 3 p. 2, 8, 191.

[S673] #1079 A History of Monmouthshire from the Coming of the Normans into Wales down to the Present Time (1904-1993), Bradney, Sir Joseph Alfred, (Publications of the South Wales Record Society, number 8. Five volumes in 13. London: Mitchell, Hughes and Clarke, 1904-1993), FHL book 942.43 H2b., vol. 3 p. 8.

[S2] Paget Heraldic Baronage, Paget, Gerald, (Manuscript, filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1957), chart no. 55 Berkeley, FHL microfilm 170063, chart no. 106 Burgh, Earls of Ulster, chart no. 130 Clare, FHL microfilm 170063, 2/2.

[S2] Paget Heraldic Baronage, Paget, Gerald, (Manuscript, filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1957), chart no. 182 Despenser, FHL microfilm 170064.

[S2] Paget Heraldic Baronage, Paget, Gerald, (Manuscript, filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1957), chart no. 130 Clare, FHL microfilm 170063, 2/2.


Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_de_Clare,_7th_Earl_of_Hertford

Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester (2 September 1243, at Christchurch, Hampshire – 7 December 1295) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare, probably because of his hair colour.


Gilbert de Clare was the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy. Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan, from 1263.

Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan, also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that had now succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke.

They were married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten-years-old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry, but the marriage floundered.

Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267; allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward. Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters:

1) Isabel de Clare (10 March 1262-1333), married (1) Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick; (2) Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley

2) Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife; (2) Gervase Avenel

After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was finally annulled in 1285, Gilbert was to be married to Joan of Acre, a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.

On 3 July 1290 the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307). The delay was in getting the Pope to facilitate and agree the arrangement.

Thereafter Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land, but in September he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff.

Gilbert and Joan had one son - his successor:

1) Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester (1291-1314) who was killed at Bannockburn,

and 3 daughters:

1) Eleanor (1292-1337) who married firstly Hugh Despencer (The Younger, favourite of her uncle Edward II) - he was executed in 1326, and she married secondly William de la Zouche;

2) Margaret (1293-1342) who married firstly Piers Gaveston (executed in 1312) and then Hugh Audeley;

and the youngest

3) Elizabeth de Clare (16 Sep 1295 -04 Nov 1360), who married John de Burgh, 30th Sept 1308, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England, then Theobald of Verdun in 1316, and finally Roger Damory in 1317. Each marriage was brief, produced one child (a son by the 1st, daughters by the 2nd and 3rd), and left her a widow.

Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford.

In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury, as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester.

Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed de Clare's Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece; but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.

Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May, Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the second line of the battle and took the King prisoner, having hamstrung his horse. As Prince Edward had also been captured, Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.

On 20 October 1264, de Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Guy Foulques, and his lands placed under an interdict.

In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester.

Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 August, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.

On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.

In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock.

At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence.

At the death of Henry III, 16 November 1272, the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I, who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade. The next day, with the Archbishop of York, he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews, and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.

Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle.

During Llywelyn the Last's Welsh rebellion in 1282, de Clare insisted on leading an attack into southern Wales. King Edward thus made de Clare the commander of the southern army invading Wales. However de Clare's army faced disaster after being heavily defeated at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr. Following this defeat, de Clare was relieved of his position as the southern commander and was replaced by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (who's son had died during the battle).

In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock, where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.

They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare.

His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Gilbert and Joan had a descendant named Ursula Hildyard of Yorkshire, who in 1596 married (Sir) Richard Jackson of Killingwoldgraves, near Beverley in the East Riding. Jackson died in 1610 and was interred at Bishop Burton. In 1613, James posthumously awarded a coat of arms and a knighthood to Richard for meretorious military service in the Lowlands of Scotland.


This was taken from: http://www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/gdeclare.html

Gilbert 'the Red' De Clare,

Earl of Gloucester

(1243-1295)

Born: 2nd September 1243

at Christchurch, Hampshire

Earl of Gloucester

Earl of Hertford

Died: 7th December 1295

at Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire

Gilbert was nicknamed the 'Red Earl' after the colour of his hair. He was the eldest son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester & Hertford and Margaret de Lacy, the Countess of Lincoln. After his father's death in 1262, Gilbert, still a minor, inherited vast estates in the West Country, the Welsh Marches and Ireland. He took possession the following year.

