Don Isaac Abarbanel דון יצחק אברבנאל

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Isaac Abravanel I (Abravanel)

Hebrew: דון יצחק אברבנאל
Also Known As: "Isaac ben Judah Abravanel", "Don Isaac Abarbanel", "Don Isaac Abarbanello", "Isaac Abarabanel"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Lisbon, Portugal
Death: October 03, 1508 (71)
Venice, Italy
Place of Burial: Padua, Italy
Immediate Family:

Son of Yehuda Abravanel, >Portugal and Ester Sara Abarbanel
Husband of Rebecca Abarbanel
Father of Judah Leon Medigo Leon Abravanel, >Italy; Esther Abravanel; Joseph Abravanel, >Italy and Samuel Abravanel, > Italy
Brother of Jacob Abravanel; Joseph Abravanel and Samuel Abravanel

Occupation: Chief Minister, diplomat, writer..., Financist and philosopher, Teologo, comentarista bíblico y empresario, Rabbi/Royal Financier
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Don Isaac Abarbanel דון יצחק אברבנאל

The Jewish philosopher and statesman Isaac ben Judah Abravanel (1437-1508), or Abarbanel, is noted for his biblical commentaries and for his attempt to prevent the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.

Isaac Abravanel, a descendant of an old and distinguished Spanish family, was born in Lisbon, Portugal. In addition to intensive religious training, he received a broad liberal education and acquired a thorough grounding in Greek, Latin, and Christian literature. Like his father, Isaac was highly successful in both his commercial and diplomatic careers.

He served as treasurer under the Portuguese kings Alfonso V and John II. Falsely charged with plotting against the monarchy, Abravanel fled in 1483 to Castile, Spain. There he devoted himself to his commentary on several biblical books of the prophets.

In 1490 Abravanel was appointed treasurer to the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella. But in 1492 Torquemada, the head of the Spanish Inquisition, persuaded the royal couple to expel the Jews from Spain. Despite Abravanel's important services to the Crown, his attempts to have the decree of expulsion revoked were unsuccessful.

He went into exile with his fellow Jews and moved to Naples, where he was soon given a financial post in the government. In 1495 a French invasion forced him to leave Naples. After some years of intermittent wandering, he settled in Venice in 1503. He died there in 1508 and was buried in Padua.

His Writings

Abravanel's most important works are the commentaries which he wrote on almost all the books of the Old Testament. He employed what might be termed a critical or scientific approach in his biblical studies. He examined the historical episodes in the Bible in the light of economic, political, and social factors and often drew analogies to his own times. In dating biblical books, he often deviated from tradition, and he did not hesitate to consult the works of Christian scholars.

Abravanel also wrote a number of philosophical and theological works.

His Rosh Amana (Pillars of Faith) and

Sefer Mifalot Elohim (Book of God's Works) show the influence of the 12th-century Jewish philosopher Maimonides.

In general Abravanel developed a negative view of culture and civilization. He was influenced by the Stoics in his condemnation of luxurious living and by the Cynics in his criticism of the political state. His pessimism was balanced, however, by a firm belief in the miraculous coming of the Messiah, which he expounded in Maayene Hayeshuah (Founts of Salvation), Yeshuath Meshiho (Salvation of His Messiah), and Mashmia Yeshua (Proclaimer of Salvation). These works contributed to the subsequent rise of false messiahs.

Abrabanel was a financial advisor to King Alfonso V of Portugal, although he was forced to leave the country because of charges that he participated in a conspiracy against Alfonso's successor, Joao II. Thereupon, he settled in Castille and became a diplomat and advisor in the court of Ferdinand and Isabella. Here he attempted to hinder the decree expelling the Jews, although without success. As the most influential leader of the exiles, he first settled in Naples and later in Venice.

His writings include detailed, comprehensive commentaries on most books in the Hebrew Bible as well as a Messianic Trilogy in which he proposed that the distress of his time symbolized the imminence of the Messianic redemption whose realization he expected even in his lifetime. Influenced by the humanism of the Renaissance, he maintained contact with contemporary Christian scholars and often applied their views in his commentaries, some of which were translated into Latin and had a degree of influence in Italy. His fundamental attitude was rationalist, but he insisted that religious tradition is the ultimate source of truth. His son Judah was also a philosopher.

Joseph Dan

Bibliography

  • A.J. Heschel, Don Jizchak Abravanel, 1937
  • J.S. Minkin, Abravanel and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, 1938
  • B. Netanyahu, Don Isaac Abravanel, 1968.

Further Reading

The major scholarly work on Abravanel is B. Netanyahu, Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher (1953), which contains an extensive bibliography.

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  Much has been said about the alleged loss of the knowledge of the family of David. But it would seem that there are many now living who actually claim a descent from the King of Israel, and whose claim is actually acknowledged. We had for some time past intended to copy the following piece from the conversion organ of London, but our space wouldnot permit us.

At present, however, we have unexpectedly more room than we thought we should have, and therefore lay the extract before our readers as a curious memorandum, which they may rely on with the more certainty, as it met our eye for the first time in a magazine which bears in every page the amplest testimony of its hatred of our religion, and is supported by funds contributed to effect the apostacy of our nation. “Let our enemies be judges,” says the Bible, and we may freely repeat it; for, even then we have nothing to fear.—Ed. Oc.

