Zaida (Isabella) Alfonzo, reina consorte de León

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Zaida (Isabella) Alfonzo (de Sevilla), reina consorte de León

Arabic: زايدة Alfonzo (de Sevilla), الأسد الملكة
Birthdate: (22)
Birthplace: Denia, Alicante, Pais Valenciano, Spain
Death: circa September 13, 1093 (14-30)
Spain
Place of Burial: San Isodoro de Leon
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Abenabed (Muhammad ibn Abbad) al-Mutamid hajib de Sevilla and Ramaiquía (Itimad Rumaikiyyah)
Wife of Abu Nasir al-Fatah al-Mamun emir de Córdoba and Alfonso VI the Brave, King of Castile and León
Mother of Sancho Alfónsez, Infante de Castilla y León
Sister of Al Rashid Al Mu'tamid

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Zaida (Isabella) Alfonzo, reina consorte de León

Zaïda of Seville (c. 1071 – ? ) was a refugee Muslim princess who was a mistress and perhaps later queen of Alfonso VI of Castile.

She might have been identical with Alfonso's wife Isabel (Elisabeth), who bore him two daughters, and died in 1107 but the theory is controversial.

The name Zaïda is from the Arabic "Sayyida," the female form of Sayyid ("Master"). She is said to have been a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, but at least one generation in the chain was a 16th century invention. Her tombstone, erected long after her death, says, "Aqui descansa la reina Isabel, mujer del rey Alfonso, hija de Aben-Abeth, rey de Sevilla; que antes se llamaba Zayda," which translates as "here lies Queen Elizabeth, wife of King Alfonso, daughter of Aben-abeth, king of Seville; previously called Zaïda."

Zaïda was a daughter-in-law (and probably also niece) of al-Mutamid, ruler of the taifa of Seville. Her first husband was her cousin Fath al-Ma'mum, the ruler of Córdoba and son of the Emir of Seville. He was killed in 1091 while trying to leave Córdoba, which was being beseiged by a group of radical Islamists led by Yusuf ibn Tasufin. Zaïda had been sent to the castle at Almodovar del Rio for safety, and thus escaped. After the death of her first husband, she took refuge with her uncle in Seville. The Almoravides invested Seville in June and took it in September. At some point in the year, perhaps when Alvar Fanez was in Andalusia vainly trying to relieve the city, Zaïda made her way as a refugee to the court of Alfonso VI. He was already mature (age 51), married to a queen who was ill, and was lacking a male heir. Zaïda became his concubine, converted to Christianity, and took the Christian name Isabel. She bore Alfonso his only surviving son Sancho. It is not clear whether Alfonso subsequently married her.

She might have been identical with Alfonso's wife Elisabeth, who bore him two daughters, and died in 1107. She died on 12 or 13 September in childbirth, but the year is not known. If she died during the birth of her son Sancho, then she died in 1093. Other dates proposed by scholars are 1099 and 1101.

Sources

She is said by Iberian Muslim sources to have been the daughter of Al Mutamid, the Muslim King of Seville. She was the mother of Alfonso VI of Castile's only son, Sancho, who, though illegitimate, was named his father's heir (but was killed in the Battle of Ucles of 1108, during his father's lifetime).

Zaida converted from Christianity to Islam. She was not the wife and then widow of the son of Al Mutamid, as few said, but was the daughter of Al Mutamid, some said that the motive for which was removed Al Mutamid from teh Al Moravid was that the Scholar of Islam, Al Tartushi issued a fatwa, (Islamic opinion) to remove Al Mutamid for the marriage of the daughter with a Christian.

She's buried in Sahagun under the inscription "H.R. Regina Elisabeth, uxor regis Adefonsi, filia Benabet Regis Sevillae, quae prius Zayda, fuit vocata" (cited by Marin Guzman) In Spanish: "Aqui descansa la reina Isabel, mujer del rey Alfonso, hija de Aben-Abeth, rey de Sevilla; que antes se llamaba Zayda". In English: "here lies Queen Elizabeth, wife of King Alfonso, daughter of Aben-abeth, king of Seville; previously called Zayda. Zayda was originally buried at the monastery in Sahagun but later moved to Leon where her sepulchre and inscription can be found.

The old iscription are already proof that Zayda was daughter of Al Mutamid, Muhammad bin Abbad Al-Mutamid, of the Bani Abbad.

Zaida/Isabel died in childbirth, but the date is unknown, and it is unclear whether the child being delivered was Sancho, Sancha (if she were indeed identical to Queen Isabel), or an additional child, otherwise unknown.

Sources in Morocco are convinced she was the daughter of the Emir. They claim that the Christians in Spain removed and altered records that indicated a Muslim ancestory for their Royal houses. The Emir was exiled in Morocco after being expelled from Spain, and it is claimed records from this time are still in Morocco.

The Spanish Reconquista was completed in 1492, with the final conquest of Granada by the armies of Ferdinand V. Ironically, Ferdinand (husband of Queen Isabella, who sent Christopher Columbus on his mission) was a descendant of Isabella of Denia, who had been born Zaida, daughter of Mu'tamid. When Seville was conquered by Alfonso VI, Zaida was forcibly converted to Catholicism and equally forcibly married to her city's conqueror. The great irony of this is that the Abbadids could claim direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad. Through this forced marriage, the bloodline of the Prophet entered the dynastic intermixture of European royalty and nobility, ensuring that most European nobles - and all the currently ruling monarchs of Europe, are descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.

When Alfonso took Toledo, Spain in 1085, Abbad called in Yusuf ibn Tashfin , the Almoravides ruler. During the six years which preceded his deposition in 1091, Abbad behaved with valour on the field, but with much meanness and political folly. He endeavoured to curry favour with Yusuf by betraying the other Muslim princes to him, and intrigued to secure the alliance of Alfonso against the Almoravides. Probably during this period his beautiful daughter Zaida married the Christian king, who made her his concubine — some authorities suggest he married her after she bore him a son, Sancho. The vacillations and submissions of Abbad did not save him from the fate which overtook his fellow-princes. Their scepticism and extortion had tired their subjects, and the mullah s gave Yusuf a fatwa authorizing him to remove them in the interest of religion. In 1091 the Almoravides stormed Seville. Muhammad, who had fought bravely, weakly ordered his sons to surrender the fortresses they still held, in order to save his own life. He died in prison in Africa in 1095.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaida_of_Seville

A line of descent from Muhammad, through Zaida, to the royal houses of Europe:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_to_Edward_III


Zaida of Seville

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Princess Zaida Of Seville (c. 1071 – c. 1107) was a refugee Muslim princess who was a mistress and then wife and queen of Alfonso VI of Castile.

She is said by Iberian Muslim sources to have been the daughter of Al Mutamid, the Muslim King of Seville. She was the mother of Alfonso VI of Castile's only son, Sancho, who, though illegitimate, was named his father's heir (but was killed in the Battle of Ucles of 1108, during his father's lifetime).

Zaida converted from Christianity to Islam. She was not the wife of the son of Al Mutamid, as few said, but was the daughter of Al Mutamid, some said that the motive for which was removed Al Mutamid from teh Al Moravid was that the Scholar of Islam, Al Tartushi issued a fatwa, (Islamic opinion) to remove Al Mutamid for the marriage of the daughter with a Christian.

She's buried in Sahagun under the inscription "H.R. Regina Elisabeth, uxor regis Adefonsi, filia Benabet Regis Sevillae, quae prius Zayda, fuit vocata" (cited by marin guzman) In Spanish: "Aqui descansa la reina Isabel, mujer del rey Alfonso, hija de Aben-Abeth, rey de Sevilla; que antes se llamaba Zayda". In English: "here lies Queen Elizabeth, wife of King Alfonso, daughter of Aben-abeth, king of Seville; previously called Zayda. Zayda was originally buried at the monastery in Sahagun but later moved to Leon where her sepulchre and inscription can be found.

The old iscription are already proof that Zayda was daughter of Al Mutamid, Muhammad bin Abbad Al-Mutamid, of the Bani Abbad.

Zaida/Isabel died in childbirth, but the date is unknown, and it is unclear whether the child being delivered was Sancho, Sancha (if she were indeed identical to Queen Isabel), or an additional child, otherwise unknown.

Sources in Morocco are convinced she was the daughter of the Emir. They claim that the Christians in Spain removed and altered records that indicated a Muslim ancestory for their Royal houses. The Emir was exiled in Morocco after being expelled from Spain, and it is claimed records from this time are still in Morocco.

