Hormazd IV, King of Persia

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Hermisdas

Persian: هرمز چهارم
Also Known As: "Hormizd"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Ctesiphon, Baghdād, Iraq
Death: Died in Baghdād, Iraq
Cause of death: blinded and deposed by Vistahm and Vinduyih
Place of Burial: Baghdād, Iraq
Immediate Family:

Son of Khosrau I "the Just", Shah of Persia and Princess of Turkey
Husband of Dgt. of Khurad, Princess of the Ephtalites; Mihran sister of Vishtam and mother of Khosrow Parviz and Princess of Hephthalites (White Huns)
Father of Khosrau II "the Victorious", King of Persia; Mihran Sasanian princess daughter of Hormozd IV and sister of Khosrow Parviz and wife of Shahrbaraz; ? Sasani and marzeban -shah of shirwan
Brother of Jazdandadh -sassanid persia; Shah bistam -sassanid persia; Shah bindoy; <private> Sassanian prince (son of Khosrow I and leader of revolt) and <private> Sasanian prince (son of Khosrow I)
Half brother of <private> Sassanian prince (son of Khosrow I and leader of revolt); un-named daughter of Nushirwan Adil and un-named son of Raja Nushirwan Adil

Occupation: Roi, de Perse, koning van Perzië
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Hormazd IV, King of Persia

Occupation: Shah of Persia


Hormizd IV (also known as Hormazd IV) reigned as the twenty-first King of Persia from 579 to 590.

He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari (Noldeke, Geschichte d. Perser und Arhalter unter den Sasaniden, 264 ff.). His father's sympathies had been with the nobles and the priests. Hormizd IV protected the common people and introduced a severe discipline in his army and court. When the priests demanded a persecution of the Christians, he declined on the ground that the throne and the government could only be safe if it gained the goodwill of both concurring religions. The consequence was that Hormizd IV raised a strong opposition in the ruling classes, which led to many executions and confiscations.

When Hormizd IV came to the throne in 579, he killed his brothers. From his father he had inherited a war against the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and against the Turks in the east, and negotiations of peace had just begun with the Emperor Tiberius II, but Hormizd IV haughtily declined to cede anything of the conquests of his father. Therefore the accounts given of him by the Byzantine authors, Theophylact Simocatta (iii.16 ff), Menander Protector and John of Ephesus (vi.22), who give a full account of these negotiations, are far from favorable.

Hormizd firstly married our ancestor Queen Khuraddukht, daughter of Hephthal V, last soverign of Hephtalite. She had three sons and two daughters: Khosrau II of Persia (our ancestor); Hormizd, Prince of Babylonia; Yazdegerd, Prince of Marakhanda; Scheherazade, who married Tiridates, Prince of Mesopotamia; and Omazade, who married Shapur, Prince of Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari

Determined to teach the haughty prince a lesson, the Roman (Byzantine) General Maurice crossed the frontier and invaded Kurdistan. The next year, he even planned to penetrate into Media and Southern Mesopotamia, but the Ghassanid sheikh al-Mundhir allegedly betrayed the Roman cause by informing Hormizd IV of the Roman Emperor's plans. Maurice was forced to retreat in a hurry but during the course his retreat to the Roman frontier, he drew the Persian general Adarman into an engagement and defeated him.

In 582, the Persian general Tamchosro crossed the Perso-Roman frontier and attacked Constantia but was defeated and killed. However, the deteriorating physical condition of the Roman Emperor Tiberius forced Maurice to return to Constantinople immediately. Meanwhile John Mystacon, who had replaced Maurice, attacked the Persians at the junction of the Nymphius and the Tigris but was defeated and forced to withdraw. Another defeat brought about his replacement by Phillipicus.

Phillipicus spent the years 584 and 585 making deep incursions into Persian territory. The Persians retaliated by attacking Monocartium and Martyropolis in 585. Phillipicus defeated them at Solachon in 586 and besieged the fortress of Chlomoron. After an unsuccessful siege, Philippicus retreated and made a stand at Amida. Soon, however, he relinquished command to Heraclius in 587.

In the year 588, the Roman troops mutinied and taking advantage of this mutiny, Persian troops once again attacked Constantia but were repulsed. The Romans retaliated with an equally unsuccessful invasion of Arzanene, but defeated another Persian offensive at Martyropolis.

In 589, the Persians attacked Martyropolis and captured it after defeating Philippicus twice. Philippicus was recalled and was replaced by Comentiolus, under whose command the Romans defeated the Persians at Sisauranon. The Romans now laid siege to Martyropolis, but at the height of the siege news circulated in Persia about a Turkish invasion.