(From the Jewish Intelligence of Nov. 1849.)

The family of Abarbanel, the celebrated Jewish commentator, is remarkable for having carefully preserved its pedigree, according to which they trace their descent from king David. Hence, in all the documents and books of Abarbanel and his family, they have ever added to their signature: מגזע דוד מלך ישראל (from the stem of David, king of Israel).

Don Isaac Abarbanello, whose family had long lived in Spain, and who was permitted by authority to have a lion in his crest, was expelled from that country with the rest of the Jews, under Ferdinand the Catholic, in 1492.

The Abarbanel family settled finally in the East, where strangers from Christian countries were then called “Franks,” and when many years afterwards the Abarbanel family left the East, and settled in Vienna, they were still designated “Franks,” with the peculiar Austrian provincial diminutive “el,” and the family has ever since retained the name “Frankel.”

The accomplishments and intelligence for which the Abarbanel (Frankel) family was ever renowned, soon distinguished them also in Austria, both in a pecuniary and intellectual point of view. Nevertheless, they were not exempted from the hard fate which the Jews met with under Leopold, in being, on February 14th, 1670, expelled from the Austrian dominions, under pain of death. (See “Jewish Intelligence” for December, 1845.).

The family Frankel united with some others of their expelled brethren, in presenting a petition to the resident minister of the elector of Brandenburg, Andreas Neumann, begging that he would intercede with his royal master, in order to obtain permission for some of them to settle in his dominions.

In this petition they complained that though God had created the earth for all men, yet the countries were everywhere closed against them, so that they knew not whither to turn their steps. The poverty and very great depopulation occasioned in the marquisate of Brandenburg, by the Thirty Years’ War, induced the elector to grant their request. The elector instructed his plenipotentiary, under the date of April 19th, 1670, that he had no objection to allow forty or fifty families to settle in his dominions. On the 21st of May an edict was issued, which gave them permission to settle in the country, and carry on their mode of worship in private houses, but not in public synagogues.

As a characteristic of the times, it may be noticed that in the special charter, which was granted to various families, there are these restrictive clauses: “that they are to abstain from usury, and not to take more interest than three pence a week for one dollar (360 pence); to abstain from purchasing stolen goods, and blaspheming Christ;” with a few other similar clauses, all calculated to demoralize the Jews.

Some of the members of the Frankel family settled in Berlin, others in Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, and others in Dessau,—in which latter place they founded the congregation which flourished so abundantly in after times.

Printing Press

The family became the founders of very important printing offices for Jewish literature, in Berlin, Frankfurt, Jessnitz, and Dessau, whence proceeded the Talmud in three complete editions (in Berlin), and also the Pentateuch in various editions, as well as the works of Maimonides (in Jessnitz), his מורה נבוכים, as well as a complete edition of the Jerusalem Talmud, and its excellent commentary, קרבן עדת, by the grandfather of Mr. F., now living at Dessau, 75 years of age. All these works are celebrated for their clearness and correctness, and often quoted by Christian writers.

The commentator on the Jerusalem Talmud, just referred to, was afterwards Chief Rabbi in Berlin, and was followed thither by the juvenile Moses, son of Mendel, for the privilege of studying under so great a rabbi the Talmud and other Jewish literature. This pupil was Moses Mendelssohn, afterwards the celebrated modern reformer of the Jews.   -----------------------------------------

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Abrabanel Isaac Abarabanel was born in Lisbon, Portugal into one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families, the Abravanel family, who had escaped persecution in Spain during 1391.

A student of the Rabbi of Lisbon, Joseph Chaim a/k/a Yosef ben Shlomo Ibn Yahya, poet, religious scholar, rebuilder of Ibn Yahya Synagogue of Calatayud (a descendant of Hiyya al-Daudi who was great-grandson of Hezekiah Gaon), he became well versed in rabbinic literature and in the learning of his time, devoting his early years to the study of Jewish philosophy.

Abravanel is quoted as saying that he included Joseph ibn Shem-Tov as his mentor. At twenty years old, he wrote on the original form of the natural elements, on religious questions and prophecy. Together with his intellectual abilities, he showed a complete mastery of financial matters. This attracted the attention of King Afonso V of Portugal who employed him as treasurer.

Other works are:

   * "The Crown of the Ancients"
   * "The Pinnacle of Faith"
   * "The Wellsprings of Redemption", in the form of a commentary on Daniel,
   * "The Salvation of His Anointed"
   * "The Herald of Salvation", in which are collected and explained all the Messianic texts.
   * "Inheritance of the Fathers"
   * "The Forms of the Elements"
   * "New Heavens"
   * "Deeds of God"

----------------------------------------

The Abarbanel family (also Abravanel and Abrabanel) is one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families; they trace their origin from the biblical King David.

Don Isaac is best well known for being the treasurer to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Unable to prevent the expulsion of the Jews from Spain, he left with the others of his faith in 1492.

Don Isaac was a major commentator and his numerous texts are still treasured today.


Abarbanel was born in Lisbon, Portugal, into one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families, the Abravanel or Abarbanel family, who had escaped massacre in Castile in 1391. A student of the rabbi of Lisbon, Joseph Chaim, he became well versed in rabbinic literature and in the learning of his time, devoting his early years to the study of Jewish philosophy. Abarbanel is quoted as saying that he included Joseph ibn Shem-Tov as his mentor. At twenty years old, he wrote on the original form of the natural elements, on religious questions and prophecy. Together with his intellectual abilities, he showed a complete mastery of financial matters. This attracted the attention of King Afonso V of Portugal who employed him as treasurer.