The Spanish Reconquista was completed in 1492, with the final conquest of Granada by the armies of Ferdinand V. Ironically, Ferdinand (husband of Queen Isabella, who sent Christopher Columbus on his mission) was a descendant of Isabella of Denia, who had been born Zaida, daughter of Mu'tamid. When Seville was conquered by Alfonso VI, Zaida was forcibly converted to Catholicism and equally forcibly married to her city's conqueror. The great irony of this is that the Abbadids could claim direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad. Through this forced marriage, the bloodline of the Prophet entered the dynastic intermixture of European royalty and nobility, ensuring that most European nobles - and all the currently ruling monarchs of Europe, are descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.

When Alfonso took Toledo, Spain in 1085, Abbad called in Yusuf ibn Tashfin , the Almoravides ruler. During the six years which preceded his deposition in 1091, Abbad behaved with valour on the field, but with much meanness and political folly. He endeavoured to curry favour with Yusuf by betraying the other Muslim princes to him, and intrigued to secure the alliance of Alfonso against the Almoravides. Probably during this period his beautiful daughter Zaida married the Christian king, who made her his concubine — some authorities suggest he married her after she bore him a son, Sancho. The vacillations and submissions of Abbad did not save him from the fate which overtook his fellow-princes. Their scepticism and extortion had tired their subjects, and the mullah s gave Yusuf a fatwa authorizing him to remove them in the interest of religion. In 1091 the Almoravides stormed Seville. Muhammad, who had fought bravely, weakly ordered his sons to surrender the fortresses they still held, in order to save his own life. He died in prison in Africa in 1095.


Within months, by May 1100, Alfonso again remarried, to Isabel, having by her two daughters, Sancha, (wife of Rodrigo González de Lara), and Elvira, (who married Roger II of Sicily). A non-contemporary tomb inscription says she was daughter of a "king Louis of France", but this is chronologically impossible. It has been speculated that she was of Burgundian origin, but others conclude that Alfonso married his former mistress, Zaida, who had been baptized as Isabel. (In a novel twist, Reilly suggested that there were two successive queens named Isabel: first the French (Burgundian) Isabel, mother of Sancha and Elvira, with Alfonso only later marrying his mistress Zaida (Isabel), after the death of or divorce from the first Isabel.) Alfonso was again widowed in mid-1107.
Initially a Moslem and later baptised as a Christian (Catholic - believed to be by force), and renamed Isabel
ID: I165992

Name: Zaida Isabel Ximena

Sex: F

Birth: ABT 1068 in Denia, Alcante, Espania

Death: 12 SEP 1107

Father: Muhammed al-Mutamid Abu-I-Kasim b: 1040 in Of, Seville, Espania

Mother: Several

Marriage 1 King of Castile and Leon Alfonzo b: BEF JUN 1040 in Burgos, Castile, Espania

Children

Elvira Alfonez , Princess Castile and Leon b: ABT 1104

Zaida of Seville, was a refugee Muslim princess who was a mistress and then latter the wife of king Alfonso VI of Castile.[1]

A funerary marker once at Sahagun bore the inscription:
   H.R. Regina Elisabeth, uxor regis Adefonsi, filia Benabet Regis Sevillae, quae prius Zayda, fuit vocata
   ("Queen Isabel, wife of King Alfonso, daughter of Aben-abeth, king of Seville; previously called Zayda.") 

SEE ALSO


Burke's Peerage:

   ‘United Press International
   October 10, 1986
   MOSLEMS IN BUCKINGHAM PALACE
   Mixed in with Queen Elizabeth’s blue blood is the blood of the Moslem prophet Muhammad, according to ''Burke’s Peerage'', the genealogical guide to royalty. 

The relation came out when Harold B. Brooks-Baker, publishing director of Burke’s, wrote Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher to ask for better security for the royal family. ”The royal family’s direct descent from the prophet Muhammad cannot be relied upon to protect the royal family forever from Moslem terrorists,” he said.

Probably realizing the connection would be a surprise to many, he added, ”It is little known by the British people that the blood of Muhammad flows in the veins of the queen. However, all Moslem religious leaders are proud of this fact.”

   Brooks-Baker said the 

British royal family is descended from Muhammad

through the '''

Arab kings of Seville

, who once ruled Spain. By marriage, their blood passed to the

European kings of Portugal and Castille

, and through them

to England’s 15th century King Edward IV.

‘''' 

Father: al-Mu'tamid, Abul-Kasim Muhammad be Abbad, Emir of Seville Mother: , I'tamid, Former Slave Married to , Al Ma'mun of Seville, Prince of Seville

Zaida (Isabella) Married 1092 to Alfonso Ferdinandez VI, King of León & Castile

  
  • Child 1: Sancha de Castile b. 1093,
  • Child 2: Sancho de Castile b. 1098,
  • Child 3: Elvira b. 1100

daughter of: () Abul-Kasim Muhammad al-Mu'tamid, Emir of Seville born est c.1045 Acceded: 1068 - Died: 1095, Aghmat, Morocco & I'tamid, Former Slave Notes: al-Mu'tamid was a great and tragic figure. He was an excellent poet of love and a good statesman whom destiny had chosen to taste both the gaiety and bitterness and of life. He is famous for his love poetry to his wife, a former slave girl whom he showered with love and precious gifts.

  • Child 1: , Al Ma'mun of Seville, Prince of Seville

Child 2: , Zaida (Isabella)

  

son of: ()Abu Amr Abbad ben Muhammad al-Mu'tadid, Chamberlain of Seville

son of: () Abu Amr Abbad ben Muhammad al-Mu'tadid, Chamberlain of Seville - Acceded: 1042 - Died: 1068

son of: () Kadi Abul-Kasim Muhammad I, Chamberlain of Seville - Acceded: 1023 - Died: 1042

son of: () Ismail, Iman of Seville (Judge/Iman of Seville)

son of: () Qarais

son of: () Abbad

son of: () Amr

son of: () Aslan

son of: () Amr

son of: () Itaf - Acceded: 741, Spain

son of: () Na'im al-Lakhmi

son of: () Na'im al-Lakhmi

son of: Abu Fârisi & () Zohra (mar the "Lakhm")

daughter of: () Husain

son of: () 'al-Hasan - Died: 670 & Zhâdah Kândâria Notes: He is said to have had 90 wives. Died: 670 - Poisoned by Zhâdah at the instigation of the Caliph Mu'uwiya. Child 1: , Abdallah, Child 2: , Qasim, Child 3: , Hasan, Child 4: , Zaid, Child 5: , Umar, Child 6: , Abdallah, Child 7: , Abderrahman, Child 8: , Ahmed, Child 9: , Ismail, Child 10: , Husain, Child 11: , Raquiya

son of:

'Caliph Ali ben Abu Talib

& () Fatimah (the "Fatimids")

Child 1 ==: al-Hasan,==


Child 2: al-Husain,

Child 3: Mohsin,

Child 4: Umn al-Kultum,

Child 5: Umm al-Kulthum,

Child 6: Raquia,

Child 7: Zaynab Kobra,

Child 8: Khadija


"NEW" King Alfonso VI & his fifth wife had three children (born before the marriage of their parents):

2. Infante don SANCHO de Castilla y León (Sep 1093[556]-killed in battle Uclés 29 May 1108). The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Zaida, the daughter of King Abenabeth of Seville, who was baptised…Elisabeth" as the second of two concubines of King Alfonso, and their son "Sancho who died at the battle of Ucles"[557]. Legitimated by the subsequent marriage of his parents. Ruling in Medinaceli 1107[558]. "…Sancius infans Toletani imperatoris filius" subscribed the charter dated 23 Mar 1103 under which "Adefonsus totius Ispanie imperator" donated property to the monastery of San Salvador de Oña with the consent of "uxoris mee Helisabet regine"[559]. "…Helisabet Regina, Reimundus comes, Urraca regis filia, Sancius filius regis…" subscribed the charter dated 14 May 1107 under which "Adefonsus…Toletani imperii rex…cum…uxore mea Helisabet regina" approved the mint of Santiago de Compostela[560]. He was formally recognised as heir to the throne at the council of León [May] 1107[561]. The Anales Toledanos record that “Infant D. Sancho è al Conde D. Garcia” were killed “cerca de Uclés III Kal Jun” in 1108[562].

