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About Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick
Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick
Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick (c. 1272 – 12 August 1315) was an English magnate, and one of the principal opponents of King Edward II and his favourite Piers Gaveston. Guy de Beauchamp was the son of William de Beauchamp, the first Beauchamp earl of Warwick, and succeeded his father in 1298. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Falkirk and subsequently, as a capable servant of the crown under King Edward I. After the succession of Edward II in 1307, however, he soon fell out with the new king and the king's favourite Piers Gaveston. Warwick was one of the main architects behind the Ordinances of 1311, that limited the powers of the king and banished Gaveston into exile.
When Gaveston returned to England in 1312 – contrary to the rulings of the Ordinances – he was taken into custody by the Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Warwick abducted Gaveston and, together with the Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, had him executed. The act garnered sympathy and support for the king, but Warwick and Lancaster nevertheless managed to negotiate a royal pardon for their actions. After the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, King Edward's authority was once more weakened, and the rebellious barons took over control of government. For Warwick the triumph was brief; he died the next year.
Guy de Beauchamp is today remembered primarily for his part in the killing of Gaveston, but by his contemporaries he was considered a man of exceptionally good judgement and learning. He owned what was for his time a large collection of books, and his advice was often sought by many of the other earls. Next to Lancaster, he was the wealthiest peer in the nation, and after his death his lands and title were inherited by his son, Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick.
Guy de Beauchamp was the first son and heir of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick, (c. 1238 – 1298). His mother was Maud FitzJohn, daughter of John fitz Geoffrey, who was Justiciar of Ireland and a member of the council of fifteen that imposed the Provisions of Oxford on King Henry III. William was the nephew of William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick, and when his uncle died without issue in 1268, he became the first Beauchamp earl of Warwick. In 1271 or 1272 his first son was born, and in reference to the new family title, William named his son after the legendary hero Guy of Warwick. William de Beauchamp was a capable military commander, who played an important part in the Welsh and Scottish wars of King Edward I.
A marriage between Guy and Isabel de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, was contemplated, or possibly even took place and then annulled.[a] It was not until early 1309 that Guy married Alice de Toeni, a wealthy Hertfordshire heiress. By this time Guy had already succeeded as earl of Warwick, after his father's death in 1298. By Alice, Guy had three children, including his heir and successor, Thomas.
Edward I knighted Guy de Beauchamp at Easter 1296. Warwick's career of public service started with the Falkirk campaign in 1298. Here he distinguished himself, and received a reward of Scottish lands worth 1000 marks a year. At this point his father was already dead, but it was not until 5 September that Guy did homage to the king for his lands, and became Earl of Warwick and hereditary High Sheriff of Worcestershire for life. He continued in the king's service in Scotland and elsewhere. In 1299 he was present at the king's wedding to Margaret of France at Canterbury, and in 1300 he took part in the Siege of Caerlaverock. The next year he was a signatory to a letter to the Pope, rejecting Rome's authority over the Scottish question, and also participated in negotiations with the French over the release of the Scottish King John Balliol. He was present at the Siege of Stirling in 1304, serving under Edward, the Prince of Wales. In March 1307 he made preparations to accompany Prince Edward to France, but this journey never took place.
Early in 1307, Edward I made his last grant to Warwick, when he gave him John Balliol's forfeited lordship of Barnard Castle in County Durham. On 7 July that year, near Burgh by Sands in Cumberland, Warwick was present when King Edward died. Together with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, he carried the ceremonial swords at the coronation of King Edward II on 25 February 1308.
Before his death, the old king had exiled Prince Edward's favourite Piers Gaveston, and Warwick was among those charged with preventing Gaveston's return. The new king, however, not only recalled his favourite, but soon also gave him the title of earl of Cornwall. Warwick was the only one of the leading earls who did not seal the charter, and from the start took on an antagonistic attitude to Edward II. Gaveston was a relative upstart in the English aristocracy, and made himself unpopular among the established nobility by his arrogance and his undue influence on the king. He gave mocking nicknames to the leading men of the realm, and called Warwick the "Black Dog of Arden".[b]
Gaveston was once more forced into exile, but Edward recalled him in less than a year. The king had spent the intervening time gathering support, and at the time, the only one to resist the return of Gaveston was Warwick. With time, however, opposition to the king grew. Another source of contention was Edward abandoning his father's Scottish campaigns, a policy that opened the Border region up to devastating raids from the Scots. This affected Warwick greatly, with his extensive landed interest in the north. Tensions grew to the point where the king in 1310 had to ban Warwick and others from arriving at parliament in arms. They still did, and at the parliament of March 1310, the king was forced to accept the appointment of a commission to draft a set of ordinances towards reform the royal government.