During Simon de Montfort's Rebellion of 1263-4, Gilbert was, initially, a keen supporter and he and his brother were knighted by the Earl shortly before the Battle of Lewes. However, being the two most powerful men in the country, a clash was inevitable. Gilbert was greedy for the spoils of victory, including additional authority in the government and a degree of independence for his vast estates. He therefore stood up as a defender of the 'Provisions of Oxford' - his father's initiative to establish a proto-parliament - and inferred that De Montfort's despotism was betraying its principles. In May 1265, Gilbert split from the De Montfort party and allied himself with the newly escaped Prince Edward, for whom he won the Battle of Evesham. However, while the surviving followers of De Montfort thought him a traitor, Gilbert's relationship with the Royalist party was hardly less strained.

He became a champion for disinherited rebel sympathizers and protested at the lack of implementation of the 'Provisions of Oxford', even though the Royal victory rendered these redundant. With constitutional restraint and decency as his watch words, Gilbert seems to have hoped to exercise a detached role in English political life. When he found this impossible, he raised an army in 1267 and took over the city of London. His grievances were then placed before the arbitration of Richard, Earl of Cornwall. To all the World, Gilbert thence appeared reconciled with the establishment, but discontent was still festering.

Gilbert took up the cause of the Cross in 1268 and promised to go on Crusade with Prince Edward two years later, although this never came to fruition. The following year, he succeeded in securing the restoration of lands to those who had been disinherited. Thereafter, however, his political autonomy was rendered impotent by firm Royal control and he remained loyal to King Edward I. Having been divorced from Henry II's hypochondriac half-niece, Alice De Lusignan, in 1271, Gilbert remarried, in 1290, to Edward I's daughter, Joan of Acre. The marriage contract stipulated his vast estates could only be inherited by their descendents, thus greatly increasing the chances of them reverting to the Crown (which, indeed, occurred in 1314). Gilbert was thus bound still more closely to the Royal Court; although, as late as 1292, he was being tried over disputed rights in the Welsh Marches. He only gained his freedom and the restoration of his lands, after paying a fine of 10,000 marks (£6,666.13s.4d).

Gilbert De Clare spent his life attempting to establish himself in an independent political role from which he might negotiate his loyalty to the Crown. Whatever his actual view of the 'Provisions of Oxford', he played off one faction against another in the Civil War, exploiting the situation as an easy means of pursuing his own personal agenda. In this, he ultimately failed and was subsequently humiliated, largely because of his own political incompetence, but also due to the increase of Royal power after the Baronial Wars. In the end, although he remained at Court, he had become a relic of a bygone age. Earl Gilbert died in December 1295, at the age of fifty-two, and was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey (Gloucestershire); although his widow may have buried his heart in the church at their favoured Berkshire manor of Long Wittenham, where the two often stayed when attended the King at Oxford and Woodstock.

THis web site tell more about Gilbert the Red

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/NORgilbertred.htm


Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertfo

 (Redirected from Gilbert de Clare, 3rd Earl of Gloucester

Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester (September 2, 1243, at Christchurch, Hampshire – December 7, 1295) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare, probably because of his hair colour.

Lineage

Gilbert de Clare was the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy. Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan, from 1263.

Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford.

[edit] Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury

In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury[1], as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester.

Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed de Clare's Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece; but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.

[edit] The Battle of Lewes

Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May, Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the second line of the battle and took the King prisoner, having hamstrung his horse. As Prince Edward had also been captured, Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.

[edit] Excommunication

On 20 October 1264, de Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Guy Foulques, and his lands placed under an interdict.

In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester.

Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 August, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.

On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.

[edit] Activities as a Marcher Lord

In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock.

At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence.

At the death of Henry III, 16 November 1272, the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I, who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade. The next day, with the Archbishop of York, he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews, and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.

Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle.

[edit] The Welsh war in 1282

During Llywelyn the Last's Welsh rebellion in 1282, de Clare insisted on leading an attack into southern Wales. King Edward thus made de Clare the commander of the southern army invading Wales. However de Clare's army faced disaster after being heavily defeated at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr. Following this defeat, de Clare was relieved of his position as the southern commander and was replaced by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (who's son had died during the battle).