3. Infanta doña SANCHA de Castilla y León ([1100/16 Mar 1104]-after 10 May 1125). The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Sancha the wife of count Rodrigo and Elvira who married Duke Roger of Sicily" as the daughters of King Alfonso and his fourth "legitimate wife…Elisabeth"[563]. Both daughters are named in a charter dated 16 Mar 1104[564]. In view of the dates of their marriages, it is unlikely that they were born much before this date. This suggests that their mother may have been King Alfonso's fifth wife, formerly known by her Muslim name Zaïda, although if their estimated birth dates are correct there would have been an interval of several years between their births and the birth of their older brother Sancho, which seems surprising. "Comite domno Roderico Gonzalvus cum uxore mea Sandecia prolis filia regis Adephonsus" donated the monastery of San Mames to Santa María de Piasca by charter dated "mense Iulii, Era 1100" (misdated)[565]. m (1120 or 1122) as his first wife, RODRIGO González de Lara Señor de Lara y Liébana, son of GONZALO Núñez & his wife Goto --- (-after 1143).

4. Infanta doña ELVIRA de Castilla y León ([1100/16 Mar 1104]-8 Feb 1135). The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Sancha the wife of count Rodrigo and Elvira who married Duke Roger of Sicily" as the daughters of King Alfonso and his fourth "legitimate wife…Elisabeth"[566]. Both daughters are named in a charter dated 16 Mar 1104[567]. In view of the dates of their marriages, it is unlikely that they were born much before this date. This suggests that their mother may have been King Alfonso's fifth wife, formerly known by her Muslim name Zaïda, although if their estimated birth dates are correct there would have been an interval of several years between their births and the birth of their older brother Sancho, which seems surprising. In the case of Elvira, there is another factor which suggests that Zaïda may have been her mother, which is discussed below. The Annals of Romoald name "Albiriam filiam regis Yspanie" as wife of "rex Rogerius…cum esset comes et iuvenis"[568]. According to Reilly, Elvira daughter of King Alfonso by "Elisabeth" married Fernando Fernández[569]. If this was correct, it would mean that King Roger's wife was King Alfonso's daughter by Jimena Muñoz (see below), which seems unlikely given the estimated birth date of the older Elvira. It would also mean that King Roger's wife was the widow of Raymond de Saint-Gilles Comte de Toulouse. However, if that was the case, it would be surprising that the fact was not mentioned in contemporary chronicles, considering how widely Raymond's crusading exploits were recorded. Assuming that Zaïda was the mother of King Roger's wife, her half-Muslim extraction may have been a factor which favoured the marriage, as King Roger's good relations with the largely Muslim population of Sicily was fundamental to the success of his dynasty in the island. The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records the death of "Alberia regina", dated to [1134/35] from the context[570]. The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records the deaths of "Albyria…regina…et filia eius…Tarentinus princeps et Anfusus Capuanorum princeps et Henricus", recorded in a section dealing with 1145 although the text appears to be recapitalitive of earlier events[571]. m ([1117]) as his first wife, ROGER II Count of Sicily, son of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his third wife Adelaida di Savona [Monferrato] (22 Dec 1095-Palermo 26 Feb 1154, bur Palermo Cathedral). He was crowned in 1130 as ROGER II King of Sicily.

King Alfonso VI had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

5. [Infanta doña] ELVIRA Alfonso ([1080/81]-15 Nov [1156]). The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Jimena Muñoz" as the first of two concubines of King Alfonso, and their daughters "Elvira the wife of count Raymond of Toulouse…and Teresa the wife of Count Henry"[572]. Her birth date is estimated from the birth of her first child "before 1097". "Raimundus…comes et Provincie marchio" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 28 Jul 1094, also confirming donations by "Dulcis comitissa", signed by "Alvira comitissa"[573]. The bull of Pope Urban II dated 18 Feb 1095 announces that "Raimundus Tolosanus comes…cum uxore sua Hervira et filio Bertranno" abandoned his rights to altar offerings at the monastery of Saint-Gilles[574]. According to Guibert, Comte Raymond left on the First Crusade with his wife and son (both unnamed) "Qui quidem, naturali cuidam filio suo comitatu quem regebat relicto, propriam conjugem cum filio, quem ab ea exegerat, unico secum duxit"[575]. She left Palestine after her husband's death, arriving back in Toulouse with her infant son in 1108[576]. Her second marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 30 Jun 1117 under which "Enxemenia Gonçalvez" sold property granted "ad me et ad filio meo Monio Petriz…in territorio Lampreana villa…Villa Rein" by Queen Urraca to "Fernando Fernandiz…cum socia mea infans domna Elvira"[577], and by the charter dated 8 Jul 1117 under which "Fernanz Fernanniz…et uxor mea infanta donna Gelvira filia regis Alfonsi" donated "quartem partem de monasterio de Ferreries…in Gallicia in terra de Lemes juxta Pantonem" to Cluny[578]. Elvira´s second marriage is also indicated by the charter dated 18 Apr 1127 under which her mother "Ximena Munniz" donated property in "Trebalio et Turres" to "nepotis mei…Garcie Fernandiz"[579], and by the charter dated 1201 under which her great grand-daughter "Domna Xemena Osoriz" donated her property in Valdejunco, Valdunquillo, Villa Velasco, Fontamian, Villa Sanz, Carvajal, Villela, Otero, Mozos, Valdescapa, Barriales, Valle Vaniego, Ranero and in tierra de Cea to Sahagún monastery, naming "aviam tuam Infantem Gelviram"[580], although the document does not clarify which of the two "Infantas Elvira" is referred to. On the other hand, Reilly[581] says that Elvira, wife of Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse, did not return to Castile until after the death of Queen Urraca. As mentioned above, he maintains that the wife of Fernando Fernández was Elvira who was the daughter of King Alfonso VI by "Elisabeth". As discussed above, it is more likely that the younger Elvira was the wife of Roger King of Sicily. Canal Sánchez-Pangín concludes that the wife of Fernando Fernández was indeed the widow of Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse[582]. One difficulty is that Alphonse I Comte de Toulouse, son of Comte Raymond IV and Elvira, was declared of age only in 1121, although it is not known whether his mother acted as regent in Toulouse throughout his minority. "Alvira Adefonso cum filiis meis" donated "civitate Cantavria…Sancti Vicencii de Lomba" to the knights of St John of Jerusalem by charter dated 26 Jun 1125, the dating clause of which records "…comite Fernando Fernandus adiutor et defensor"[583]. "Infans Geloira...imperatoris Hispanie Adefonsi filia...cum filiis meis Garsia, Didaco et Tarasia" donated property "in Uilla Frontin" to León Santa María by charter dated 8 Sep 1133[584]. “Infans Geloira...imperatoris Hyspanie Adefonsi filia...cum filiis meis Didaco Fernandi et Tarasia” donated "in Villa Frontin" to León Cathedral, for the soul of “filii mei Garsia Fernandi”, by charter dated 18 Aug 1136[585]. The dating clauses of charters dated 24 Oct 1137, 1 Nov 1137, 20 Nov 1137, 6 Nov 1139, 1 Oct 1143, 1 Nov 1149, 6 Jun [1153], and 19 Jun [1156], which record donations to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes, name "…Imperante Ribera donna Gelvira Infante"[586]. "Infans Geluira magni regis Adefonsi filia…cum filiis meis Didaco Fernandi et Taresia Fernandi" confirmed the rights of Astorga Cathedral over "monasterium…Sanctum Petrum de Forcellas" by charter dated 19 Jun 1142, confirmed by "comes domnus Ramirus, comes domnus Osorius, Didacus Munioz, comes domnus Fernandus"[587]. "Infante dompna Gelvira…domini Adefonsi regis filia" donated "in territorio de Ripeira…villa de Nozeta" to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes, confirmed by "Didacus Fernandiz…quod…mater mea prefata infante domina Gelvira facit" and by "Adefonsus…Yspanie imperator…mater tere mee et filiorum eius…infans domina Sancia soror ipsius imperatoris", by charter dated 29 Apr 1150, subscribed by "Poncius comes…Osorius Martiniz comes…Nunno Petriz armiger regis…Vela Guterriz dominante Capreyra, Petro Roderiquiz, Roderico Roderiquiz, Petro Didaz…"[588]. “Infantissa domina Aruira” donated "in Villa Frontine" to “Petro Diaz et uxor tua Marina Froilaz” by charter dated 28 Sep 1151, the dating clause of which reads “comes Pontio in Villa Alpando et in Villa Fafila, comes Oszoiro in Villa Lupos et in Uezella...”[589]. The necrology of León Cathedral records the death “XVII Kal Dec” of “infans domna Geloira”[590]. m firstly (1094) as his third wife, RAYMOND IV Comte de Toulouse, son of PONS Comte de Toulouse & his second wife Almodis de la Marche (-Mount Pèlerin near Tripoli, Palestine 28 Feb 1105). m secondly (before 30 Jun 1117, [separated before 1121[) [as his first wife,] FERNANDO Fernández, son of conde FERNANDO [Fernández] & his wife --- (-16 Jan 1126).

