Grasulf, duke of Friuli

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Grasulf

Italian: Grasulfo
Also Known As: "Grasulf", "Grasulfo", "Grasulph"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy
Death: Died in Cividale, Province of Udine, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy
Immediate Family:

Son of Gisulf I, duke of Friuli and N.N.
Husband of Romhilde of d'Austrasie
Brother of Gisulf II, duke of Friuli

Occupation: Duke of Friuli 591-611
Managed by: Ben
Last Updated:

About Grasulf, duke of Friuli

From the Medlands project posted by the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORTHERN%20ITALY%20900-1100.htm#GisulfFriulia

A. DUKES of FRIULIA [569]-625

GISULF, son of --- .

  • Shield-bearer of Alboin King of the Lombards, who installed him as duke in the region of Friuli after the Longobard migration into Italy in [569][169], in effect succeeding as GISULF I Duke of Friulia. Paulus Diaconus records that King Alboin installed "Gisulfum…suum nepotem" as "ducem…[in] Foroiulanæ civitati"[170].
  • The Chronicle of Andreas Bergomatis records that Alboin conceded Friuli to "nepoti sui Gisolfi"[171]. The precise relationship between Gisulf and King Alboin is unknown and may have been more remote than implied by "nephew" if the word nepos if translated strictly in these passages.
  • m ---. The name of the wife of Duke Gisulf has not yet been identified.

Duke Gisulf & his wife had two children:

  • 1. GISULF (-killed in battle Friulia 610).
    • The primary source which confirms that Gisulf was the son of Duke Gisulf I has not yet been identified.
    • He succeeded his father as GISULF II Duke of Friulia. Paulus Diaconus records that "Gaidoaldus dux de Tridento et Gisulfus de Foroiuli" rebelled against Agilolf King of the Lombards but were pardoned[172]. His importance as ruler in Friulia is shown by Paulus Diaconus specifying that the installation of "Iohannes" as Patriarch of Aquileja was "cum consensu regis et Gisulfi ducis"[173].
    • Paulus Diaconus records that "rex Avarum" launched another invasion during which "Gisulfus Foroiulianis dux" was killed[174].
    • m ROMILDA, daughter of ---. Paulus Diaconus names "Romilda" as wife of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when he records her escape with her children after her husband was killed[175].
    • Duke Gisulf & his wife had eight children:
      • a) TASO (-executed Opitergium 625).
        • Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[176].
        • He succeeded his father in 610 as TASO Duke of Friulia. Paulus Diaconus records that "Taso et Cacco filii eius" succeeded as dukes of Friulia after the death of their father[177].
      • b) CACCO (-executed Opitergium 625).
        • Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[178].
        • He succeeded his father in 610 as CACCO Duke of Friulia. Paulus Diaconus records that "Taso et Cacco filii eius" succeeded as dukes of Friulia after the death of their father[179].
      • c) RADOALD (-[647/48]).
        • Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[180].
        • Paulus Diaconus records that "Radoald…et Grimoald" went to Benevento to join "Arichis Beneventanorum ducem"[181]. He fled to Benevento with his brother Romuald after the execution of their two older brothers.
        • He succeeded his relative Aion I in [641/42] as RADOALD Duke of Benevento.
      • d) GRIMOALD (-671, bur Ticinum, Basilica of St Ambrosius).
        • Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording Grimoald's difficulty in escaping after the death of their father[182].
        • Paulus Diaconus records that "Radoald…et Grimoald" went to Benevento to join "Arichis Beneventanorum ducem"[183]. He fled to Benevento with his brother Radoald after the execution of their two older brothers.
        • He succeeded his brother in [647/48] as GRIMOALD I Duke of Benevento.
      • e) APPA .
        • Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", recording that one later married "Alamannorum regi, alia…Baioariorum principi", without specifying which[184].
        • [m --- [Duke of Alamannia] ---. The identity of this Alamannian duke is not known, assuming that the report of Paulus Diaconus is accurate.]
      • f) GAILA .
        • Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", recording that one later married "Alamannorum regi, alia…Baioariorum principi", without specifying which[185].
        • [m --- [Duke of Bavaria] ---. The identity of this Bavarian duke has not yet been identified, assuming that the report of Paulus Diaconus is accurate.]
      • g) daughter .
        • Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux"[186].
      • h) daughter .
        • Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux"[187].
  • '2. GRASULF (-[641]).