He used his high position and the great wealth he had inherited from his father, to aid his co-religionists. When his patron, Afonso captured the city of Arzila, in Morocco, the Jewish captives faced being sold as slaves. Abarbanel contributed largely to the funds needed to free them, and personally arranged for collections throughout Portugal. He also wrote to his learned and wealthy friend, Vitale (Yehiel) Nissim da Pisa, on behalf of the captives.

After the death of Afonso he was obliged to relinquish his office, having been accused by King John II of connivance with the Duke of Braganza, who had been executed on the charge of conspiracy. Abarbanel, warned in time, saved himself by a hasty flight to Castile in 1483. His large fortune was confiscated by royal decree.

At Toledo, his new home, he occupied himself at first with Biblical studies, and in the course of six months produced an extensive commentary on the books of Joshua, Judges, and Samuel. But shortly afterward he entered the service of the house of Castile. Together with his friend, the influential Don Abraham Senior, of Segovia, he undertook to farm the revenues and to supply provisions for the royal army, contracts that he carried out to the entire satisfaction of Queen Isabella.

During the Moorish war, Abarbanel advanced considerable sums of money to the king. When the Jews were ordered banished from Spain with the Alhambra decree, he did all in his power to induce the king to revoke the edict. He unsuccessfully offered the king 30,000 ducats ($68,400 nominal value). He left Spain with his fellow Jews and went to Naples where, soon after, he entered the service of the king. For a short time he lived in peace undisturbed; but when the city was taken by the French, bereft of all his possessions, he followed the young king, Alfonso, in 1495, to Messina; then went to Corfu; and in 1496 settled in Monopoli, and lastly in 1503 settled in Venice, where his services were employed in negotiating a commercial treaty between Portugal and the Venetian republic.

Several times during the mid-to-late 15th century, he personally spent large amounts of his personal fortunes to bribe the Spanish Monarchy to permit the Jews to remain in Spain. It is claimed that Abarbanel offered them 600,000 crowns for the revocation of the edict. It is said also that Ferdinand hesitated, but was prevented from accepting the offer by Torquemada, the grand inquisitor, who dashed into the royal presence and, throwing a crucifix down before the king and queen, asked whether, like Judas, they would betray their Lord for money. In the end, he managed only to get the date for the expulsion to be extended by two days.

He died in Venice in 1508 and was buried in Padua next to Rabbi Judah Minz, Rabbi of Padua. Owing to the destruction of the Jewish cemetery there during the Siege of Padua in 1509, his grave is now unknown.

About Don Isaac Abarbanel דון יצחק אברבנאל (עברית)

יצחק אברבנאל

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לידה 1437 ה'קצ"ז פורטוגל 1578 ליסבון, ממלכת פורטוגל פטירה 23 בספטמבר 1508 (בגיל 71 בערך) ה'רס"ט הרפובליקה של ונציה ונציה, הרפובליקה של ונציה כינוי דון איסק אברבנאל מקום קבורה איטליה פדובה, איטליה מדינה פורטוגל 1578 ממלכת פורטוגל השתייכות רבני פורטוגל, רבני ספרד (בעיקר קסטיליה ואראגון), רבני איטליה תחומי עיסוק תנ"ך, אמונה, השקפה, פילוסופיה תפקידים נוספים שר אוצר, מדינאי רבותיו רבי יוסף בן אברהם חיון תלמידיו בנו, רבי דון יהודה אברבנאל חיבוריו פירוש לתנ"ך, "זבח פסח" על הגדה של פסח, "מגדל הישועות", "מעייני הישועה", "משמיע ישועה", "ישועות משיחו", "ראש אמנה" "עטרת זקנים" "צורת היסודות" צאצאים יהודה אברבנאל Samuele Abarbanel

רבי יצחק בן יהודה אַבְּרַבַנְאֵל או דון איסק אברבנאל (בספרדית: Don Isaac Abravanel, בפורטוגזית: Dom Isaac Abravanel; ‏1437–1508[1]) היה מדינאי יהודי, פילוסוף, מיסטיקן, פרשן מקרא וכלכלן, ממנהיגי היהודים בחצי האי האיברי שפעל ללא הצלחה לביטול גזירת גירוש ספרד. ידוע בפירושו על התורה ובתפקידיו כשר האוצר של ממלכות פורטוגל קסטיליה, אראגון ונאפולי.

תוכן עניינים 1 קורות חיים 1.1 יצירותיו 1.2 השקפותיו על תחיית המתים 1.3 מעייני הישועה 1.4 זבח פסח 1.5 ראש אמנה 1.6 יחסו לקבלה 2 לקריאה נוספת 3 קישורים חיצוניים 3.1 ספריו במהדורה מקוונת 4 הערות שוליים

קורות חיים דון יצחק היה בן למשפחת אברְבֶנְאֵל (או "אַבְּרַבַנְאֵל" - הוא עצמו כתב כי שם משפחתו "אברבניאל"), משפחת אצולה יהודית עתיקת יומין ששורשיה נעוצים באזור ספרד ופורטוגל.[2] יחוסה של המשפחה הגיע לפי מסורת משפחתית עד לדוד המלך. יש הדורשים את משמעות השם: אָב-רָב, בֵּנ-אֵל. לפי אותה מסורת המשפחה הגיעה לספרד מיד לאחר חורבן בית המקדש הראשון. למשפחה היה חותם מיוחד ומגילת יוחסין של שבט יהודה.[3] בין בני משפחתו: יהודה בן שמואל או יוסף אברבנאל שחי בסביליה והיה שר האוצר של מלך פורטוגל ואחייניתו בנבנידה אברבנאל, נדבנית ואשת עסקים שישבה בנאפולי.