6. [Infanta doña] TERESA Alfonso ([1081/82]-1 Nov 1130). The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Jimena Muñoz" as the first of two concubines of King Alfonso, and their daughters "Elvira the wife of count Raymond of Toulouse…and Teresa the wife of Count Henry"[591]. Her birth date is estimated based on her having given birth to a child by her relationship with Fernando Pérez de Traba which started in 1124. Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 23 Mar 1143 under which her daughter Sancha Enríquez property in Trobajo del Cerecedo, which she inherited from "avia mea dompna Hensemena Muñiz…et de mater mea eius filia regina dompna Teresa", to the parents of Juan Albertino Bishop of León[592]. The 13th century history of Sahagún monastery records that "el Rey D. Alonso…una hija…Teresa" married "un Conde…Enrique que venia de sangre Real de Francia"[593]. An early 12th century document at Fleury records that "Ainrico uni filiorum, filio…ducis Roberti" married "alteram filiam…non ex coniugali" of Alfonso VI King of Castile[594]. “Comite Dono Henrico...cum uxore mea Infante Dona Taraxea” granted privileges to “Villa Constantin de Panonias”, confirmed by “Infans Dono Alfoso filius Henrici comiti et uxor mea Infante Dona Taraxia”, by charter dated 1096[595]. "…Taraxia Adefonsi regis filia…Henrik comes…" subscribed the charter dated 14 Mar 1099 under which Alfonso VI King of Castile donated the monastery of Santa María de Algadefe to the monastery of Eslonza[596]. Regent of Portugal 1112-1123. Queen of Portugal 1113. The Historia Compostelana records that “Fernando Perride, Petris Comitis filio” left his lawful wife and lived in adultery with “Regina Tarasia”[597]. The Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris records that Alfonso VII King of Castile met "Teresa queen of the Portuguese and with Count Fernando" at Ricobayo and made peace with them after his accession in 1126[598]. The Chronicon Lusitanum records the death “Kal Nov” in 1168 (1130) of “Regina Donna Tarasia mater Donni Alfonsi…anno secundo regni”[599]. m (before 24 Aug 1092[600]) HENRI de Bourgogne, son of HENRI “le damoiseau” de Bourgogne [Capet] & his wife [Sibylla] [de Barcelona] ([1069/72]-killed in battle Astorga, León 22 May 1112, bur Braga Cathedral). He may have arrived in Spain with the expedition of the Eudes I Duke of Burgundy in 1086/87, following a call from the abbey of Cluny to fight "the infidel"[601]. Señor de Braga [1093], count in Tordesillas 1096/97. The dating clause of a charter dated 9 Oct 1096, under which "Pelayo Xemeniz" donated land “en Ville Ceide...” to the monastery of San Salvador, records “Sanxus comes in Toro et alius comes domino Ancricco in Auctario de Selles, comes Remundus tenente in Coria et in Zamora”[602]. The dating clause of a charter dated 19 Jan 1097, under which "Brabolio Gutierrez" sold land “en territorio de León las villas Cubillas” to “Ordoño Sarraciniz y a su mujer Fronilde Ovéquiz”, records “comes Raimundus in Galicia et in Zamora, comes domno Enrriz in Otero de Sellas, comite Petro Ansurez in Saldania”[603]. He made a mutual pact in [Dec 1094/Jul 1095] with Raymond de Bourgogne, husband of Infanta Urraca de Castilla, under which he promised support in securing Castile and León for Raymond in return for a pledge to grant him Toledo (or in default, Galicia)[604]. Alfonso VI King of Castile made him a large grant of land, from the Río Miño in the north to Santarem in the south, in [1095/96], which in effect resulted in his installation as HENRIQUE Conde de Portugal. This grant may have been motivated as much by a desire to offset the growing power of his son-in-law, Raymond de Bourgogne, as to increase the power base of Henri de Bourgogne. Mistress: (1124) of FERNANDO Pérez de Traba Conde de Trastámara, son of PEDRO Froilaz de Traba & his first wife Urraca Froilaz.

Infanta doña URRACA de Castilla y León, daughter of ALFONSO VI King of Castile and León & his second wife Constance de Bourgogne [Capet] (late 1080[605]-Saldaña 8 Mar 1126, bur León, Monastery of San Isidro). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Waracta filia imperatoris Fernandi"[606]. "…Urraca regis filia et Reimundi comiti uxor…" subscribed the charter dated 23 Mar 1103 under which "Adefonsus totius Ispanie imperator" donated property to the monastery of San Salvador de Oña with the consent of "uxoris mee Helisabet regine"[607]. "Infanta dna Urraca Adefonsi imperatoris filia et totius Gallecie domina" the monastery of San Andrés de Trobo to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 18 Dec 1107[608]. Her father declared her heiress to Castile in 1108 after the death of her half-brother Infante don Sancho. She succeeded her father in 1109 as URRACA I Queen of Castile and León. The Almoravides captured Toledo Aug 1109. The country experienced a period of anarchy during her reign due to her constant disputes with her second husband. She was also faced with the attacks by her half-sister Teresa of Portugal, ambitious to replace her as Queen of Castile. "Urraca totius Yspanie regina" confirmed the donation of the monastery of San Andrés de Trobo to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 14 May 1112[609]. By 1116, Queen Urraca had succeeded in re-establishing control over most of Castile. "Urracha…Ispanie regina, regis Aldefonsi regineque Constantie filia" donated property to the abbey of Silos by charter dated 26 Mar 1119, confirmed by "Adefonsus rex, filius…regine, Infantissa domna Sancia, regine germana, Infantissa domna Sancia regine filia, Xemeno Lopez dapifer regine, Garsia Inniguez, Xemeno Inniguez, Petrus Gonsalvi comes, Rodericus Gonsalvi, Fernandus Garsie maior, Fernandus Garsie minor…"[610]. "Urraka…Ispanie regina, regis Adefonis regineque Constancie filia" donated "ecclesiam Sancti Nicholai…in Villa Franca" to Cluny by charter dated 21 Aug 1120[611]. "Urraca totius Ispanie regina et Aldefonsi imperatoris filia" donated property to the abbey of Silos by charter dated 13 Apr 1121, confirmed by "Gomez Castelanus comes, Rodericus Asturianus comes, Fernandus Garcies, Petrus Alvares…"[612]. The Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris records the death of Queen Urraca in 1126 after reigning for sixteen years, eight months and seven days, and her burial in León in the royal pantheon[613]. The Chronicon Burgense records the death in 1126 of “Urraca Regina”[614]. The Chronicon Compostellani records the death “apud Saldaña VI Id Mar” in 1126 of “Urraca…in partu adulterini filii”[615]. Orderic Vitalis also reports that Urraca died "in a difficult childbirth"[616], although this seems unlikely considering her age.