The leaders of these so-called Lords Ordainers were Robert Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the side of the clergy, and Warwick, Lincoln and Lancaster among the earls. Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, was the most experienced of the earls, and took on a modifying role in the group. Thomas of Lancaster, who was Lincoln's son-in-law and heir, was the king's cousin and the wealthiest nobleman in the realm, but at this point he took a less active part in the reform movement. Warwick is described by some sources as the leader of the Ordainers; he was certainly the most aggressive. The set of Ordinances they drafted put heavy restrictions on the king's financial freedom, and his right to appoint his own ministers. It also – once more – ordered Gaveston to be exiled, to return only at the risk of excommunication.
Gaveston's third and final exile was of even shorter duration, and after two months he was reunited with Edward in England. Archbishop Winchelsey responded by excommunicating Gaveston, as the Ordinances had stipulated. Lancaster, who had by this time inherited his father-in-law Lincoln, had taken over leadership of the baronial opposition. A number of the barons set out in pursuit of Gaveston while the king left for York. Gaveston ensconced himself at Scarborough Castle, and on 19 May 1312 agreed on a surrender to Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, as long as his security would be guaranteed.
Pembroke lodged his prisoner in Deddington in Oxfordshire. On 10 June, while Pembroke was away, Warwick forcibly carried away Gaveston to Warwick Castle. Here, in the presence of Warwick, Lancaster and other magnates, Gaveston was sentenced to death at an improvised court. On 19 June he was taken to a place called Blacklow Hill – on Lancaster's lands – and decapitated. According to the Annales Londonienses chronicle, four shoemakers brought the corpse back to Warwick, but he refused to accept it, and ordered them to take it back to where they found it. Gaveston's body was eventually taken to Oxford by some Dominican friars, and in 1315, King Edward finally had it buried at Kings Langley.
The brutality and questionable legality of the earls' act helped garner sympathy for the king in the political community. Pembroke was particularly offended, as he had been made to break his promise of safety to Gaveston, and his chivalric honour had been damaged. From this point on Pembroke sided firmly with King Edward in the political conflict. The king himself swore vengeance on his enemies, but found himself unable to move against them immediately, partly because they were in possession of a number of highly valuable royal jewels taken from Gaveston. A settlement was reached in October, whereby the rebellious barons and their retainers received a pardon. The king nevertheless emerged strengthened from the events, while Warwick and Lancaster were largely marginalised. This all changed in 1314, when the king decided to stage his first major campaign against the Scots. Warwick and Lancaster refused to participate in the campaign, which ended in a humiliating English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn on 24 June. This led to another political bouleversement, and Edward was forced to reconfirm the Ordinances, and submit to the leadership of the rebellious barons.
In mid-July Warwick had to withdraw from government to his estates, due to illness. Political leadership was soon left almost entirely to Lancaster, when Warwick died on 12 August 1315. The chronicler Thomas Walsingham reported rumours that the king had him poisoned. He was buried at Bordesley Abbey in Worcestershire, an establishment to which his family had served as benefactors. In value, his possessions were second only to those of the earl of Lancaster among the nobility of England. His lands, though primarily centred on Warwickshire and Worcestershire, were spread out over nineteen counties as well as Scotland and the Welsh Marches. His heir was his oldest son, whom he had named Thomas after the earl of Lancaster. Thomas, born probably on 14 February 1314, did not succeed to his father's title until 1326, as Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick. In the meanwhile his possessions went into the king's hand, who donated his hunting dogs to the earl of Pembroke. A younger son, named John, also became a peer, as John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp. Like his older brother, he distinguished himself in the French wars, and was a founding member of the Order of the Garter.
Guy de Beauchamp is probably best remembered by posterity for his opposition to King Edward II, and for his part in the death of Gaveston. To contemporaries, however, he was considered a man of considerable learning and wisdom. His library, of which he donated 42 books to Bordesley Abbey during his lifetime, was extensive. It contained several saints' lives as well as romances about Alexander and King Arthur. As mentioned, Edward I entrusted the supervision of his son with Warwick. Likewise, when the earl of Lincoln died in 1311, he supposedly instructed his son-in-law Thomas of Lancaster to heed the advice of Warwick, "the wisest of the peers". Chronicles also praised Warwick's wisdom; the Vita Edwardi Secundi said that "Other earls did many things only after taking his opinion: in wisdom and council he had no peer". Later historians have reflected this view, in the 19th century William Stubbs called Warwick "a discriminating and highly literate man, the wisdom of whom shone forth through the whole kingdom". He was politically and economically well connected by traditional ties of kinship and marriage.