דון יצחק אברבנאל נולד בליסבון שבפורטוגל לדון יהודה. הוא למד תורה מרבו המובהק, רבי יוסף בן אברהם חיון, ובנוסף, למד פילוסופיה אצל רבי יוסף אבן שם טוב[4] לפי הספרים שהיו ידועים בימיו. בנערותו, חיבר את הספר "עטרת זקנים", הכולל ביאור לפרשת "הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ מַלְאָךְ לְפָנֶיךָ" שבפרשת כי תשא.[5] יחד עם חיבור זה חיבר גם את הספר "צורת היסודות", הכולל השקפות פילוסופיות על העולם והטבע, וכן על ההשגחה הפרטית, הישארות הנפש ויסודות הדת. הוא החל לכתוב פרוש לספר דברים בשם "מרכבת המשנה", אך נאלץ לעזוב את עבודתו הספרותית בגלל בחירתו לשר האוצר על ידי אפונסו החמישי, מלך פורטוגל (משרה אותה מילא קודם לכן אביו דון יהודה).

דון יצחק סייע לפדיון 250 שבויים יהודים אשר נמצאו בעיר ארזילה (Arzila) במרוקו עם כיבושה על ידי הפורטוגזים בשנת 1471. הוא אסף כסף לפדיונם, דאג למחסורם במשך שנתיים, עד אשר נקלטו בספרד. בשנת 1483 העלילו עליו כי הוא עומד לבגוד במדינתו, פורטוגל. ולכן ביקש מקלט בטולדו בספרד, מושב משפחתו בעבר, משם ניסה להסביר למלך פורטוגל ז'ואו השני את חפותו. הדבר לא עלה בידו והמלך החרים את כל רכושו. באותה התקופה חידש את כתיבת הפירוש לתנ"ך, וסיים את חיבור הפירושים לספרים: יהושע, שופטים ושמואל. במהלך החיבור של פירושו לספר מלכים נקרא על ידי המלכים הקתוליים פרננדו השני מלך אראגון ואיזבלה הראשונה מלכת קסטיליה שמינו אותו לתפקיד שר האוצר של הממלכות קסטיליה ואראגון. בתפקיד זה שרת שמונה שנים.[3]

בשנת 1492 השתדל אצל הזוג המלכותי מקסטיליה ואראגון לביטול גזירת גירוש ספרד ואף הציע בשם יהדות ספרד מתת סתר, לשווא. וכך כתב בהקדמתו לפירוש בספר מלכים:

בעת היותי שם אני בחצר בית המלך יגעתי בקראי [...] אל המלך פעמים שלש [...] לאמר הושיעה המלך למה תעשה כה לעבדיך [...] וכמו פתן חרש יאטם אזנו לא ישיב מפני כל. והמלכה עומדת על ימינו לשטנו...

עם גירוש ספרד, גלה עם משפחתו לאיטליה, והתיישב בעיר נאפולי. גם שם מונה לשר האוצר. בשנת 1495 נאלץ להימלט לסיציליה וכל רכושו הוחרם. בהמשך הגיע לאי קורפו ללא כל רכוש. בשנת 1496 עבר למונופולי, עיירה ליד בארי. כאן סיים בערב פסח 1496 את כתיבת ספרו "זבח פסח". בשנת 1503 נקרא לוונציה, שם ניסה לפשר בין מנהיגי העיר לבין סוחרי פורטוגל בנושא המסחר בבשמים, שם גם נפטר בגיל 71. הוא הובא למנוחת עולמים בבית העלמין הישן בפדובה. המצבה על קברו נהרסה בשנת 1509.[3]

בשנים שלאחר מכן, התיישבו בני משפחתו בהולנד, אנגליה ובאימפריה העות'מאנית.[3] חלקים ממשפחת אברבנאל עלו לארץ ישראל באמצע המאה ה-19 והיו מהראשונים לצאת מחומות העיר העתיקה לשכונות החדשות שנבנו בירושלים.

אחד מבניו הוא רבי דון יהודה אברבנאל.

יצירותיו בשנותיו באיטליה התמסר להשלמת הפירוש לספרי התנ"ך. יצירתו הייתה לאחד הנכסים החשובים בפרשנות המקרא. גישתו המיוחדת הסתייעה בלימוד אורחות החיים והליכות המדינה שהיו נהוגות בארץ ישראל, ולא עסק רק בדקדוקי השפה וההגיון. הוא הצליח לתאר את חיי העם היהודי בארצו, הליכותיו, מנהגיו ומשטרו. הוא הכיר גם את פרשני המקרא מקרב הגויים, ושילב את פרשנותם כאשר מצא לנכון.