m firstly (betrothed [Summer 1087], Toledo [1 May 1092/Jan 1093]) RAIMOND de Bourgogne Comte d’Amous, son of GUILLAUME I Comte de Bourgogne & his wife Etiennette --- ([1070]-Grajal [13/20] Sep 1107, bur Santiago de Compostela, Cathedral Santiago el Mayor). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Raymundem in Hispania comitem" as brother of "Hugo…Bisuntinensis archiepiscopus", when recording the latter's appointment as archbishop[617], although in a later passage the same source records "comitis Raymundi" as "fratris comitis Pontii de Tolosa"[618] which is inconsistent with other sources. "Wilelmus comes Burgundie" names "Rainaldi et Raimundi filiorum meorum" in his donation to Cluny dated [1086][619]. "Raymundus…Burgundie comes filius Willermi…comitis" donated property to Saint-Bénigne de Dijon by charter dated to [1087/92] subscribed by "Hugonis archiepiscopi Bisuntini fratris mei, Stephani comitis fratris mei"[620]. Comte d'Amous. He joined the expedition of the Eudes I Duke of Burgundy to Spain in 1086/87, following a call from the abbey of Cluny to fight "the infidel"[621]. Reilly suggests that he was betrothed after the failure to capture Tudela in Summer 1087, when he speculates that the Burgundians would have visited the court of Castile[622]. Raymond remained in Castile following his betrothal to Infanta Urraca. "Adefonsus rex Legionis et totius Hispanie imperator atque Fredenandi filius regis" granted privileges to Santiago de Compostela, with the advice of "generis mei comitis domini Raimundi", by charter dated 28 Jan 1090[623]. "Raymondus gener regis" confirmed the donation by "Adefonsus…Hispaniarum rex…cum coniuge mea Constantia regina" of property to the monastery of San Salvador de Oña by charter dated 1 May 1092[624]. Conde de Galicia y Coimbra [before 1093], his father-in-law transferred the newly acquired cities of Lisbon, Santarém and Cintra to him in May 1093. Governor of the city of Toledo. He made a mutual pact [Dec 1094/Jul 1095] with Henri de Bourgogne, Conde de Portugal, pledging to grant him Toledo (or in default, Galicia) in return for his support in securing Castile and León for Raimond[625]. Conde in Coria and Zamora: the dating clause of a charter dated 9 Oct 1096, under which "Pelayo Xemeniz" donated land “en Ville Ceide...” to the monastery of San Salvador, records “Sanxus comes in Toro et alius comes domino Ancricco in Auctario de Selles, comes Remundus tenente in Coria et in Zamora”[626]. Conde in Galicia and Zamora: the dating clause of a charter dated 19 Jan 1097, under which "Brabolio Gutierrez" sold land “en territorio de León las villas Cubillas” to “Ordoño Sarraciniz y a su mujer Fronilde Ovéquiz”, records “comes Raimundus in Galicia et in Zamora, comes domno Enrriz in Otero de Sellas, comite Petro Ansurez in Saldania”[627]. Conde de Grajal Jan 1098[628]. "Raimundus comes frater comitis Stephani" donated property to Cluny by charter dated [1100][629]. He established his principal stronghold in the castle of Grajal in 1102[630]. By this time, Raymond had acquired a commanding position in Castile as husband of the heir presumptive to the throne. A funeral elegy of "domnus Raymundus comes Hispanie qui de stirpe comitum Burgundie ortus" is recorded in the cartulary of Saint-Bénigne-de-Dijon in a charter dated 20 Sep 1107 which names "Hugo frater suus Bisuntinus archiepiscopus"[631].

Mistress of (1): conde GÓMEZ González, son of GONZALO Salvadórez & his wife Sancha Gómez (-killed in battle Candespina, near Sepúlveda 26 Oct 1110 or 1111). The Crónica Latina records that “el conde Gómez, llamado de Candespina” was “excesivamente y más de lo que convenía familiar a la reina” and was killed in battle against Alfonso I King of Aragon at Sepúlveda[632].

m secondly (Monzón Castle early Oct 1109, separated 1114, annulled for consanguinity 1115) ALFONSO I King of Aragon and Navarre, “el Batallador” son of SANCHO I Ramírez King of Aragon & his second wife Félicie de Roucy (Jaca 1083-Almuniente 7 Sep 1134, bur Montearagón, Monastery of Jesus de Nazareth, transferred 1845 to San Pedro el Viejo, Huesca). The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium records the marriage of "Ildefonsum" and "filiam Alfonsi Regis Castellæ…Urracam"[633]. Their marriage was annulled on grounds of consanguinity.

Mistress of (2): conde PEDRO González de Lara, son of GONZALO Núñez de Lara & his wife Goto --- ([1085]-Bayonne 16 Oct 1130). Alférez of Alfonso VI King of Castile 30 Sep 1107 to 10 Sep 1109. The Crónica Latina records that the queen accepted “la excesiva familiaridad del conde Pedro de Lara, padre del conde Malrico, del conde Nuño y del conde Álvaro” and that it was said that they had “un hijo llamado Fernando Hurtado”[634]. His relationship with Queen Urraca probably started in [1112/14]. Szabolcs de Vajay states that there is no evidence for a secret marriage between Queen Urraca and Pedro González de Lara[635].

Queen Urraca & her first husband had two children:

1. Infanta doña SANCHA de Castilla y León (before 11 Nov 1095 or after 1102-León 28 Feb 1159, bur León, Monastery of San Isidro). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Sanctiam..ad quam extat una beati Bernardi epistola" as sister of "rex Aldefonsus Hispanie imperator"[636]. Reilly cites a charter of Infanta Elvira dated 11 Nov 1095 in which Sancha is named[637]. It is possible that the dating of this document is suspect as an interval of more than ten years before the birth of her younger brother would be surprising. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[638], she was born "after 1102". "Infan dona Sansia filia comite Reimondus et regina dona Urraka et…Gonzaluo Aluarici et uxor tua Maria Pelaici" donated the town of Vilela to the monastery of Eslonza by charter dated 27 Sep 1120[639]. "Infans domina Sancia…comitis domni Raimundi et Urracce regine filia" donated "[monasterio] Sancti Michaelis de Scalata" to Cluny by charter dated 23 Jun 1124, the dating clause referring to the rule of "comes Petrus Gonzalvit in Lara et in Turre de Mont Molion, comes Fernandus in Malgrado, comes Sudarius in Luna, Rodrigus Martiniz in Melgar…infans domina Sancia in Graliare et comes Bertran in Carrione"[640]. She was an adviser to her brother King Alfonso. "…Infanta dna Sancia, Infans dns Adefonsus regis consanguineus…" subscribed the charter dated 13 Nov 1127 under which King Alfonso VII donated "el castillo de San Jorge en la Sierra del Pindo" to Santiago de Compostela[641]. "Adefonsus Hispanie imperator…cum uxore mea Berengaria" donated "monasterium Sancti Petri de Cardigna" to Cluny by charter dated 29 Jul 1142, confirmed by "Sancia soror imperatoris infantissa…"[642]. She founded the monastery of la Espina near Valladolid in 1147[643]. "Infans domina Sancia" listed fueros of Covarrubias by charter dated 19 Apr 1148[644]. "Sancia regina comitis Raimundi et Urrache regine regia proles" donated "medietate de Uilarelio" to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 25 Jan 1155[645]. "Regina Sancia comitis Raymundi et regine Urrache regia proles" donated an inn near Mucientes to Sahagún monastery by charter dated 15 Mar 1158, subscribed by "Regina Urracha de Asturias, Stephania Infantissa filia imperatoris…"[646].

2. Infante don ALFONSO de Castilla y León ([Grajal], Galicia 1 Mar 1105-Fresneda 21 Aug 1157, bur Toledo, Cathedral Santa María). The Anales Toledanos record the birth 1 Mar 1106 of “El Rey D. Alfonso, fillo del Conde D. Raymondo è de Doña Urraca”[647]. Crowned King of Galicia 19 Sep 1111 at Santiago de Compostela. He was proclaimed ALFONSO VII “el Emperador” King of Castile, León and Toledo in 1112.

- see below.

References


Canal Sánchez-Pagín, José María (1991). "Jimena Muñoz, Amiga de Alfonso VI". Anuario de Estudios Medievales. 21: 11–40. Lévi-Provençal, Évariste (1934). "La 'Mora Zaida' femme d'Alfonse VI de Castile et leur fils l'Infant D. Sancho". Hesperis. 18: 1–8,200–1. Martínez Díez, Gonzalo (2003). Alfonso VI: Señor del Cid, conquistador de Toledo. Montaner Frutos, Alberto (2005). "La Mora Zaida, entre historia y leyenda (con una reflexión sobre la técnica historiográfica alfonsí)". Historicist Essays on Hispano-Medieval Narrative: In Memory of Roger M. Walker. pp. 272–352. Palencia, Clemente (1988). "Historia y leyendas de las mujeres de Alfonso VI". Estudios sobre Alfonso VI y la reconquista de Toledo. pp. 281–90. Reilly, Bernard F. (1988). The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI, 1065–1109. Princeton University Press. Reilly, Bernard F. (1995). The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157. Blackwell. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de (1992–1993). "Contribución al estudio del reinado de Alfonso VI de Castilla: algunas aclaraciones sobre su política matrimonial". Anales de la Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía. 2: 299–336. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de (2007). "De nuevo sobre la mora Zaida". Hidalguía: la Revista de Genealogía, Nobleza y Armas. 54: 225–242.


http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CASTILE.htm#_ftn520

Martínez Díez, G. (2005) El Condado de Castilla (711-1038) (Junta de Castilla y León), p. 280.

