About Stjepan Kosača Hranić, Herceg
Stjepan Vukčić Kosača (?, oko 1404.- ?, 22.V.1466.), veliki vojvoda bosanske države. Nećak i nasljednik Sandalja Hranića Kosače od 1435., najistaknutiji među Kosačama. Od 1440. do 1443. proširio je vlast na Omiš, Završje, Poljica, Gornju Zetu, Bar, Trebinje i Klobuk. Ugrožen od Mlečana i zetskoga vojvode Stefana Crnojevića, koji su mu ubrzo zatim oteli Bar, Gornju Zetu i Omiš, pomirio se s bosanskim kraljem Stjepanom Tomašem, s kojim je do tada ratovao. U znak pomirbe pristao je na udaju kćeri Katarine za bosanskog kralja (1446). God 1448. priklonio se Osmanlijama i srpskomu despotu Đurdu Brankoviću u napadu na bosanskog kralja i proglasio se "hercegom od Sv. Save". Teritorij pod njegovom vlašću, od tada poznat pod imenom Hercegovina, protezao se od Lima do Cetine i od Rame do Kotorskoga zaljeva. Na tom je prostoru bio samostalan vladar. Težnje za gospodarskim osamostaljenjem Hercegovine došle su do izražaja i u njegovim naporima da Herceg Novi razvije u pomorsko i trgovačko središte (1449. osnovao je radionicu sukna). Pritom je izbio rat s Kotorom i Dubrovnikom, koji je trajao 1451-54., a u njega su se upleli i hercegovi protivnici (kralj Stjepan Tomaš, hercegov sin Vladislav Hercegović Kosača, vlastela Vlatkovići i pojedini hercegovi vazali). Osmanska vojna pomoć upućena hercegu pokolebala je njegove protivnike pa se 1453. pomirio sa sinom Vladislavom, a 1454. s Dubrovnikom. Pošto su Osmanlije počeli upadati u njegovu zemlju, pomirio se i s novim bosanskim kraljem Stjepanom Tomaševićem (1461). Nakon pada Bosne 1463. njegove su zemlje postupno, od 1465., osvajali Osmanlije (Hum i Podrinje) i Mlečani (Neretvansku krajinu). Potkraj života vlast mu je bila svedena na usko primorsko područje s Herceg Novim, koji su Osmanlije zauzeli 1483.
Stjepan Vukčić Kosača (Bosnian, Croatian: Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Вукчић Косача) (1404–1466) was a Bosnian nobleman. He was a member of the House of Kosača, a Grand Duke (Voivode) of Herzegovina, Lord of Zahumlje and Primorje and also Herzog of Serbian Saint Sava. It was Stjepan's ducal title "Herzog" that gave rise to the name Herzegovina when he asserted the independence of the territory in 1435 and 1448. The title is today carried in the name of the country Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in the name of the Bay of Kotor city of Herceg Novi.
War in Zeta (1441-1444). Duchy of Stephen Vukcic Kosaca annexed Upper Zeta. Conquered the city of Bar, with the fortress (now Old Bar) in Lower Zeta. After 1320s, Zahumlje and Travunia became part of the Bosnian kingdom. On 15 February 1444, Stephen signed a treaty with Alfonso V, King of Aragon and Naples, becoming his vassal in exchange for king's help against Stjepan's enemies, namely King Stephen Thomas of Bosnia, Duke Ivaniš Pavlović and Venice. In the same treaty Stjepan promised to pay regular tribute to Alfonso instead to Ottoman sultan as he did until then. The Dubrovnik nobility accepted “Bosnae vojevodem Sandalj et consanguineous eius, knez Vukac, knez Vuk et Stephanum, filium knez Vukac” among the Ragusian nobles and granted them “domum in urbe” by charter dated 29 Jun 1419. Stjepan Vukčić Kosača in 1448 dropped his title "Vojvode of Bosnia", assuming the title "Herceg [Duke] of Hum and the Coast". He changed it again in 1449 to "Herceg of Saint Sava" in recollection of the Serbian saint. This title had considerable public relations value, because Sava's relics were consider miracle-working by people of all Christian faiths. His lands were known as Herzog's lands or later Herzegovina. In 1451 Stjepan Vukčić Kosača attacked Dubrovnik, and laid siege to the city. He had earlier been made a Ragusan nobleman and, consequently, the Ragusan government now proclaimed him a traitor. A reward of 15,000 ducats, a palace in Dubrovnik worth 2,000 ducats, and an annual income of 300 ducats was offered to anyone who would kill him, along with the promise of hereditary Ragusan nobility which also helped hold this promise to whomever did the deed. Stjepan was so scared by the threat that he finally raised the siege. Stjepan Vukčić died in 1466, and was succeeded by his eldest son Vladislav Hercegović. In 1482 he was overpowered by Ottoman forces led by Stjepan Vukčić's youngest son, Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha, who converted to Islam prior to that. In the Ottoman Empire, Herzegovina was organized as a province (sanjak) within the state (pashaluk) of Bosnia. The name of the country was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1853, as a result of a twist of political events. It was part of the Ottoman Empire for a bit less than four centuries. Stjepan founded the Serbian Orthodox Zagrađe Monastery near his realm's seat in Herceg Novi, modern-day Montenegro, and the Serb orthodox monastery of Savina, also near Herceg Novi. Descendants
Stjepan Vukčić was married three times: in 1424 to Jelena Balšić (died in 1453); in 1455 to Barbara (possibly of the del Balzo family, died in 1459); and in 1460 to Cecilie, a German lady. With Jelena, he had at least three children: Queen Katarina of Bosnia (beatified, 1424 - Rome, 25 November 1478, buried in Ara Coeli), married in 1446 King Stephen Thomas of Bosnia Vladislav Hercegović (cca 1427 - 1487/89), Duke of St. Sava, Lord of Krajina, married Kyra Ana, daughter of Georgios Kantakuzenos in 1455 Vlatko Hercegović (cca 1426 - Rab, 1489), Duke of St. Sava, married N of Cilli, 1455 Margherita di Marzan, 1474 Stjepan and his second wife Barbara had three children: son (1456-young) Mara Stjepan Hercegović, became a Muslim and changed name to Ahmed Hercegović (Turkish: Hersekli Ahmed Pasha). He became the Grand Vizier and Grand Admiral to the Sultan, married Sultan Bayezid II's daughter, Fatima, in 1482; and had descendants by her. See also
Savina Monastery References
^ Momčilo Spremić, Balkanski vazali kralja Alfonsa Aragonskog, Prekinut uspon, Beograd 2005,355-358 ^ a b c d Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 578. ISBN 0472082604, 9780472082605. ^ a b c Medieval and Renaissance Studies (1978). Viator. University of California Press. pp. 388–389. ISBN 0-520-03608-5.
Stjepan Kosača Hranić, Herceg's Timeline
Gorazde, Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Blagaj, Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herceg Novi, Herceg-Novi, Montenegro
May 22, 1466