Warwick's death came at an inconvenient time; Thomas of Lancaster proved unequal to the task of governing the nation, and further years of conflict and instability followed. Nevertheless, the problems of Edward II's reign were deep, and in the words of Michael Hicks: "one must doubt whether even Warwick could have brought unity as one chronicler supposed".
- Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 04
- Beauchamp, Guy de by John Horace Round
- BEAUCHAMP, GUY de, Earl of Warwick (d. 1315), a lord ordainer, succeeded his father, William, earl of Warwick, the grandson of Walter de Beauchamp [see Beauchamp, Walter de, d. 1236], in 1298. He distinguished himself at once by his bravery at Falkirk (22 July 1298), for which he received grants of estates in Scotland, and he did homage for his lands 15 Sept. (Rot Fin. 26 Ed. I. m. 1). He was one of the seven earls who signed the famous letter to the pope (12 Feb. 1301), rejecting his authority in the Scottish question. He also took part in the next Scotch campaign (1303-4), including the siege of Stirling; and, attending King Edward to his last campaign, was present at his death (7 July 1307), when he was warned by him against Piers Gaveston. On the accession of Edward II Gaveston returned to England, and dubbed Warwick, in insult, from his swarthy complexion, 'the black cur of Arden' (T. Wals. i. 115). Warwick took part in procuring his banishment (18 May 1308), and alone refused to be reconciled to his recall in the summer of 1309 (Chronicles, ii. 160).
- With Thomas of Lancaster, who now headed the opposition, and the Earls of Lincoln, Oxford, and Arundel, he declined (Hemingb. ii. 275) to attend the council at York (26 Oct. 1309), and presented himself in arms, against the king's orders, at the council of Westminster (March 1310). Here he joined in the petition for the appointment of 'ordainers,' and was himself chosen (Chron. i. 170, 172) to act as one (20 March 1310). He refused the royal summons to the Scottish campaign (June 1310), busied himself in the preparation of the 'ordinances,' and attended their publication in St. Paul's Churchyard 27 Sept. 1310 (Chron, i. 270, ii. 164). On the return of Gaveston (who had been banished by the ordinances) in January 1312, Lancaster and his four confederates took up arms, seized him, and committed him to the custody of Pembroke, by whom he was left in charge for a time at Deddington Rectory, near Warwick. At daybreak, on Sunday, 10 June, the Earl of Warwick, with 100 footmen and forty men-at-arms, surprised him and carried him off to Warwick Castle (Trokelowe, 76, Chron. i. 206). On the arrival of Lancaster, with Hereford and Arundel, Gaveston was handed over to them and beheaded by them on Blacklow Hill, outside Warwick's fief (19 June 1312), the earl himself declining to be present, and refusing to take charge of the corpse (Chron. i. 210). Edward instantly threatened vengeance, and Warwick and his confederates met at Worcester to concert measures for their mutual defence (ib. ii. 182). At the head of his foresters of Arden (ib. ii. 184) he joined their forces at Ware in September, and remained there during the negotiations of the autumn, till peace was proclaimed on 22 December (ib. i. 221, 225). On 16 Oct. 1313 the confederates were finally pardoned, but refused the following year to serve in the Scotch campaign, on the plea that the 'ordinances' had been disregarded (Trokelowe, 83, Chron. ii. 201). A year later the Earl of Warwick fell ill and died (10 Aug. 1315), not without suspicions of poison (T. Wals. i. 137). His untimely death, at forty-three, was lamented by the chroniclers as that of a 'discreet and well-informed man' (Chron. i. 236), whose wise advice had been invaluble to the ordainers, and who had been unanimously supported by the country (ib. ii. 212 ). So highly was his sagacity esteemed, that the Earl of Lincoln, the counsellor of Edward I, urged his son-in-law, Thomas of Lancaster, on his death-bed (Februaiy 1311) to be guided by him in all things (Trokelowe, 63).
- [Chronicles of Edward I and II (Rolls Series); Chronica J. de Trokelowe (ib.); Thomas of Walsiugham (ib.); Rymer's Fœdera; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 229; Stubbs's Constitutional History, chap, xvi.]
