Henrietta Lucas Horry (Pinckney)
|Also Known As:||"Harriott", "Harriett"|
|Place of Burial:||Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina, United States|
Daughter of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney; Charles Pinckney and Eliza Lucas, Indigo Queen
|Managed by:||Private User|
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About Henrietta Lucas Horry
Less well-known are the contributions of Henrietta Pinckney Horry, whose life and relationship with her mother shed light on the changing status and experiences of elite women in the years of the early republic. The second of Eliza’s three surviving children, Henrietta lived with her parents in England while a small child, married into another important plantation and political family of South Carolina at the age of nineteen, and like her mother became a widow while in her thirties. When her mother was stricken with breast cancer in her seventieth year, Henrietta accompanied her to Philadelphia in an unsuccessful attempt at a cure, and it is from her 1793 journal that we know of Eliza Pinckney’s last months. A second journal recording Horry’s travels northward from South Carolina to Boston in the spring and summer of 1815, with extensive comments on her observations of areas damaged in the military campaigns of the War of 1812, illustrates both her own astuteness and descriptive powers, and the continued public and private linkages between politically powerful families of the South and North.
Copyright 2008 University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 (803) 777-6910
Hampton Plantation – McClellanville – Charleston County
Location – Wambaw Creek (a branch of the South Santee River), McClellanville, St James Santee Parish, Charleston County
Located on Rutledge Road, 9 miles north of McClellanville off US 17
Origin of name – Hampton was probably named after Hampton House, a house in Hampton-on-the-Thames, England. It was owned by David Garrick, a famous actor in the mid 1700s.
Other names – Horry Plantation
Current status – Open to the public as a State Historic Site
1744 – Daniel Horry purchased 600 acres from Anthony Bonneau. Hampton would eventually become several thousand acres (Linder & Thacker, p. 705).
1740s – Architectural historians agree that the original part of the house was built during this time. It was probably built by Daniel Horry (Linder & Thacker, p. 706).
1762 – Daniel Huger Horry inherited the plantation and slaves from his father, Daniel Horry. When Daniel Horry wrote his will in 1758 he stated that his son could not inherit until he turned twenty-one, or had children of his own, whichever came first. Daniel Huger Horry must have been twenty-one or older at the time of his father's death (1758 Will.
Daniel Huger Horry and his wife, Judith Serre Horry, made Hampton their home. Judith died in 1765 and Daniel remarried three years later. There were no children from this first marriage.
1760s – Two wings were added to each side of the house. One wing was a ballroom and the other included a dining room and two other rooms. During the construction of the additions false windows were added to maintain the symmetry of the structure.
1768 – Daniel Huger Horry married Harriott Pinckney, daughter of Eliza Lucas and Charles Pinckney. They made their home at Hampton.
1769-1770 – Daniel and Harriott Horry had two children named Daniel and Harriott.
1778 – The plantation became a refuge during the Revolutionary War for relatives and friends of Daniel and Harriott. Eliza Lucas Pinckney, Harriott's mother, was one of the refugees (Bridges & Williams, p. 73).
1780 – The British captured Charleston. They said any man still bearing arms against them would be treated as a traitor. They used this to justify searching houses and plantations, and confiscated any valuables, including slaves. Hampton was "visited" twice (Bridges & Williams, pp. 78-79).
On the first visit the British were looking for Francis Marion. Marion had stopped off at Hampton for some food. While it was being prepared he fell asleep and the British came riding up. Harriott Horry instructed Marion to swim across the creek and hide out in the rice fields. Marion escaped and the house was searched, but nothing was taken or destroyed.
On the second visit the British were looking for Daniel Huger Horry and Major Thomas Pinckney. Major Pinckney escaped but Horry was made to surrender and pledge his loyalty to the British. He did so in order to protect his family and property. The house was thoroughly plundered but no buildings were burned (Bridges & Williams, p. 80-82).
1782 – The British Parliment voted to end the war and establish peace. British troops left Charleston in December. At this time all those who had been loyalist during the war were considered traitors by the Americans, and their property was confiscated. Daniel Huger Horry was considered a traitor but his Pinckney in-laws helped defend him. He had to pay an Amercement Tax (a fine) to keep his property (Bridges & Williams, p. 96-97).
Once the war was over Daniel worked to restore the plantation and its rice fields.
1785 – Daniel Huger Horry died in November. His symptoms lead one to believe he died of liver failure. Harriott described his illness in the following excerpt of a letter written to her mother:
Nov.b 7th 1785
...We found M.r Horrÿ seriously ill... he is as yellow as the darkest Orange. The Bile is so much with the Blood.... he has had the hiccough’s almost continually these two days.... , he speaks very thick and is much confused, is scarce ever free from the hiccoughs and his tongue is much crusted.....
Tuesday Morning 11 O’Clock.
M.r Horrÿ slept all night, but very uneasily, he breaths hard and complains much of a great oppression at his stomach he talks a good deal but very confusedly, his pulse appears to me to be good but I think he is too warm upon the whole as I think him worse than he was yesterday..." (Letter)
In his will, Daniel left ownership of Hampton to his son, Daniel. However, Harriott was given use of the plantation for the rest of her life. Once she died then Daniel would have complete control of the plantation (1785 Will).
Daniel Horry, the son, was living in Europe at the time. He later changed his name to Charles Lucas Pinckney Horry and never returned to his home. His mother and grandmother continued to manage the plantation in his absence.
1786 – An inventory was done of Daniel Huger Horry's estate. Every item he owned was recorded and appraised, from slaves to furniture to horses.
1790-1791 – Harriott and Eliza had a portico built on the land side of the house. It was the first Adam style portico built in the Lowcountry. The portico is almost an exact copy of the one on David Garrick's house Hampton House in Hampton-on-the-Thames, England.