הוא נהג לכתוב מבוא לכל ספר וספר בתנ"ך. במבוא היה הסבר על מועד כתיבתו של הספר, סגנון לשונו ותוכנו. פירושו על המקרא מתאפיין במבנה דומה לפרשנים אחרים בימי הביניים (כמו האלשיך והאור החיים), בהעמסת שאלות רבות בנושא אחד, ומאמר ארוך - כמענה עליהן. פירושו ידוע גם כארוך יחסית.[6]

השקפותיו על תחיית המתים במבוא לספר ישעיהו הוא הרחיב לדון בנושא תחיית המתים והביע את השקפתו על כך. בין השאר הוא הגיע למסקנה כי תחיית המתים תכלול גם את הגוף, במצבו כפי שהיה בעת פטירתו, בנוסף לנשמה, אחרת מדובר בגלגול נשמות. הוא מבחין בתחיית המתים בין עם ישראל לבין אומות העולם. בין השקפותיו בנושא תחיית המתים:

"בדור התחיה לא יהיו עוד מלכים ולא שרים בין בני אדם, אבל יהיו כולם שווין כמו שהיו בתחילת הבריאה" "בדור התחייה יתבטלו כל מיני עבודה זרה וכל מיני צלמים ופסלים מן העולם, וגם אמונת ישו תתבטל, כי איש הוא ולא אל" "שיהיה זמן התחייה בזמן קיבוץ הגלויות או קרוב אליו" מעייני הישועה אברבנאל סבר כי האמונה בביאת המשיח, כפי שנמסרה על ידי חכמי התלמוד, היא יסוד חשוב בדת היהודית. בספרו "מעייני הישועה", הוא האריך לדון בספר דניאל. בשני ספרים נוספים, "משמיע ישועה" ו"ישועות משיחו", הוא מבאר את מאמרי התלמוד והמדרש על ימי הגאולה, מתוך מטרה לערער את האמונה הנוצרית. בנוסף, כתב ספר חשוב אודות הדוגמות (עיקרים) בעולם היהודי ובכלל, ששמו הוא "ראש אמנה".

זבח פסח החיבור נכתב בצרוף להגדה של פסח שהודפסה בקושטא בשנת 1505. עיקרה הוא חיבור של מאה שאלות על ליל הסדר. בפירושו אין הוא עונה על כל השאלות שנשאלו, ומספר שאלות נותרו ללא מענה.

ראש אמנה הספר דן בעיקרי האמונה, והוא כולל 24 פרקים. בפרק הראשון מובאים י"ג העיקרים של הרמב"ם. הפרק השני עוסק בדעות החכמים שבאו אחריו, כמו רבי חסדאי קרשקש. הפרק השלישי דן בספקות ובהסתייגויות שיש בעיקרים עליהם הוא עונה בפרקים בהמשך. הפרקים הבאים עוסקים בעיקרים עצמם. כתיבת הספר הסתיימה בשנת 1496 והוא הודפס בקושטא בשנת 1505 בתוספת "שירים שעשה החכם הר' יהודה אברבנאל בן השר המחבר על ספר ראש אמנה". הספר הוהדר מחדש על ידי מנחם קלנר בהוצאת אוניברסיטת בר-אילן בתוספת מבוא מפורט.

יחסו לקבלה אברבנאל מצהיר על עצמו כי לא למד את חכמת הקבלה,[7] אך מכנה את חכמי הקבלה "חכמי האמת".[8] בפירושו על התנ"ך הוא מצטט קטעים מספר הזוהר.

לקריאה נוספת בנציון נתניהו, דון יצחק אברבנאל - מדינאי והוגה-דעות, תרגם אהרן אמיר, הוצאת שוקן, 2005 אפרים שמואלי, דון יצחק אברבנאל וגירוש ספרד, מוסד ביאליק, 1963 תולדות המחבר במבוא לספר זבח פסח, אשר חברו דון יצחק אברבנאל, בן השר יהודה אברבנאל, נדפס בויניציאה בשנת ש"ה לפ"ק (1545). נכלל באוצר פרושים וציורים על הגדה לפסח משנת תרע"ז (1917) על ידי יהודה דוד אייזענשטיין ונדפס מחדש בשנת תשל"ו (1975) בהוצאת ספרים שילה, תל אביב. הערך "אַבְרַבַנְאֵל" באוצר ישראל כרך ראשון, עמ' 96 האנציקלופדיה העברית כרך א' תשי"א מעמ' 273 זאב הרוי, "אנרכיזם, שוויוניות וקומוניזם במשנת ר' יצחק אברבנאל", בתוך: בבנימין בראון, מנחם לורברבוים, אבינועם רוזנק, ידידיה צ' שטרן (עורכים), על דעת הקהל - דת ופוליטיקה בהגות היהודית, מרכז זלמן שזר, 2012, עמ' 213–229. הרב משה צוריאל, אוצרות הרב יצחק אברבנאל, לקט מוסר השקפה ודעות מכל ספריו עם מפתחות, בני ברק, תשע"ב. סדריק כהן סקלי, דון יצחק אברבנאל, סדרת "גדולי הרוח והיצירה בעם היהודי", מרכז זלמן שזר, 2017. אליהו ליפינר, Two Portuguese exiles in Castile : Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel, הוצאת מאגנס, ירושלים, 1997 (באנגלית, תורגם מפורטוגזית)[9] תקופת חייו של הרב יצחק אברבנאל על ציר הזמן ציר הזמן