[edit] Marriage and succession

Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan, also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that had now succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They were married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten-years-old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry, but the marriage floundered.

Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267; allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward. Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters:

Isabel de Clare (10 March 1262-1333), married (1) Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick; (2) Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley

Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife; (2) Gervase Avenel

After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was finally annulled in 1285, Gilbert was to be married to Joan of Acre, a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.

On 3 July 1290 the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307). The delay was in getting the Pope to facilitate and agree the arrangement.

Thereafter Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land, but in September he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff.

Gilbert and Joan had one son - his successor Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester (1291-1314) who was killed at Bannockburn, and 3 daughters: Eleanor (1292-1337) who married firstly Hugh Despencer (The Younger, favourite of her uncle Edward II)-he was executed in 1326, and she married secondly William de la Zouche; Margaret (1293-1342) who married firstly Piers Gaveston (executed in 1312) and then Hugh Audeley; and the youngest Elizabeth de Clare (16 Sep 1295 -04 Nov 1360), who married John de Burgh, 30th Sept 1308, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England, then Theobald of Verdun in 1316, and finally Roger Damory in 1317. Each marriage was brief, produced one child (a son by the 1st, daughters by the 2nd and 3rd), and left her a widow.

[edit] Private Marcher War

In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock, where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.

They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

[edit] Death & Burial

He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare.

His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Gilbert and Joan had a descendant named Ursula Hildyard of Yorkshire, who in 1596 married (Sir) Richard Jackson of Killingwoldgraves, near Beverley in the East Riding. Jackson died in 1610 and was interred at Bishop Burton. In 1613, James posthumously awarded a coat of arms and a knighthood to Richard for meretorious military service in the Lowlands of Scotland.

Sources

Altschul, Michael. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares, 1217-1314, 1965

Family de Clare History

Notes

^ Richard Huscroft, Expulsion: England's Jewish Solution (2006), p. 105.


Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester (September 2, 1243, at Christchurch, Hampshire – December 7, 1295) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare, probably because of his hair colour.

Lineage

Gilbert de Clare was the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy. Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan, from 1263.

Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford.

Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury

In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury[1], as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester.

Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed his Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece; but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.

The Battle of Lewes

Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May, Simon de Montfort 'knighted' the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the second line of the battle and took the King prisoner, having hamstrung his horse. As Prince Edward had also been captured, Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.

Excommunication

On 20 October 1264, de Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Guy Foulques, and his lands placed under an interdict.

In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester.

Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 August, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.

On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.

Activities as a Marcher Lord

In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock.

At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence.

At the death of Henry III, 16 November 1272, the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I, who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade. The next day, with the Archbishop of York, he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews, and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.

Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle.

Marriage and succession

Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan, also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that had now succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They were married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten-years-old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry, but the marriage floundered.

Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267; allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward. Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters:

Isabel de Clare (10 March 1262-1333), married (1) Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick; (2) Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley

Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife; (2) Gervase Avenel

After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was finally annulled in 1285, Gilbert was to be married to Joan of Acre, a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.

On 3 July 1290 the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with the Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307). The delay was in getting the Pope to facilitate and agree the arrangement.

Thereafter Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land, but in September he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff.

Private Marcher War

In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock, where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.

They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

Death & Burial

He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare.

His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307.

Source

Altschul, Michael. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares, 1217-1314, 1965

Notes

^ Richard Huscroft, Expulsion: England's Jewish Solution (2006), p. 105.

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Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester's Timeline

1243
September 2, 1243
Christchurch, Hampshire, England
1262
March 10, 1262
Age 18
Elmley, England
1264
1264
Age 20
Elmley,,Worcestershire,England
1291
May 10, 1291
Age 47
Winchcombe Near, Tewkesbury, Gloucester, England
1292
October 3, 1292
Age 49
Caerphilly, Glamorganshire, Wales
October 12, 1292
Age 49
Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England
1295
September 16, 1295
Age 52
Tewkesbury, Gloucester, England