[2] Martínez Díez (2005), p. 103, citing Fagnan, E. (1898) Annales du Maghreb et de l´Espagne (Alger), Ibn al-Atir, Kamil fi-l-Tarij, p. 104 (not yet consulted, "no preview" in Google Book).

[3] Martínez Díez (2005), p. 103.

[4] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1976) Cartulario de San Millán de la Cogolla (Valencia) (“San Millán de la Cogolla”), Tome I, 1, p. 9.

[5] España Sagrada, Tome XXIII, Annales Complutenses, p. 310.

[6] Martínez Díez (2005), p. 135, quoting Álamo, J. del (1950) Colección diplomática de San Salvador de Oña (922-1284) (Madrid), p. 4.

[7] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 307.

[8] Chronicon Albeldense 61, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1138C.

[9] Chronicon Albeldense 68, 69, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1140A.

[10] Cronica de Sampiro 19, in Pérez de Urbel, J. and González Ruiz-Zorrilla, A. (eds.) (1959) Historia Silense (Madrid) (“Historia Silense (Pérez)”), p. 164.

[11] Crónica Najerense, II, 24, cited in Pérez de Urbel, Fray Justo (1969/70) El condado de Castilla (Madrid), Vol. I, p. 191.

[12] Fernández de Béthencourt, F. (1897) Historia genealógica y heráldica de la monarquía española (Madrid), Vol. I, pp. 189-90, although Barrau-Dihigo, L. (1989) Historia politica del reino Asturiano (718-910) (Gijón), p. 246 doubts that this is correct.

[13] Pérez de Urbel, Fray Justo (1969/70) El condado de Castilla 3 vols. (Madrid), Vol. I, p. 167.

[14] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, pp. 167 and 169.

[15] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, pp. 168-9.

[16] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 307.

[17] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 181.

[18] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 16, p. 29.

[19] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 6, p. 14.

[20] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 7, p. 15.

[21] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 9, p. 19.

[22] Martínez Díez (2005), p. 166.

[23] Chronicon Albeldense 69, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1140A.

[24] Chronicon Albeldense 75, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1141D.

[25] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, pp. 195 and 199.

[26] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 307.

[27] Estévez Sola, J. A. (ed. trans.) (2005) Crónica Najerense (Madrid) (“Crónica Najerense”), Libro II, 22, p. 133.

[28] Martínez Díez, G. (1998) Colección documental del monasterio de San Pedro de Cardeña (Burgos) (“San Pedro de Cardeña”), 11, p. 35.

[29] Cronica de Sampiro 19, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 164.

[30] Serrano, L. (ed.) (1925) Cartulario de San Pedro de Arlanza (Madrid) (“Arlanza”), IV, p. 14.

[31] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 50.

[32] Arlanza, IV, p. 14.

[33] Cronica de Sampiro 19, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 164.

[34] Arlanza, IV, p. 14.

[35] Arlanza, IV, p. 14.

[36] Arlanza, IV, p. 14.

[37] San Pedro de Cardeña, 31, p. 57.

[38] San Pedro de Cardeña, 31, p. 57.

[39] San Pedro de Cardeña, 31, p. 57.

[40] San Pedro de Cardeña, 31, p. 57.

[41] Arlanza, IV, p. 14.

[42] San Pedro de Cardeña, 11, p. 35.

[43] San Pedro de Cardeña, 11, p. 35.

[44] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 245.

[45] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 254.

[46] San Pedro de Cardeña, 22, p. 48.

[47] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 32.

[48] Rodríguez Marquina, J. 'Las salinas de Castilla en el siglo X y la genealogía de las familias condales', Homenaje a Fray Justo Pérez de Urbel I (Silos, 1976), pp. 143-51, 146, cited in Torres Sevilla-Quiñones de León, M. (1999) Linajes nobiliarios de León y Castilla (siglos IX-XIII) (Consejería de Educación y Cultura de la Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid), p. 213.

[49] San Pedro de Cardeña, 22, p. 48.

[50] San Pedro de Cardeña, 96, p. 126.

[51] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 231.

[52] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 231.

[53] San Pedro de Cardeña, 96, p. 126.

[54] San Pedro de Cardeña, 191, p. 232.

[55] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 231.

[56] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 245.

[57] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 245.

[58] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 230-1.

[59] San Pedro de Cardeña, 2, p. 26.

[60] Pérez Soler, M. D. (ed.) (1970) Cartulario de Valpuesta (Valencia) (“Valpuesta”), 9, p. 27.

[61] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 310.

[62] Valpuesta, 9, p. 27.

[63] San Pedro de Cardeña, 6, p. 30.

[64] San Pedro de Cardeña, 8, p. 32.

[65] San Pedro de Cardeña, 2, p. 26.

[66] San Pedro de Cardeña, 6, p. 30.

[67] San Pedro de Cardeña, 8, p. 32.

[68] San Pedro de Cardeña, 18, p. 44.

[69] Cartulario de Arlanza, VII, 10, cited in Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, pp. 31 and 45 footnote 17.

[70] San Pedro de Cardeña, 2, p. 26.

[71] San Pedro de Cardeña, 2, p. 26.

[72] San Pedro de Cardeña, 6, p. 30.

[73] San Pedro de Cardeña, 8, p. 32.

[74] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXIII, p. 379, and San Pedro de Cardeña, 23, p. 49.

[75] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXIII, p. 379, and San Pedro de Cardeña, 23, p. 49.

[76] San Pedro de Cardeña, 6, p. 30.

[77] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXIII, p. 379, and San Pedro de Cardeña, 23, p. 49.

[78] San Pedro de Cardeña, 22, p. 48.

[79] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 50.

[80] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 74 footnote 7.

[81] San Pedro de Cardeña, 18, p. 44.

[82] San Pedro de Cardeña, 18, p. 44.

[83] San Pedro de Cardeña, 10, p. 34.

[84] San Pedro de Cardeña, 12, p. 37.

[85] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XLV, p. 101.

[86] Cronica de Sampiro 19, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 164.

[87] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XIX, p. 378.

[88] San Pedro de Cardeña, 17, p. 43.

[89] San Pedro de Cardeña, 18, p. 44.

[90] San Pedro de Cardeña, 12, p. 37.

[91] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 262.

[92] San Pedro de Cardeña, 12, p. 37.

[93] Zabalza Duque, M. (1998) Colección diplomática de los Condes de Castilla (Junta de Castilla y León), p. 130.

[94] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71.

[95] San Pedro de Cardeña, 46, p. 78.

[96] Alamo, J. del (ed.) (1950) (Madrid) Colección diplomatica de San Salvador de Oña 822-1284, Tomo I 822-1214 ("San Salvador de Oña (1950)") I, 3, p. 4.

[97] Mínguez Fernández, J. M. (ed.) (1976) Colección diplomatica del Monasterio de Sahagún, Tomo I (Siglos IX y X) (León), 97.

[98] Sahagún, Tomo I, 99.

[99] Serrano, L. (ed.) (1927) Cartulario de Monasterio de Vega con documentos de San Pelayo de Oviedo (Madrid), Vega (“Vega”), 2, p. 3.

[100] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71.

[101] Salazar Acha, J. de 'Una familia de la Alta Edad Media: Los Velas y su realidad historica', Estudios Genealógicos y Heráldicos (Asociación Española de Estudios Genealógicos y Heráldicos, Madrid, 1985), p. 28.

[102] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71.

[103] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXVI, p. 381.

[104] San Martín Payo, J. ´Las primeras donaciones de los condes de Monzon a Santa María de Husillos´, Publicaciones de la Institución Tello Téllez de Meneses no. 59 (1988) ("Husillos Santa Maria"), III, p. 323.

[105] Husillos Santa Maria, VI, p. 330.

[106] Husillos Santa Maria, V, p. 328.

[107] Husillos Santa Maria, IV, p. 326.

[108] Sahagún, Tomo I, 175.

[109] Sahagún, Tomo I, 285.

[110] Sahagún, Tomo I, 129, 284, 290 and 293.

[111] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 85 footnote 1.

[112] Sahagún, Tomo I, 285.

[113] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 329, 357, 366, 380 and 396.

[114] Muñoz Romero, T. (1847) Colección de Fueros municipales y cartas pueblas (Madrid), Tome I, p. 47.