The Turks had occupied Balkh and Herat and were penetrating into the heart of Persia when Hormizd IV finally dispatched a contingent under the general Bahram Chobin to fight them back. Bahram marched upon Balkh and defeated the Turks killing their Khan and capturing his son.

Soon after the threat from the north was exterminated, Bahram was sent to fight the Romans on the western frontier. He was initially successful, warding off an Iberian offensive against Azerbaijan, raiding in Svaneti and defeating a Roman attack on Albania, but he was defeated by the Roman general Romanus in a subsequent battle on the river Araxes. King Hormizd, jealous of the rising fame of Bahram, wished to humiliate him and sent him a complete set of women's garments to wear. Bahram responded by writing him an extremely offensive letter. Enraged, Hormizd sent Persian soldiers to arrest Bahram, but they moved over to Bahram's side. Now Bahram moved to Persia with a large army to depose the haughty monarch and place himself on the throne.

Besides, Hormizd's behavior had now turned so unbearable that his son, our ancestor Khusro broke into open revolt. With a civil war brewing in Persia, Hormizd did not survive on the Persian throne for long. The magnates deposed and blinded Hormizd IV and proclaimed his son Khosro II King. The sources do not agree on how Hormizd was killed: Theophylact states (iv.7) that Khosrau killed him a few days after his father was blinded; the Armenian historian Sebeos (History, Ch.10.75) states that Hormizd's own courtiers killed him.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormizd_IV for more information.


Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as the twenty-first King of Persia from 579 to 590.

He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari (Theodor Nöldeke, Geschichte d. Perser und Araber unter den Sasaniden, 264 ff.). His father's sympathies had been with the nobles and the priests. Hormizd IV protected the common people and introduced a severe discipline in his army and court. When the priests demanded a persecution of the Christians, he declined on the ground that the throne and the government could only be safe if it gained the goodwill of both concurring religions. The consequence was that Hormizd IV raised a strong opposition in the ruling classes, which led to many executions and confiscations.

When Hormizd IV came to the throne in 579, he killed his brothers. From his father he had inherited a war against the Byzantine Empire and against the Turks in the east, and negotiations of peace had just begun with the Emperor Tiberius II, but Hormizd IV haughtily declined to cede anything of the conquests of his father. Therefore the accounts given of him by the Byzantine authors, Theophylact Simocatta (iii.16 ff), Menander Protector and John of Ephesus (vi.22), who give a full account of these negotiations, are far from favourable.

Determined to teach the haughty prince a lesson, the Roman General Maurice crossed the frontier and invaded Kurdistan. The next year, he even planned to penetrate into Media and Southern Mesopotamia but the Ghassanid sheikh al-Mundhir allegedly betrayed the Roman cause by informing Hormizd IV of the Roman Emperor's plans. Maurice was forced to retreat in a hurry but during the course his retreat to the Roman frontier, he drew the Persian general Adarman into an engagement and defeated him.

In 582, the Persian general Tamchosro crossed the Perso-Roman frontier and attacked Constantia but was defeated and killed. However, the deteriorating physical condition of the Roman Emperor Tiberius forced Maurice to return to Constantiople immediately. Meanwhile John Mystacon, who had replaced Maurice, attacked the Persians at the junction of the Nymphius and the Tigris but was defeated and forced to withdraw. Another defeat brought about his replacement by Philippicus.

Philippicus spent the years 584 and 585 making deep incursions into Persian territory.[1] The Persians retaliated by attacking Monocartium and Martyropolis in 585. Philippicus defeated them at Solachon in 586 and besieged the fortress of Chlomoron. After an unsuccessful siege, Philippicus retreated and made a stand at Amida. Soon, however, he relinquished command to Heraclius in 587.

In the year 588, the Roman troops mutinied and taking advantage of this mutiny, Persian troops once again attacked Constantia but were repulsed. The Romans retaliated with an equally unsuccessful invasion of Arzanene, but defeated another Persian offensive at Martyropolis.

In 589, the Persians attacked Martyropolis and captured it after defeating Philippicus twice. Philippicus was recalled and was replaced by Comentiolus under whose command the Romans defeated the Persians at Sisauranon. The Romans now laid siege to Martyropolis but at the height of the siege news circulated in Persia about a Turkish invasion.

The Turks had occupied Balkh and Herat and were penetrating into the heart of Persia when Hormizd IV finally dispatched a contingent under the general Bahram Chobin to fight them back. Bahram marched upon Balkh and defeated the Turks killing their Khan and capturing his son.