קישורים חיצוניים מיזמי קרן ויקימדיה ויקיציטוט ציטוטים בוויקיציטוט: יצחק אברבנאל ויקיטקסט טקסט בוויקיטקסט: יצחק אברבנאל ויקישיתוף תמונות ומדיה בוויקישיתוף: יצחק אברבנאל יצחק אברבנאל , ב"אנציקלופדיה יהודית" באתר "דעת" "אברבנאל, דון יצחק בן דוד יהודה ", יהודה דוד אייזנשטיין (עורך), אנציקלופדיה אוצר ישראל, ניו יורק: פרדס, תשי"ב, חלק א, עמודים 80–83, באתר HebrewBooks על אברבנאל באתר מט"ח אלי אשד, שר אוצר יהודי בספרד דון יצחק (בר' יהודה) אברבנאל / יחיאל צבי מושקוביץ יצחק אברבנאל , באתר הספרייה הווירטואלית של מטח מרכבת המשנה

- פירושו לספר דברים

ספריו במהדורה מקוונת זבח פסח

- פירוש ההגדה של פסח ונוהלי ליל הסדר (אתר דעת)

זבח פסח

- תיאור וסריקה מלאה באתר הספרייה הלאומית

באתר כתבים עבריים (היברובוקס)

הגדה של פסח עם פירוש אברבנאל

אמשטרדם, תע"ב

פירוש אברבנאל על ספר בראשית

ירושלים תשכ"ד על פי מהדורה ראשונה ונציה
שנת ה'של"ט. פירושו לספר במדבר ודברים
באותה הוצאה.

פירוש אברבנאל על ספר שמות

ורשה תרכ"ב

פירוש אברבנאל על ספר ויקרא

ורשה תרכ"ג

פירוש אברבנאל על ספר במדבר

ורשה תרכ"ג

פירוש אברבנאל לנביאים וכתובים

ירושלים תש"ך

פירוש אברבנאל לנביאים ראשונים

לייפציג (לבוב) ה'תמ"א

פירוש אברבנאל לנביאים אחרונים

אמשטרדם, ה'ת"א

פירוש אברבנאל למורה נבוכים של הרמב"ם

חלק ראשון, פראג תקצ"א, וחלק שני של פירוש זה

משמיע ישועה , ההדיר: אורן גולן; בצירוף הקדמה ומפתחות מאת הרב משה צוריאל, בני ברק, ה'תשע"ד, באתר HebrewBooks הערות שוליים

זהו תאריך הפטירה הידוע, אך בסוף פירושו על ספר בראשית נוקב אברבנאל בתאריך סיום הכתיבה בשנת ה'רפ"ב, יותר מעשר שנים מאוחר יותר
בפירושו לזכריה, יד ז
אוצר ישראל כרך א', עמודים 80 ואילך
ראו בפירושו לספר שמות פרק כ"ה: "הרב האלהי הר' יוסף שם טוב זצ"ל אשר שמעתי בבחרותי חכמה מפיו בהרבה ממאמריו"
ספר שמות, פרק כ"ג, פסוק כ'
ידועה בדיחה על ספריו, שאסור להתחיל ללמוד אברבנאל בערב, כי הקורא יקרא את כל השאלות, וירדם, בלא שישמע את התשובות. באופן זה יהפוך לכופר.
בפירושו לפרשת בראשית
כך בספרו "עטרת זקנים"
כאן נמצא תרגום לעברית של פרק אחד מהספר

https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%99%D7%A6%D7%97%D7%A7_%D7%90%D7%91%D7%A8%D7%91%D7%A0%D7%90%D7%9C

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The Jewish philosopher and statesman Isaac ben Judah Abravanel (1437-1508), or Abarbanel, is noted for his biblical commentaries and for his attempt to prevent the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.

Isaac Abravanel, a descendant of an old and distinguished Spanish family, was born in Lisbon, Portugal. In addition to intensive religious training, he received a broad liberal education and acquired a thorough grounding in Greek, Latin, and Christian literature. Like his father, Isaac was highly successful in both his commercial and diplomatic careers.

He served as treasurer under the Portuguese kings Alfonso V and John II. Falsely charged with plotting against the monarchy, Abravanel fled in 1483 to Castile, Spain. There he devoted himself to his commentary on several biblical books of the prophets.

In 1490 Abravanel was appointed treasurer to the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella. But in 1492 Torquemada, the head of the Spanish Inquisition, persuaded the royal couple to expel the Jews from Spain. Despite Abravanel's important services to the Crown, his attempts to have the decree of expulsion revoked were unsuccessful.

He went into exile with his fellow Jews and moved to Naples, where he was soon given a financial post in the government. In 1495 a French invasion forced him to leave Naples. After some years of intermittent wandering, he settled in Venice in 1503. He died there in 1508 and was buried in Padua.

His Writings

Abravanel's most important works are the commentaries which he wrote on almost all the books of the Old Testament. He employed what might be termed a critical or scientific approach in his biblical studies. He examined the historical episodes in the Bible in the light of economic, political, and social factors and often drew analogies to his own times. In dating biblical books, he often deviated from tradition, and he did not hesitate to consult the works of Christian scholars.

Abravanel also wrote a number of philosophical and theological works.