**Paulus Diaconus names "Grasulfus, Gisulfi germanus" when recording that he was installed as "dux Foroiulanis"[188].

  • *Paulus Diaconus records the death of "aput Foroiuli Grasulfo duce" and the accession of Ago, the passage being undated but immediately following the report of the death of Emperor Heraclius which is dated to (Feb. 11) 641[189]. Paulus Diaconus records that "Ago" succeeded on the death of "Grasulfo Foroiulanorum duce", and after the death of Ago, "Lupus"[190].

The precise relationship between Arichis and Duke Gisulf II has not yet been identified:

  • 3. ARICHIS, son of --- .
    • Paulus Diaconus records the death of "Zottone Beneventanorum duce", specifying that "Arigis" was appointed to succeed as missus by King Agilulf, specifying that he was "consanguineus" of "Gisulfi Foroiulani ducis" (presumably referring to Duke Gisulf II) whose sons he had educated[191].
    • The precise relationship between Duke Gisulf and Arichis has not yet been identified.
    • According to the Chronicon Ducum Beneventi, Salerni, Capuæ et Neapolis, "Archis" was installed as ARICHIS I Duke of Benevento in [604/05] and ruled 50 years[192] but the period is exaggerated.

Footnotes:

  • [169] Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), pp. 76-7.
  • [170] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.9, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 77.
  • [171] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232.
  • [172] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 125.
  • [173] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.33, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 127.
  • [174] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128.
  • [175] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128.
  • [176] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128.
  • [177] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.38, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 132.
  • [178] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128.
  • [179] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.38, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 132.
  • [180] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128.
  • [181] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133.
  • [182] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128.
  • [183] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133.
  • [184] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129.
  • [185] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129.
  • [186] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129.
  • [187] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129.
  • [188] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133.
  • [189] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.50, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 137.
  • [190] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.17, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 151.
  • [191] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.18, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 122.
  • [192] Chronicon Ducum Beneventi, Salerni, Capuæ et Neapolis, MGH SS III, p. 211.

---

From the Wikipedia page on Grasulf I of Friuli:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grasulf_I_of_Friuli

Grasulf I (died after 571) was a brother of Alboin, the first Lombard King of Italy, and possibly the first Duke of Friuli. Grasulf's son, Gisulf, is the other candidate for first Duke of Friuli. Paul the Deacon names Gisulf, but some scholars have favoured Grasulf based on a diplomatic letter which refers to him as duke.

This letter was written by Gogo, Frankish mayor of the palace of Austrasia under Sigebert I and Childebert II, sometime between Gogo's rise to power in 571 and his death in 581. Sadly it is undated and unattached to the name of either king he served. It has traditionally been assigned to around the year of his death (581), but an alternative solution put forward by Walter Goffart places it as early as 571–572 around the time of Sigebert's embassy to Constantinople. In it Gogo urges Grasulf to ally himself with the Franks to oust the infestantes (presumably the Lombards) from Italy in league with the Byzantine Empire and the Papacy. Ambassadors were waiting in Austrasia for Grasulf's reply in case he wished to delay his response to the emperor.

While the exact location of Grasulf's seat of power is unknown, if he did rule, the letter from Gogo is evidence that the "Friulian court" was capable of handling sophisticated imperial correspondence less than a decade after the Lombard arrival on Italian soil.

Sources

Bachrach, Bernard S. The Anatomy of a Little War: A Diplomatic and Military History of the Gundovald Affair (568–586). Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.

Everett, Nicholas. Literacy in Lombard Italy, c. 568–774. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0 521 81905 9.

Nelson, Janet L. "Queens as Jezebels: Brunhild and Balthild in Merovingian History." Medieval Women: Essays Dedicated and Presented to Professor Rosalind M. T. Hill, ed. D. Baker. Studies in Church History: Subsidia, vol. 1 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1978), pp. 31–77. Reprinted in Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe. London: Hambledon Press, 1986. ISBN 0 907628 59 1.


From the Medlands project posted by the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORTHERN%20ITALY%20900-1100.htm#GisulfFriulia

A. DUKES of FRIULIA [569]-625

GISULF, son of --- .