Soon after the threat from the north was exterminated, Bahram was sent to fight the Romans on the western frontier. He was initially successful, warding off an Iberian offensive against Azerbaijan, raiding in Svaneti and defeating a Roman attack on Albania, but was defeated by the Roman general Romanus in a subsequent battle on the river Araxes. Hormizd, jealous of the rising fame of Bahram, wished to humiliate him and sent him a complete set of women's garments to wear. Bahram responded by writing him an extremely offensive letter. Enraged, Hormizd sent Persian soldiers to arrest Bahram but they moved over to Bahram's side. Now Bahram moved to Persia with a large army to depose the haughty monarch and place himself on the throne.

Besides, Hormizd's behavior had now turned so unbearable that his son, Khusrau broke into open revolt. With a civil war brewing in Persia, Hormizd did not survive on the Persian throne for long. The magnates deposed and blinded Hormizd IV and proclaimed his son Khosrau II King. The sources do not agree on how Hormizd was killed: Theophylact states (iv.7) that Khosrau killed him a few days after his father was blinded; the Armenian historian Sebeos (History, Ch.10.75) states that Hormizd's own courtiers killed him.


22nd Sassanid King of Iran

Source 1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_II

Source 2: http://www.thefullwiki.org/Yazdegerd_III


Hormizd IV (Middle Persian: ୠ୥୧୥୬୦ୣ; New Persian: هرمز چهارم), was king of the Sasanian Empire from 579 to 590. He was the son and successor of Khosrau

Hormizd IV is called a Torkzad in the Shahnameh, meaning son of Turk, according to some sources his mother was the daughter of the Turkish khaqan, this, however, has been rejected by Encyclopædia Iranica, which states that the marriage with the daughter of the Turkish khaqan is impossible, and says that Hormizd was born in 540, thirty years before Khosrau's marriage.

War against the Byzantines War in the East [... According to Ferdowsi, Mihransitad told the Sasanian king that the astrologers had predicted that a certain Bahram Chobin would be the savior of Iran. He then suggested that Bahram Chobin should be summoned to the Sasanian court. The aged Mihransitad is said to have immediately died after that.

Hormizd did as he advised and finally dispatched a contingent under the general Bahram Chobin to fight them back. Bahram marched upon Balkh and defeated the Turks killing their Khan and capturing his son.

Soon after the threat from the north was exterminated, Bahram was sent to fight the Khazars on the northern frontier, where he was successful. He was then sent to fight the Romans on the northern frontier, where he was initially successful, raiding in Svaneti as well as warding off both Caucasian Iberian and Roman offensives against Caucasian Albania, but was defeated by the Roman general Romanus in a subsequent battle on the river Araxes.

Hormizd, jealous of the rising fame of Bahram, disgraced him, and had him removed from the Sasanian office. Hormizd also wished to humiliate him and sent him a complete set of women's garments to wear. Bahram responded by writing him an extremely offensive letter. Enraged, Hormizd sent Persian soldiers to arrest Bahram but they moved over to Bahram's side. Bahram, with a large army, then marched towards the capital, Ctesiphon.

After hearing about Bahram's rebellion, Hormizd tried to organize an effective resistance against him by trying to sideline with Vistahm and Vinduyih along with other Sasanian nobles, but was dissuaded, according to Sebeos, by his son, Khosrau II. Hormizd responded by having Vinduyih and many other nobles imprisoned, but Vistahm apparently managed to flee; soon after, however, the two brothers appear as the leaders of a palace coup that deposed, blinded and killed Hormizd, raising his son Khosrau to the throne.

[Then Tiberius died, leaving a good portion of the land grieving. And Maurice became emperor [582-602].

Rome, however, rebelled against Maurice and seated Germanus (Garamios) as their own emperor. Previously he had been successful in warfare against the Persians. Then the Persian king Khosrov died and his son Hurmazd [V, 579-590] reigned. Now [Maurice] sent [emissaries] to Rome so that they would recognize him [as emperor] [g280], but the Romans refused. Instead, they went to the country of Persia and took captives, sending 3,000 to Maurice. Germanus subordinated himself to Maurice, who was delighted. And so he agreed to let him rule the Roman [sector of the empire] , under his authority. [Maurice] ordered that the city of Arabissus — whence he himself hailed — should be enlarged. This was located in Second Armenia, and so some said that he was of Armenian origin. Four years later the city was devastated by an earthquake and was rebuilt with the greatest care, better than before. But it was hit by an earthquake yet again.

Maurice then placed his brother-in-law, his sister's husband, Phillippicus, as military commander and sent him against the Persians. The Persians had sent much treasure from Nisibis to Martyropolis (Mup'arghin) and took that city. Phillippicus went and retook it and killed the Persians who were there. That same year the Persians turned against their king Hurmazd and blinded him. He died in the eighth year of Maurice's reign. In the ninth year of Maurice, Hurmazd's son, Khosrov, was enthroned [Khosrov n, first reign, 590].