- From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Beauchamp,_Guy_de_(DNB00)
- Sir Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12
- M, #10580, b. between 1271 and 1275, d. 12 August 1315
- Father Sir William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl Warwick, 6th Baron Beauchamp2,13,14 b. c 1238, d. 5 Jun 1298 or 9 Jun 1298
- Mother Maud FitzJohn2,13,14 b. bt 1244 - 1250, d. 16 Apr 1301 or 18 Apr 1301
- Sir Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire was born between 1271 and 1275 at of Elmley, Worcestershire, England; Age 23 to 27 in 1298; 30 in 1301.2,3 He married Isabel de Clare, daughter of Sir Gilbert de Clare, 9th Earl of Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford, 3rd Earl of Gloucester and Alice de Lusignan, between 4 March 1291 and 11 May 1297; Latter date is Papal Dispensation to stay married, they being related in the 4th degree of kindred. No issue.15,16,2,4,8,17,9 Sir Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire and Isabel de Clare were divorced after 1302.18,2,3,8 Sir Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire married Alice de Tony, daughter of Sir Ralph VII de Tony, Lord Flamstead, Helson, Carnanton and Mary de Brus, on 12 February 1310 or 13 February 1310; They had 2 sons (Sir Thomas, 11th Earl of Warwick; & John, Lord Beauchamp) and 5 daughters (Maud, wife of Geoffrey, 2nd Lord Say; Emme, wife of Roland de Oddingseles; Isabel, wife of John de Clinton; Elizabeth, wife of Sir Thomas, 3rd Lord Astley; & Lucy, wife of Roger de Napton).2,3,6,7,8,11,12 Sir Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire left a will on 25 July 1315.3,8 He died on 12 August 1315 at Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England; Buried at Bordesley Abbey.2,3,8
- Family 1 Isabel de Clare b. 10 Mar 1263, d. 1333
- Family 2 Alice de Tony b. b 8 Jan 1283, d. c 8 Jan 1325
- Lucy de Beauchamp
- Maud de Beauchamp+19,20,21,22,5,6,8,10,11 b. c 1311, d. 28 Jul 1369
- Elizabeth Beauchamp+23,20,24,22,25,8 b. 1313
- Sir Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire, Warwickshire, & Leicestershire, Marshal of England+20,3,8 b. c 14 Feb 1314, d. 13 Nov 1369
- John Beauchamp, 1st Lord Beauchamp of Warwick b. c 1316, d. 2 Dec 1360
- From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p353.htm#i10580
- Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick1
- M, #32039
- Last Edited=17 Feb 2009
- Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick is the son of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzGeoffrey. He married, secondly, Alice de Toni, daughter of Ralph VII de Toni.1
- He gained the title of 10th Earl of Warwick.
- Child of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick
- Lady Maud de Beauchamp+2 d. 28 Jul 1369
- Children of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toni
- Elizabeth de Beauchamp+1
- Sir John Beauchamp, 1st Lord Beauchamp (of Warwick)3 b. a 1314, d. 2 Dec 1360
- Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick+3 b. 14 Feb 1314, d. 13 Nov 1369
- [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 283. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
- [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 314.
- [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 50.
- From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p3204.htm#i32039
- Guy de Beauchamp
- Birth: 1271 Worcestershire, England
- Death: Aug. 10, 1315 Warwickshire, England
- Guy de Beauchamp, Knight, 10th Earl of Warwick, Baron of Salwarpe, Worcestershire.
- Hereditary Chamberlain of the Exchequer, hereditary Sheriff of Worcestershire,
- first son and heir of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzGeoffrey, daughter of John, Knight of Shere.
- Guy was born about 1271 as he was thirty years old in 1301.
- He first married to Isabel de Clare,
- daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Alice de Lusignan,
- but they were separated in 1302, and
- had no children, and the wedding might never have actually taken place.
- He first married to Isabel de Clare,
- In 1309, Guy married Alice de Toeni,
- daughter of Ralph de Toeni, Lord Toeni of Flamstead by a Mary from Scotland.
- Alice was the countess of Warwick and a wealthy heiress.