[115] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71.

[116] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 249.

[117] Husillos Santa Maria, VI, p. 330.

[118] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71.

[119] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 252.

[120] Husillos Santa Maria, VI, p. 330.

[121] Husillos Santa Maria, XII, p. 346.

[122] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71.

[123] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXVI, p. 381.

[124] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71.

[125] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71.

[126] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXVI, p. 381.

[127] Husillos Santa Maria, II, p. 319.

[128] Husillos Santa Maria, VI, p. 330.

[129] Husillos Santa Maria, V, p. 328.

[130] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 380, and Sahagún, Tomo I, 318, respectively.

[131] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71.

[132] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXVI, p. 381.

[133] Historia Silense (Pérez), 71, p. 174.

[134] Husillos Santa Maria, VI, p. 330.

[135] Sahagún, Tomo I, 175.

[136] Chronicon Regum Legionensium: Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester UP), p. 79.

[137] Loscertales de García de Valdeavellano, P. (ed.) (1976) Tumbos del monasterio de Sobrado de los monjes (Madrid) (“Sobrado”), Vol. I, 107, p. 127.

[138] Sobrado, Vol. I, 108, p. 130.

[139] Torres (1999), p. 95.

[140] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 136.

[141] Chronicon de Cardeña, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 377.

[142] Martínez Díez (2005), p. 280.

[143] Faria i Sousa, F. & Alarcon, F. A. de (eds.) (1641) Nobiliario del Conde de Barcelos Don Pedro (Madrid) ("Pedro Barcelos"), Tit. VIII, Lainez, 1 p. 66.

[144] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 136.

[145] Llorente, J. A. (1807) Noticias Históricas de las tres provincias vascongadas Álava, Guipúzcoa y Vizcaya (Madrid), Vol. III, 6, p. 29, and Arlanza, 1, p. 1.

[146] Llorente (1807) Vol. III, pp. 33-4.

[147] Llorente (1807) Vol. III, 6, p. 29, and Arlanza, 1, p. 1.

[148] Llorente (1807), Vol. III, 6, p. 29, and Arlanza, 1, p. 1.

[149] Chronicon Albeldense 69, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1140A.

[150] Chronicon Albeldense 75, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1141D.

[151] López Ferreiro, A. (1899) Historia de la Santa Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela (Santiago), Tomo II, Apéndice, XXV, p. 46.

[152] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, pp. 229-30.

[153] San Pedro de Cardeña, 1, p. 25.

[154] Ximénez de Rada, R. Historia de los Hechos, p. 186, quoted in Torres (1999), p. 209, and Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 282.

[155] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 310.

[156] Arlanza, XIV, p. 40.

[157] Cronica de Sampiro 15, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 162.

[158] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 15, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 461.

[159] Vignau Ballester. V. (ed.) (1885) Cartulario del monasterio de Eslonza (Madrid) ("Eslonza"), Part I, I, p. 1.

[160] Eslonza, Part I, II, p. 3.

[161] Eslonza, Part I, III, p. 5.

[162] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 262.

[163] San Pedro de Cardeña, 12, p. 37.

[164] Llorente (1807), Vol. III, 6, p. 29, and Arlanza, 1, p. 1.

[165] Llorente (1807), Vol. III, 6, p. 29, and Arlanza, 1, p. 1.

[166] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 32.

[167] San Pedro de Cardeña, 1, p. 25.

[168] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 251, and Vol. II, pp. 28-9.

[169] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 245.

[170] Martínez Díez (2005), p. 194, quoting San Pedro de Cardeña, 5.

[171] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, pp. 310-1.

[172] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 22.

[173] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 263.

[174] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XLV, p. 101.

[175] San Pedro de Cardeña, 20, p. 46.

[176] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, pp. 88-9.

[177] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 130-1.

[178] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 22.

[179] Arlanza, VI, p. 21.

[180] Arlanza, X, p. 31.

[181] San Pedro de Cardeña, 27, p. 53.

[182] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 130-1.

[183] Llorente (1807) Vol. III, 6, p. 29, Arlanza, 1, p. 1, and Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 29, which notes that this contradicts the genealogy recited in the Crónica Najerense which must be considered unreliable in the face of this charter evidence.

[184] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 130-1.

[185] Arlanza, VI, p. 21.

[186] Arlanza, X, p. 31.

[187] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XVIII, p. 377, and San Pedro de Cardeña, 16, p. 42.

[188] San Pedro de Cardeña, 11, p. 35.

[189] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XVII, p. 377.

[190] Cronica de Sampiro 19, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 164.

[191] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XVIII, p. 377, and San Pedro de Cardeña, 16, p. 42.

[192] San Pedro de Cardeña, 22, p. 48.

[193] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 30.

[194] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 30.

[195] San Pedro de Cardeña, 2, p. 26.

[196] San Pedro de Cardeña, 6, p. 30.

[197] San Pedro de Cardeña, 8, p. 32.

[198] San Pedro de Cardeña, 18, p. 44.

[199] Cartulario de Arlanza, VII, 10, cited in Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, pp. 31 and 45 footnote 17.

[200] Sáez, E, Sáez, C. (eds.) (1993) El Fondo Español del Archivo de la Academia de las Ciencias de San Petersburgo (Alcalá de Henares), 2, p. 57.

[201] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 9, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 456.

[202] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XXXVIII, p. 85.

[203] San Pedro de Cardeña, 19, p. 45.

[204] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 284.

[205] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 130-1.

[206] Llorente (1807) Vol. III, 6, p. 29, Arlanza, 1, p. 1, and Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 29, which notes that this contradicts the genealogy recited in the Crónica Najerense which must be considered unreliable in the face of this charter evidence.

[207] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 25.

[208] Arlanza, VI, p. 21.

[209] Garrido Garrido, J. M. (ed.) (1983) Documentación de la catedral de Burgos (804-1183) (Burgos) ("Burgos Cathedral"), 3, p. 10.

[210] San Pedro de Cardeña, 22, p. 48.

[211] San Pedro de Cardeña, 27, p. 53.

[212] Torres (1999), p. 211.

[213] Valpuesta, 13, p. 32.

[214] Del Pino, J. L. 'El Califato Omeya de Córdoba (Génesis y consolidación política)', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. A. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, Ariel Historia), p. 159.

[215] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 26, p. 42.

[216] Del Pino, p. 160.

[217] San Pedro de Cardeña, 34, p. 62 (noted as “Falso” in the compilation).

[218] Cronica de Sampiro 23, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 167.

[219] Torres (1999), p. 211.

[220] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 35, p. 48.

[221] Sahagún, Tomo I, 98.

[222] Sahagún, Tomo I, 99.

[223] Vega, 2, p. 3.

[224] Cronica de Sampiro 25, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169.

[225] Valpuesta, 31, p. 53.

[226] Del Pino, p. 161.

[227] Del Pino, p. 161.

[228] Del Pino, p. 163.

[229] Payne, S. G. (1973) A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1 - Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century (University of Wisconsin Press), in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm (15 Dec 2002), Chapter 3, p. 50, where he quotes "Decianle por sus lides el buitre carnicero".

[230] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice LXIV, p. 404.

[231] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308.

[232] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 13 and 14, pp. 236 and 237.

[233] Férotin, D. M. (ed.) (1897) (Paris) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Silos (“Silos”) 1, p. 1.

[234] Burgos Cathedral, 3, p. 10.

[235] San Pedro de Cardeña, 27, p. 53.

[236] San Pedro de Cardeña, 34, p. 62 (noted as “Falso” in the compilation).

[237] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 35, p. 48.

[238] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 67, p. 79.

[239] ES III 563.

[240] Del Pino, p. 162.

[241] Zabalza Duque.

[242] Sorde Saint-Jean, p. 2 footnote 3, which quotes an extract of this charter, no longer in the cartulary, from Marca Histoire de Béarn, p. 229.

[243] ES III 563.

[244] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 108, p. 117.

[245] Sorde Saint-Jean, p. 2 footnote 3, which quotes an extract of this charter, no longer in the cartulary, from Marca Histoire de Béarn, p. 229.

[246] Sorde Saint-Jean, p. 2 footnote 3, which quotes an extract of this charter, no longer in the cartulary, from Marca Histoire de Béarn, p. 229.

[247] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF XI, p. 395.

[248] Jaurgain (1898), pp. 399-, quoting Marca, P. de Histoire de Béarn, p. 232.