About Hormazd IV, King of Persia (Persian)

هرمز چهارم شاهنشاه ساسانی Hormizd iv.jpg سکه‌ای از هرمز چهارم دوران ۵۷۹ میلادی - ۵۹۰ میلادی مرگ ۵۹۰ میلادی پیش از خسرو پرویز پس از خسرو انوشیروان پدر خسرو انوشیروان فرزندان خسرو پرویز دین زرتشتی

نگاره هرمز چهارم در شاهنامه تهماسبی هرمز چهارم[۱] شاه ساسانی بود که از ۵۷۹ تا ۵۹۰ میلادی بر تخت شاهی نشست. او پس از خسرو یکم (انوشیروان دادگر) بر تخت نشست که داشت با بیزانس صلح برقرار می‌کرد تا برای فرزندش هرمز چهارم کشوری پایدار و آبادان بر جا بگذارد. انوشیروان پس از اینکه در پسرش هرمز چهارم ویژگی‌هایی دید که یک شاه بدانها نیازمند بود، او را جانشین خود کرد. این گزینش هرمز چهارم از میان پسرانش، می‌تواند دلایل سیاسی نیز داشته باشد، چرا که مادر هرمز چهارم دختر خاقان ترک بود و پسران دیگر انوشیروان از زنان با تبار دونپایه‌تر بودند. منابع شرقی و پژوهشگران دوران نوین پدربزرگ مادری او را Sinjibu یا Silzibul می‌دانند که در پیرامون سال ۵۶۰ برای نابود کردن هپتالیان با انوشیروان دست به یکی کردند و سپس دختر خود را به انوشیروان داد. از آنجاست که هرمز چهارم را در شاهنامه ترکزاد یاترک‌زاده گفته‌اند. با این حال در پذیرش این رویداد یک دشواری تاریخی وجود دارد. پس از بخش کردن شاهنشاهی هپتالیان میان ایران و ترک‌ها، Sinjibu مرزهای شرقی ایران را تهدید کرد. خسرو پسر خود هرمز چهارم را برای جنگ با او فرستاد و خان به سرزمین‌های خود برگشت. از این رو هرمز چهارم باید پیرامون سال ۵۴۰ میلادی زاده شده باشد که این زمان، مدت‌ها پیش از همسایه شدن خسرو انوشیروان و Sinjibu است (پسر خود هرمز چهارم، خسرو پرویز، هنگامی که در ۵۹۰ بر تخت نشست، دست کم سی ساله بوده است). Josef Marquart اشاره کرده است که سیبویه مادر هرمز چهارم را «دختر خاقان ترک دانسته و نام دختر او را کایین نوشته است و مسعودی نام او را فاقوم یاد کرده است، و افزوده است که او دختر شاه خزر بوده است که در همسایگی باب الابواب نشیمن داشته است. Marquart نتیجه‌ای محتمل گرفته است که پدربزرگ مادر هرمز چهارم خاقان خزرها بوده است (که در منابع از آنها با نام ترک یاد می‌شود) و مسعودی نام پدر را به جای نام دختر نوشته است. ابن خردادبه هم اشاره کرده است که انوشیروان و شاه خزرها بر آن بودند که با دختران یکدیگر پیوند زناشویی ببندند.