His Rosh Amana (Pillars of Faith) and

Sefer Mifalot Elohim (Book of God's Works) show the influence of the 12th-century Jewish philosopher Maimonides.

In general Abravanel developed a negative view of culture and civilization. He was influenced by the Stoics in his condemnation of luxurious living and by the Cynics in his criticism of the political state. His pessimism was balanced, however, by a firm belief in the miraculous coming of the Messiah, which he expounded in Maayene Hayeshuah (Founts of Salvation), Yeshuath Meshiho (Salvation of His Messiah), and Mashmia Yeshua (Proclaimer of Salvation). These works contributed to the subsequent rise of false messiahs.

Abrabanel was a financial advisor to King Alfonso V of Portugal, although he was forced to leave the country because of charges that he participated in a conspiracy against Alfonso's successor, Joao II. Thereupon, he settled in Castille and became a diplomat and advisor in the court of Ferdinand and Isabella. Here he attempted to hinder the decree expelling the Jews, although without success. As the most influential leader of the exiles, he first settled in Naples and later in Venice.

His writings include detailed, comprehensive commentaries on most books in the Hebrew Bible as well as a Messianic Trilogy in which he proposed that the distress of his time symbolized the imminence of the Messianic redemption whose realization he expected even in his lifetime. Influenced by the humanism of the Renaissance, he maintained contact with contemporary Christian scholars and often applied their views in his commentaries, some of which were translated into Latin and had a degree of influence in Italy. His fundamental attitude was rationalist, but he insisted that religious tradition is the ultimate source of truth. His son Judah was also a philosopher.

Joseph Dan

Bibliography

  • A.J. Heschel, Don Jizchak Abravanel, 1937
  • J.S. Minkin, Abravanel and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, 1938
  • B. Netanyahu, Don Isaac Abravanel, 1968.

Further Reading

The major scholarly work on Abravanel is B. Netanyahu, Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher (1953), which contains an extensive bibliography.

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  Much has been said about the alleged loss of the knowledge of the family of David. But it would seem that there are many now living who actually claim a descent from the King of Israel, and whose claim is actually acknowledged. We had for some time past intended to copy the following piece from the conversion organ of London, but our space wouldnot permit us.

At present, however, we have unexpectedly more room than we thought we should have, and therefore lay the extract before our readers as a curious memorandum, which they may rely on with the more certainty, as it met our eye for the first time in a magazine which bears in every page the amplest testimony of its hatred of our religion, and is supported by funds contributed to effect the apostacy of our nation. “Let our enemies be judges,” says the Bible, and we may freely repeat it; for, even then we have nothing to fear.—Ed. Oc.

(From the Jewish Intelligence of Nov. 1849.)

The family of Abarbanel, the celebrated Jewish commentator, is remarkable for having carefully preserved its pedigree, according to which they trace their descent from king David. Hence, in all the documents and books of Abarbanel and his family, they have ever added to their signature: מגזע דוד מלך ישראל (from the stem of David, king of Israel).

Don Isaac Abarbanello, whose family had long lived in Spain, and who was permitted by authority to have a lion in his crest, was expelled from that country with the rest of the Jews, under Ferdinand the Catholic, in 1492.

The Abarbanel family settled finally in the East, where strangers from Christian countries were then called “Franks,” and when many years afterwards the Abarbanel family left the East, and settled in Vienna, they were still designated “Franks,” with the peculiar Austrian provincial diminutive “el,” and the family has ever since retained the name “Frankel.”

The accomplishments and intelligence for which the Abarbanel (Frankel) family was ever renowned, soon distinguished them also in Austria, both in a pecuniary and intellectual point of view. Nevertheless, they were not exempted from the hard fate which the Jews met with under Leopold, in being, on February 14th, 1670, expelled from the Austrian dominions, under pain of death. (See “Jewish Intelligence” for December, 1845.).

The family Frankel united with some others of their expelled brethren, in presenting a petition to the resident minister of the elector of Brandenburg, Andreas Neumann, begging that he would intercede with his royal master, in order to obtain permission for some of them to settle in his dominions.

In this petition they complained that though God had created the earth for all men, yet the countries were everywhere closed against them, so that they knew not whither to turn their steps. The poverty and very great depopulation occasioned in the marquisate of Brandenburg, by the Thirty Years’ War, induced the elector to grant their request. The elector instructed his plenipotentiary, under the date of April 19th, 1670, that he had no objection to allow forty or fifty families to settle in his dominions. On the 21st of May an edict was issued, which gave them permission to settle in the country, and carry on their mode of worship in private houses, but not in public synagogues.

As a characteristic of the times, it may be noticed that in the special charter, which was granted to various families, there are these restrictive clauses: “that they are to abstain from usury, and not to take more interest than three pence a week for one dollar (360 pence); to abstain from purchasing stolen goods, and blaspheming Christ;” with a few other similar clauses, all calculated to demoralize the Jews.

Some of the members of the Frankel family settled in Berlin, others in Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, and others in Dessau,—in which latter place they founded the congregation which flourished so abundantly in after times.

Printing Press

The family became the founders of very important printing offices for Jewish literature, in Berlin, Frankfurt, Jessnitz, and Dessau, whence proceeded the Talmud in three complete editions (in Berlin), and also the Pentateuch in various editions, as well as the works of Maimonides (in Jessnitz), his מורה נבוכים, as well as a complete edition of the Jerusalem Talmud, and its excellent commentary, קרבן עדת, by the grandfather of Mr. F., now living at Dessau, 75 years of age. All these works are celebrated for their clearness and correctness, and often quoted by Christian writers.