Shield-bearer of Alboin King of the Lombards, who installed him as duke in the region of Friuli after the Longobard migration into Italy in [569][169], in effect succeeding as GISULF I Duke of Friulia. Paulus Diaconus records that King Alboin installed "Gisulfum…suum nepotem" as "ducem…[in] Foroiulanæ civitati"[170]. The Chronicle of Andreas Bergomatis records that Alboin conceded Friuli to "nepoti sui Gisolfi"[171]. The precise relationship between Gisulf and King Alboin is unknown and may have been more remote than implied by "nephew" if the word nepos if translated strictly in these passages. m ---. The name of the wife of Duke Gisulf has not yet been identified. Duke Gisulf & his wife had two children:

1. GISULF (-killed in battle Friulia 610).

The primary source which confirms that Gisulf was the son of Duke Gisulf I has not yet been identified. He succeeded his father as GISULF II Duke of Friulia. Paulus Diaconus records that "Gaidoaldus dux de Tridento et Gisulfus de Foroiuli" rebelled against Agilolf King of the Lombards but were pardoned[172]. His importance as ruler in Friulia is shown by Paulus Diaconus specifying that the installation of "Iohannes" as Patriarch of Aquileja was "cum consensu regis et Gisulfi ducis"[173].

Paulus Diaconus records that "rex Avarum" launched another invasion during which "Gisulfus Foroiulianis dux" was killed[174]. m ROMILDA, daughter of ---. Paulus Diaconus names "Romilda" as wife of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when he records her escape with her children after her husband was killed[175].

Duke Gisulf & his wife had eight children:

  • a) TASO (-executed Opitergium 625).

Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[176]. He succeeded his father in 610 as TASO Duke of Friulia. Paulus Diaconus records that "Taso et Cacco filii eius" succeeded as dukes of Friulia after the death of their father[177].

  • b) CACCO (-executed Opitergium 625).

Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[178]. He succeeded his father in 610 as CACCO Duke of Friulia. Paulus Diaconus records that "Taso et Cacco filii eius" succeeded as dukes of Friulia after the death of their father[179].

  • c) RADOALD (-[647/48]).

Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[180]. Paulus Diaconus records that "Radoald…et Grimoald" went to Benevento to join "Arichis Beneventanorum ducem"[181]. He fled to Benevento with his brother Romuald after the execution of their two older brothers. He succeeded his relative Aion I in [641/42] as RADOALD Duke of Benevento.

  • d) GRIMOALD (-671, bur Ticinum, Basilica of St Ambrosius).

Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording Grimoald's difficulty in escaping after the death of their father[182]. Paulus Diaconus records that "Radoald…et Grimoald" went to Benevento to join "Arichis Beneventanorum ducem"[183]. He fled to Benevento with his brother Radoald after the execution of their two older brothers. He succeeded his brother in [647/48] as GRIMOALD I Duke of Benevento.

  • e) APPA .

Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", recording that one later married "Alamannorum regi, alia…Baioariorum principi", without specifying which[184]. [m --- [Duke of Alamannia] ---. The identity of this Alamannian duke is not known, assuming that the report of Paulus Diaconus is accurate.]

  • f) GAILA .

Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", recording that one later married "Alamannorum regi, alia…Baioariorum principi", without specifying which[185]. [m --- [Duke of Bavaria] ---. The identity of this Bavarian duke has not yet been identified, assuming that the report of Paulus Diaconus is accurate.]

  • g) daughter .

Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux"[186].

  • h) daughter .

Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux"[187].

2. GRASULF (-[641]).

Paulus Diaconus names "Grasulfus, Gisulfi germanus" when recording that he was installed as "dux Foroiulanis"[188]. Paulus Diaconus records the death of "aput Foroiuli Grasulfo duce" and the accession of Ago, the passage being undated but immediately following the report of the death of Emperor Heraclius which is dated to (Feb. 11) 641[189]. Paulus Diaconus records that "Ago" succeeded on the death of "Grasulfo Foroiulanorum duce", and after the death of Ago, "Lupus"[190]. The precise relationship between Arichis and Duke Gisulf II has not yet been identified:

3. ARICHIS, son of --- .

Paulus Diaconus records the death of "Zottone Beneventanorum duce", specifying that "Arigis" was appointed to succeed as missus by King Agilulf, specifying that he was "consanguineus" of "Gisulfi Foroiulani ducis" (presumably referring to Duke Gisulf II) whose sons he had educated[191].