شخصیت هرمز چهارم همگان را رنجانده بود. سیبویه گفته است که تبار او، «هرمز را حتی برجسته‌تر از نیاکان پدری و به همان اندازه وحشی‌تر از نیاگان مادری‌اش کرده بود». او برای مهار کردن اشراف، به خشونت، بدنام کردن آنان و اعدام آنان دست یاخت. او برای آنکه در دادگری از پدر خویش پیشی بگیرد، سوی طبقه‌های پایین جامعه را گرفت که در پایان آسایش نیافتند و در برابر خود او شوریدند. او بر آن بود تا هزینه‌ها را پایین بیاورد، از این رو دستمزد لشکر را تا یک دهم پایین آورد. او نه تنها دادخواستی که موبدان زرتشتی برای آزار مسیحیان نزد او فرستاده بودند را رد کرد و گفت که می‌خواهد همه زیردستان او به آزادی دین خود را پرستش کنند، بلکه همچنین با موبدان زرتشتی نیز در افتاد و بر پایه گزارش‌ها بسیاری از آنان را کشت، حتی سالار موبدان را، و با کشتن هزاران تن از اشراف، آنان را از خود ناخشنود کرد. او در دیپلماسی از خود سازش‌نپذیری و حتی قضاوت ضعیف نشان داد. او پیمان صلح با بیزانس را پاره کرد و از آنان درخواست پرداخت باج و ساو کرد که رومی‌ها نمی‌توانستند بپذیرند. آنان همچنین با پذیرفتن دغلکاری به عنوان پسر خسرو، خشم او را برانگیختند. به دنبال آن، جنگی ویرانگر میان ایران و روم درگرفت که در همه دوران پادشاهی هرمز چهارم برپا بود. Menander Protector از معاصران او، نالیده است که «ایرانی‌ها و رومی‌ها صلح برقرار کرده بودند، اگر خسرو از جهان چشم فرو نبسته بود و پسر او، هرمز چهارم، یک نابکار به تمام معنا، جای او را نگرفته بود». نویسنده گمنام Guidi Chronicle مدعی شده است که هرمز چهارم «یوغی سنگین بر سر اشراف و همه مردمش نهاده است». تاریخدانان مدرن در این باره همسازتر هستند. نلدکه اینچنین گفته‌هایی را ناروا دانسته و هرمز چهارم را یک شاه نیکخواه دانسته که می‌خواست موبدان و اشراف را مهار کند و بار روی دوش مردم فرودست را بردارد. او گفته است که «کارهای او روی هم رفته توجیه‌پذیر است، ولی پیامد ناگوار آن نشان می‌دهد که او مردی نبود که به چنین اهداف بلندی با صلح و کاردانی دست یابد».

در زمان بر تخت نشستن هرمز چهارم، Tiberius Caesar پیشنهاد یک پیمان‌نامه صلح داد و گفت که از همه ارمنستان دست می‌کشد و می‌خواهد Arzenere که در دست رومیان بود را با سرزمین دارا که در دست ایرانیان بود را داد و ستد کند. هرمز چهارم از این پیشنهاد سر باز زد و Tiberius آنگاه موریس که فرمانده شرق بود را دستور داد تا برای جنگ با ایران خود را آماده کند. یکی از لشکرهای روم به کردستان تاخت آوردن و آن سرزمین تا ماد را نابود کرد. لشکری دیگر از روم به درون میان‌رودان آمد و می‌خواست غافل‌گیرانه تیسفون را بگیرد. ایرانی‌ها با تاختن به میان‌رودانِ روم، تهدید کردن مرز عقب‌نشینی موریس و شکست دادن ارتش روم در ارمنستان در برابر این حمله تلافی کردند. موریس نیروهای ایرانی در نزدیکی Callinicum را شکست داد، یا دست کم آنها را باز ایستاند و زیان‌های فراوانی را دوباره در سال ۵۸۱ بر ایرانیان وارد کرد، و هنگامی که موریس به قسطنطنیه شتافت تا تخت شاهی را بستاند، فرمانده او جنگ را ادامه داد. ایرانی‌ها نخست کامیاب بودند ولی پس از آن شکست خوردند، و هر دو سوی جنگ، سرزمین‌های مرزی دیگری را غارت و چپاول کرد. در ۵۸۵، هرمز چهارم «صلح‌دوست»، به رومی‌ها «دستور داد» تا «با هدایا و طلاهای بسیاری به دنبال صلح بیوفتند»، ولی موریس بر آن بود که شرایط صلح نپذیرفتنی است و جنگ از سر گرفته شد. رومی‌ها و متحدان غسانی آنان نیروهای ایرانی را در سال ۵۸۶ در نزدیکی دارا شکست دادند، ولی خودشان نیز زیان‌های سنگینی دادند. این گرفتن و دادن‌ها تا چهار سال پسین هم ادامه یافت. در سال ۵۸۹ جنگ برای ایران به بدی سپری می‌شد ، آن هنگام که بربرهای قفقازی از راه‌های قفقاز حمله کردند و «ترک‌ها» یعنی هفتالیان به مرزهای شرقی شاهنشاهی تاختند. تنها سردار بهرام چوبین بود که کشور را از بیابانگردان شرقی رهاند، ولی ناسپاسی هرمز چهارم او را در سال ۵۹۰ ناچار به شورش کرد.

باری، رفتار خشونت‌بار هرمز چهارم با اشراف یک شورش فراگیر را به رهبری برادران ناتنی خودش بندوی و ویستهم/بستام آغاز کرد که نخست هرمز چهارم را برکنار و سپس او را با همدستی و رضایت پسر خودش، خسرو پرویز کشتند (هرچند که در منابع سنتی خلاف آن ادعا شده است).

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https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%87%D8%B1%D9%85%D8%B2_%DA%86%D9%87%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%85

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