The commentator on the Jerusalem Talmud, just referred to, was afterwards Chief Rabbi in Berlin, and was followed thither by the juvenile Moses, son of Mendel, for the privilege of studying under so great a rabbi the Talmud and other Jewish literature. This pupil was Moses Mendelssohn, afterwards the celebrated modern reformer of the Jews.   -----------------------------------------

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Abrabanel Isaac Abarabanel was born in Lisbon, Portugal into one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families, the Abravanel family, who had escaped persecution in Spain during 1391.

A student of the Rabbi of Lisbon, Joseph Chaim a/k/a Yosef ben Shlomo Ibn Yahya, poet, religious scholar, rebuilder of Ibn Yahya Synagogue of Calatayud (a descendant of Hiyya al-Daudi who was great-grandson of Hezekiah Gaon), he became well versed in rabbinic literature and in the learning of his time, devoting his early years to the study of Jewish philosophy.

Abravanel is quoted as saying that he included Joseph ibn Shem-Tov as his mentor. At twenty years old, he wrote on the original form of the natural elements, on religious questions and prophecy. Together with his intellectual abilities, he showed a complete mastery of financial matters. This attracted the attention of King Afonso V of Portugal who employed him as treasurer.

Other works are:

   * "The Crown of the Ancients"
   * "The Pinnacle of Faith"
   * "The Wellsprings of Redemption", in the form of a commentary on Daniel,
   * "The Salvation of His Anointed"
   * "The Herald of Salvation", in which are collected and explained all the Messianic texts.
   * "Inheritance of the Fathers"
   * "The Forms of the Elements"
   * "New Heavens"
   * "Deeds of God"

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The Abarbanel family (also Abravanel and Abrabanel) is one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families; they trace their origin from the biblical King David.

Don Isaac is best well known for being the treasurer to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Unable to prevent the expulsion of the Jews from Spain, he left with the others of his faith in 1492.

Don Isaac was a major commentator and his numerous texts are still treasured today.


Abarbanel was born in Lisbon, Portugal, into one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families, the Abravanel or Abarbanel family, who had escaped massacre in Castile in 1391. A student of the rabbi of Lisbon, Joseph Chaim, he became well versed in rabbinic literature and in the learning of his time, devoting his early years to the study of Jewish philosophy. Abarbanel is quoted as saying that he included Joseph ibn Shem-Tov as his mentor. At twenty years old, he wrote on the original form of the natural elements, on religious questions and prophecy. Together with his intellectual abilities, he showed a complete mastery of financial matters. This attracted the attention of King Afonso V of Portugal who employed him as treasurer.

He used his high position and the great wealth he had inherited from his father, to aid his co-religionists. When his patron, Afonso captured the city of Arzila, in Morocco, the Jewish captives faced being sold as slaves. Abarbanel contributed largely to the funds needed to free them, and personally arranged for collections throughout Portugal. He also wrote to his learned and wealthy friend, Vitale (Yehiel) Nissim da Pisa, on behalf of the captives.

After the death of Afonso he was obliged to relinquish his office, having been accused by King John II of connivance with the Duke of Braganza, who had been executed on the charge of conspiracy. Abarbanel, warned in time, saved himself by a hasty flight to Castile in 1483. His large fortune was confiscated by royal decree.

At Toledo, his new home, he occupied himself at first with Biblical studies, and in the course of six months produced an extensive commentary on the books of Joshua, Judges, and Samuel. But shortly afterward he entered the service of the house of Castile. Together with his friend, the influential Don Abraham Senior, of Segovia, he undertook to farm the revenues and to supply provisions for the royal army, contracts that he carried out to the entire satisfaction of Queen Isabella.

During the Moorish war, Abarbanel advanced considerable sums of money to the king. When the Jews were ordered banished from Spain with the Alhambra decree, he did all in his power to induce the king to revoke the edict. He unsuccessfully offered the king 30,000 ducats ($68,400 nominal value). He left Spain with his fellow Jews and went to Naples where, soon after, he entered the service of the king. For a short time he lived in peace undisturbed; but when the city was taken by the French, bereft of all his possessions, he followed the young king, Alfonso, in 1495, to Messina; then went to Corfu; and in 1496 settled in Monopoli, and lastly in 1503 settled in Venice, where his services were employed in negotiating a commercial treaty between Portugal and the Venetian republic.

Several times during the mid-to-late 15th century, he personally spent large amounts of his personal fortunes to bribe the Spanish Monarchy to permit the Jews to remain in Spain. It is claimed that Abarbanel offered them 600,000 crowns for the revocation of the edict. It is said also that Ferdinand hesitated, but was prevented from accepting the offer by Torquemada, the grand inquisitor, who dashed into the royal presence and, throwing a crucifix down before the king and queen, asked whether, like Judas, they would betray their Lord for money. In the end, he managed only to get the date for the expulsion to be extended by two days.

He died in Venice in 1508 and was buried in Padua next to Rabbi Judah Minz, Rabbi of Padua. Owing to the destruction of the Jewish cemetery there during the Siege of Padua in 1509, his grave is now unknown.

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Don Isaac Abarbanel דון יצחק אברבנאל's Timeline