The precise relationship between Duke Gisulf and Arichis has not yet been identified.

According to the Chronicon Ducum Beneventi, Salerni, Capuæ et Neapolis, "Archis" was installed as ARICHIS I Duke of Benevento in [604/05] and ruled 50 years[192] but the period is exaggerated.

Footnotes:

[169] Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), pp. 76-7. [170] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.9, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 77. [171] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232. [172] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 125. [173] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.33, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 127. [174] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. [175] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. [176] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. [177] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.38, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 132. [178] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. [179] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.38, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 132. [180] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. [181] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. [182] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. [183] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. [184] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. [185] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. [186] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. [187] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. [188] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. [189] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.50, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 137. [190] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.17, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 151. [191] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.18, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 122. [192] Chronicon Ducum Beneventi, Salerni, Capuæ et Neapolis, MGH SS III, p. 211. ---

From the Wikipedia page on Grasulf I of Friuli:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grasulf_I_of_Friuli

Grasulf I (died after 571) was a brother of Alboin, the first Lombard King of Italy, and possibly the first Duke of Friuli. Grasulf's son, Gisulf, is the other candidate for first Duke of Friuli. Paul the Deacon names Gisulf, but some scholars have favoured Grasulf based on a diplomatic letter which refers to him as duke.

This letter was written by Gogo, Frankish mayor of the palace of Austrasia under Sigebert I and Childebert II, sometime between Gogo's rise to power in 571 and his death in 581. Sadly it is undated and unattached to the name of either king he served. It has traditionally been assigned to around the year of his death (581), but an alternative solution put forward by Walter Goffart places it as early as 571–572 around the time of Sigebert's embassy to Constantinople. In it Gogo urges Grasulf to ally himself with the Franks to oust the infestantes (presumably the Lombards) from Italy in league with the Byzantine Empire and the Papacy. Ambassadors were waiting in Austrasia for Grasulf's reply in case he wished to delay his response to the emperor.

While the exact location of Grasulf's seat of power is unknown, if he did rule, the letter from Gogo is evidence that the "Friulian court" was capable of handling sophisticated imperial correspondence less than a decade after the Lombard arrival on Italian soil.

Sources

Bachrach, Bernard S. The Anatomy of a Little War: A Diplomatic and Military History of the Gundovald Affair (568–586). Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.

Everett, Nicholas. Literacy in Lombard Italy, c. 568–774. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0 521 81905 9.

Nelson, Janet L. "Queens as Jezebels: Brunhild and Balthild in Merovingian History." Medieval Women: Essays Dedicated and Presented to Professor Rosalind M. T. Hill, ed. D. Baker. Studies in Church History: Subsidia, vol. 1 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1978), pp. 31–77. Reprinted in Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe. London: Hambledon Press, 1986. ISBN 0 907628 59 1.

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Om Grasulf, duke of Friuli (Norsk)

Grasulf II hertug av Friuli , c. 591 – c. 611

Grasulf II, var sønn av hertug Gisulf I.Han overtok hertugdømme etter sine nevøer, Tasso og Kakko som hadde falt i krigen i Oderzo ca 617 Deres far Gisuf II hadde falt ca 610 De 2 yngste nevøene hans, Radoald og Grimoald reiste fra Friuli til hertugdømmet Benevento. Han døde i byen Cividale.

Paulus Diaconus skriver at "Grasulfus", sønn av "Gisulfi germanus» var innsatt som "dux Foroiulanis" hertug av Friuli . Paulus Diaconus registrerte at hans død " Foroiuli Grasulfo Il duce" skjedde like etter at keiser Herakleios døde i februar 641. Ago tok som hertug av Friuli og etter det Lupus.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grasulf_II_of_Friuli

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORTHERN%20ITALY%20900-1100.htm#GisulfFriulia

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Grasulf, duke of Friuli's Timeline

560
560
Province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy
651
651
Age 91
Cividale, Province of Udine, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy
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