1791 – George Washington visited Hampton during his Southern Tour.
While visiting, the President was asked whether a certain oak tree should be cut down to create a better view from the portico. He replied that he liked the tree, and it was saved. From then on the tree was known as the Washington Oak (Bridges & Williams, pp. 120-121).
1793 – Eliza Lucas Pinckney died in Philadelphia. It is believed that she had cancer and was seeking treatment in Philadelphia. George Washington asked to be a pallbearer because he thought so highly of Eliza and her family.
1797 – Daniel and Harriott's daughter, Harriott, married Frederick Rutledge. They made their home at Hampton.
1824 – Frederick Rutledge died leaving Harriott with eight children. She and her mother continued to manage the plantation and raise the children.
One of the eight children, John Henry Rutledge, met with a tragic ending. The story is that he committed suicide because he was not allowed to marry a certain girl. He thought his life was over and could not imagine living without the girl he so loved. He shot himself in the house at the age of twenty-one.
1828 – Daniel Horry (Charles Lucas Pinckney Horry) died and left all of his property in Carolina and France to his mother, Harriott Pinckney Horry, and wife, Elenore Marie Florimonde de Foy La Tour Marbourg Horry. They were to have equal shares and could not dispose of their half without the consent of the other (1828 Will).
Daniel Horry's wife eventually sold parts of her share but Hampton remained in the ownership and management of his mother.
1830 – Harriot Picnkney Horry died and she left Hampton to her daughter, Harriott Horry Rutledge (1830 Will).
Harriott Horry Rutledge continued to manage the plantation. Two of her sons helped her when they could but they had other careers they were pursuing. Henry Middleton Rutledge, a grandson, inherited the plantation (Linder & Thacker, pp. 708-709).
1865 – Henry Middleton Rutledge returned from the Civil War and began to manage the plantation.
1866 – Henry Middleton Rutledge married Anna Marie Blake. They were married for ten years before Anna died.
1876 – Henry Middleton Rutledge married Margaret Hamilton Seabrook. From this marriage Archibald Rutledge was born. The Rutledges worked hard to send their youngest son to school.
Archibald Rutledge did get his education and he went on to teach school in Pennsylvania. He wrote numerous books and poems and became Poet Laureate of South Carolina.
1937 – Archibald Rutledge returned to Hampton to live there permanently. He restored the house and wrote a book about it called Home By the River.
1971 – Archibald Rutledge and his family gave Hampton Plantation to the South Carolina State Park Service. It became a State Historic Site and was opened to the public.
Number of acres – 322 in 2006
Primary crop – Rice
Alphabetical list – Daniel Horry; Daniel Huger Horry; Daniel Horry (Charles Lucas Pinckney Horry); Harriott Pinckney Horry; Archibald Rutledge; Harriott and Frederick Rutledge; Henry Middleton Rutledge; South Carolina State Park Service
Number of slaves – 314 in 1786 (Inventory)
Plantation house – Architectural historians date the original part of the house to the 1740s. Two wings were added in the 1760s and the portico was added in 1791. The house is an example of Georgian architecture with an attic and raised basement that run the length of the house. Cypress and loblolly pine trees were used to construct the house.
Daniel Horry's inventory list twelve rooms in the house with one of the rooms being a ballroom. The floorboards in the ballroom are almost 40 feet long and are made from the pine trees that were on the property.
The whole house is put together using mortise and tenon joints secured with pegs. Each piece of wood for the frame of the house was cut and marked with roman numerals and then put together like a puzzle. Evidence of this type of construction can still be seen in the house.
The portico was designed in the Adam style of architecture. It was the first of its kind to be built in the Lowcountry. It was modeled after the portico on David Garrick's house called Hampton House in Hampton-on-the-Thames, England. Archibald Rutledge removed the original bases of the columns and replaced them with concrete ones. In 2003, one of the columns was taken down, repaired, and then placed back on a new base. Using historic pictures and drawings the new base was designed to look like the original.
Hampton Plantation State Historic Site
National Register of Historic Places
– Nomination form - PDF - submitted in 1976
– Photographs, architectural overview
Anne Baker Leland Bridges and Roy Williams III, St James Santee Plantation Parish History and Records, 1685-1925, (Spartanburg, SC: The Reprint Company, Publishers, 1997).
Suzanne Cameron Linder and Marta Leslie Thacker (with preliminary research by Agnes Leland Baldwin), Historical Atlas of the Rice Plantations of Georgetown County and the Santee River (Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 2001).
Letter from Harriott Pinckney Horry to Eliza Lucas Pinckney. Located at the South Carolina Historical Society in File 38-6-1.
Catherine Campani Messmer, South Carolina's Low Country: a past preserved (Orangeburg, SC: Sandlapper Pub., 1988).
1758 Will of Daniel Horry. Record of Wills, Charleston County, Volume 9, p. 427 (on microfilm at the Charleston County Library).
1785 Will of Daniel Huger Horry. Record of Wills, Charleston County, Volume 21, p. 737 (on microfilm at the Charleston County Library).
1828 Will of Daniel Horry (listed as Pinckney Horry in the will book). Record of Wills, Charleston County, Volume 37, p. 385 (on microfilm at the Charleston County Library).
1830 Will of Harriott Pinckney Horry. Record of Wills, Charleston County, Volume 38, p. 809 (on microfilm at the Charleston County Library).
Hampton Plantation State Historic Site
1950 Rutledge Road
McClellanville, SC 29458
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Henrietta Lucas Horry's Timeline
August 7, 1748
October 4, 1770
Charleston, Charleston County, South Carolina, United States
December 19, 1830
Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina, United States