- They had the following children:
- Sir Thomas, Knight of the Garter and 11th Earl of Warwick
- Giles de Beauchamp
- John, Lord Beauchamp
- Maud, wife of Geoffrey de Say
- Emme, wife of Roland de Oddingseles
- Isabel, wife of John de Clinton
- Elizabeth, wife of Thomas of Astley
- Lucy, wife of Roger de Napton
- Guy was one of the richest men of his time, next to the Earl of Lancaster, and while remembered for participating in the infamous murder of Peter de Gaveston, he was considered an intelligent man with exceptional judgement and learning who owned a large library for the era.
- He served Edward I faithfully, but opposed his son, Edward II and his favorite Earl, Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall.
- 1296 - Knighted by King Edward I
- 1298 - had land grants in Scotland previously belonging to Mowbray and others, worth £1000 a year.
- 22 Jul 1298 - Fought in the King's Division of the Battle of Falkirk
- Sep 1298 - became the Earl of Warwick and High Sheriff of Worcester for life
- 1299 - Attended Edward's marriage to Margaret of France
- 1300 - At the siege of Caerlaverock
- 1304 - Served under Edward, Prince of Wales at the siege of Stirling Castle.
- 1307 - Received Edward Balliol's forfeited Barnard Castle in Durham
- 07 Jul 1307 - present at Edward's death in Cumberland
- 1308 - carried a Sword of State at King Edward II's coronation
- 1308 - instrumental in the banishment of Peter Gaveston and alone opposed his recall 1309
- 1310 - one of the Lord Ordainers of Reform
- Jun 1312 - with the Earl of Pembroke, Aymer de Valance, seized Gaveston at Deddington and took him to Warwick Castle to await the Earl of Lancaster who executed Gaveston without trial on the 19th
- 1313 - pardoned for Gaveston's murder
- 1314 - refused to fight at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward was forced to bend to the Barons, but Guy withdrew because of illness and died, leaving Lancaster to lead the Barons through the ensuing, unstable years.
- His wife would remarry, to Sir William de Mortimer La Zouche in 1316.
- Family links:
- William de Beauchamp (1237 - 1298)
- Maud FitzJohn Beauchamp (1235 - 1301)
- Isabella de Clare de Berkeley (1262 - 1333)*
- Maud de Beauchamp Say (____ - 1369)*
- Thomas De Beauchamp (1313 - 1369)*
- John Beauchamp (1316 - 1360)*
- Isabel De Beauchamp Despencer (1256 - 1306)*
- Guy de Beauchamp (1271 - 1315)
- Burial: Bordesley Abbey, Redditch, Redditch Borough, Worcestershire, England
Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick is the son of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzGeoffrey. Guy had already distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars and was one of the Ordainers, who sought to restrict the powers of the King. Guy de Beauchamp was one of the chief adversaries of Piers Gaveston, King Edward's favourite, who often referred to Guy as The Mad Hound, due to the Earl's habit of foaming at the mouth when angry. In 1312, Guy de Beauchamp captured Gaveston and took him to his principal residence Warwick Castle where Gaveston was held prisoner and afterwards murdered.
He first married Isabel de Clare, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester and Alice de Lusignan of Angoulême, but the marriage, which had produced no children, was annulled. On 28 February 1310, less than three years after the death of her first husband, Guy de Beauchamp married Alice de Toeni, daughter of Ralph VII de Toni.
Child of Guy de Beauchamp and unnamed partner:
- Maud de Beauchamp (died 1366), married Geoffrey de Say, 2nd Lord Say, by whom she had issue.
Children of Guy de Beauchamp and wife Alice de Toeni:
- Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick (14 February 1313/1314 – 13 November 1369), married Katherine Mortimer, by whom he had fifteen children.
- John de Beauchamp, Lord Beauchamp KG (1315 – 2 December 1360), carried the royal standard at the Battle of Crecy
- Elizabeth de Beauchamp (c. 1316–1359), married in 1328, Thomas Astley, 3rd Lord Astley, by whom she had a son William Astley, 4th Lord Astley.
- Isabella de Beauchamp, married John Clinton.
- Emma de Beauchamp, married Rowland Odingsells.
- Lucia de Beauchamp, married Robert de Napton.
Following the sudden death of Guy de Beauchamp at Warwick Castle on 28 July 1315, which was rumoured to have been caused by poisoning, Alice married thirdly on 26 October 1316, William la Zouche de Mortimer, 1st Lord Zouche de Mortimer
Links to additional material:
Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick's Timeline
Elmley Castle, Elmley, Worcestershire, England
Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, , England
June 17, 1312
Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England
of Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, , England
February 14, 1313
Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England
Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England
July 25, 1315