[249] Jaurgain (1902), p. 12, quoting Buisson, D. P.-D. Historia monasterii S. Severi, t. II, p. 128.

[250] San Pedro de Cardeña, 27, p. 53.

[251] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 26, p. 42.

[252] San Pedro de Cardeña, 34, p. 62 (noted as “Falso” in the compilation).

[253] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 226-7.

[254] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 35, p. 48.

[255] Sahagún, Tomo I, 99.

[256] San Pedro de Cardeña, 96, p. 126.

[257] San Pedro de Cardeña, 96, p. 126.

[258] San Pedro de Cardeña, 191, p. 232.

[259] San Pedro de Cardeña, 191, p. 232.

[260] San Pedro de Cardeña, 27, p. 53.

[261] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 26, p. 42.

[262] San Pedro de Cardeña, 34, p. 62 (noted as “Falso” in the compilation).

[263] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 226-7.

[264] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 35, p. 48.

[265] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 270.

[266] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXVI, p. 381.

[267] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 226-7.

[268] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 271.

[269] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice LXIV, p. 404.

[270] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 35, p. 48.

[271] San Pedro de Cardeña, 34, p. 62 (noted as “Falso” in the compilation).

[272] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 374.

[273] Serrano, L. (ed.) (1907) Cartulario del Infantado de Covarrubias, Fuentes para la Historia de Castilla por los pp. benedictinos de Silos, Tomo II (Silos) ("Infantado de Covarrubias"), VII, p. 13.

[274] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 419.

[275] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 58, and Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 539.

[276] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 59.

[277] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 59.

[278] Pérez, J., Romualdo Escalona, F. (1782) Historia del real monasterio de Sahagun (Madrid) ("Sahagún (Pérez)"), Apéndice III, Escritura LXXXIV, p. 452.

[279] Cronica de Sampiro 23, in Historia Silense (Pérez), pp. 167-8.

[280] Torres (1999), p. 211.

[281] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 364.

[282] Pérez de Urbel, J. ‘Los Padres de Vermudo II el Gotoso’, Revista de Archivos, Biblioteca y Museos 55 (1949), p. 300, available at <http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/issue.vm?id=0000115613&page=5&search=perez+urbel+padres+vermudo+gotoso&lang=es> (22 Nov 2012).

[283] Cronica de Sampiro 26, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169.

[284] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 17, p. 239.

[285] Siresa 10, p. 30.

[286] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308.

[287] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXII, p. 166.

[288] Siresa 11, p. 32, and Canellas, A. 'Un documento original del rey Sancho Garcés II Abarca', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 190.

[289] Infantado de Covarrubias, VII, p. 13.

[290] Siresa 12, p. 33.

[291] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 567.

[292] San Pedro de Cardeña, 34, p. 62 (noted as “Falso” in the compilation).

[293] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 35, p. 48.

[294] Infantado de Covarrubias, II, p. 4.

[295] Muñoz Romero (1847), Tome I, p. 37.

[296] Del Pino, p. 163.

[297] Torres Sevilla Quiñones de León, M. 'El Régimen de Almanzor', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. A. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, Ariel Historia), p. 174.

[298] Infantado de Covarrubias, VII, p. 13.

[299] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, pp. 311-2.

[300] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 95, p. 109.

[301] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308.

[302] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 312.

[303] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 26, p. 246.

[304] D´Abadals i Vinyals, R. (2009) Els Comtats de Pallars i Ribagorça, Catalunya Carolíngia, Vol. III (Barcelona), Part 1, 24, and Fragmentum historicum, Ex cartulario Alaonis, España Sagrada XLVI, XXXVI, p. 325.

[305] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 329, marked suspect in the compilation.

[306] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice LXVI, p. 406.

[307] Infantado de Covarrubias, II, p. 4.

[308] Muñoz Romero (1847), Tome I, p. 37.

[309] Infantado de Covarrubias, VII, p. 13.

[310] Torres (1999), p. 215.

[311] Puig i Ferreté, I. M. (ed.) (1991) El Monestir de Santa Maria de Gerri (segles XI-XV) Collecció Diplomática Vol. II (Barcelona) ("Santa Maria de Gerri") 2, p. 2.

[312] D´Abadals i Vinyals (2009), Part 1, 24, and Fragmentum historicum, Ex cartulario Alaonis, España Sagrada XLVI, XXXVI, p. 326.

[313] ES III 119.

[314] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, pp. 152-3.

[315] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 374.

[316] Infantado de Covarrubias, VII, p. 13.

[317] Muñoz Romero (1847), Tome I, p. 37.

[318] Infantado de Covarrubias, VII, p. 13.

[319] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 123, p. 128.

[320] Infantado de Covarrubias, XIII, p. 38.

[321] Infantado de Covarrubias, VII, p. 13.

[322] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 458 and 489.

[323] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77.

[324] Dozy, R. (1859) Recherches sur l´histoire et la literature de l´Espagne pendant le moyen-âge (Leiden), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 110.

[325] España Sagrada XXXVI, V, Appendix V, p. ix.

[326] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXII, p. 199.

[327] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXV, p. 205.

[328] Infantado de Covarrubias, VII, p. 13.

[329] Sahagún (Pérez), Apéndice III, Escritura LXXXI, p. 449.

[330] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 1.

[331] Argaiz, G. de (1675) La soledad laureada por San Benito y sus hijos en las Iglesias de España y teatro monástico de la provincia de Asturias y Cantabria (Madrid), Tomo VI, p. 399.

[332] Martínez Díez (2005), p. 554.

[333] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 374.

[334] Muñoz Romero (1847), Tome I, p. 37.

[335] Infantado de Covarrubias, VII, p. 13.

[336] Torres (2002), p. 174.

[337] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, pp. 311-2.

[338] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 110.

[339] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 123, p. 128.

[340] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308.

[341] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), pp. 111-2.

[342] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308.

[343] San Salvador de Oña (1950) I, 8, p. 11.

[344] Salazar y Acha, J. de ´Urraca, Un nombre egregio en la onomástica altomedieval´, En la España medieval, Anejo I, 2006, p. 36, available at <http://www.ucm.es/BUCM/revistasBUC/portal/modulos.php?name=Revistas2_Historico&id=ELEM&num=ELEM060622> (10 Feb 2008), citing Salazar y Acha, J. de ´Una hija desconocida de Sancho el Mayor, Reina de León´, Principe de Viana anejo 8 1988.

[345] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 311.

[346] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 384.

[347] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla (trans. unknown), I, 1, consulted at <http://www.geocities.com/iblbo/archivo/cronicacastilla.menu.htm> (12 Apr 2008).

[348] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 97, although the author points out that dating of the charters of Sancho III King of Navarre is suspect.

[349] Pamplona 7, p. 29.

[350] Albelda 31, p. 41.

[351] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1876-1903) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny ( Paris), Tome IV, 2891, p. 89.

[352] Pamplona 5, p. 24.

[353] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 97, quoted at p. 111 footnote 8.

[354] San Zoilo de Carrión, 4, p. 11.

[355] Burgos Cathedral, 10, p. 25.

[356] San Salvador de Oña (1950) I, 8, p. 11.

[357] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, pp. 122-3.

[358] Speculative date suggested by Salazar y Acha, J. 'Una hija desconocida de Sancho el Mayor reina de León' Príncipe de Viana 49 (1988), p. 187, based on the date of her marriage.

[359] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 128.

[360] According to Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 131, the celebrations for the marriage were organised by Mundir bin Yahya, ruler of Zaragoza.

[361] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308.

[362] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 312.

[363] Jusué, E. (1912) Libro de la Regla o Cartulario de la antigua abadia de Santillana del Mar (Madrid) (“Santillana del Mar (Jusué)”), XXI, p. 25.

[364] Infantado de Covarrubias, XIII, p. 38.

[365] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice LXXXI, p. 416.

[366] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308.

[367] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 313.

[368] Salazar Acha 'Los Velas', pp. 20-1.

[369] Ximénez de Rada, R. Historia de los hechos de España (Madrid, 1989).

[370] Leire 15, p. 33.

[371] Pamplona 7, p. 29.

[372] Cluny Tome IV, 2891, p. 89.

[373] Historia Silense (Pérez), 75, p. 179.

[374] Historia Silense, Chapters 78 and 79, pp. 43-4.

[375] Historia Silense, Chapter 80, p. 44.

[376] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XCIV, p. 428.

[377] Reilly, B. F. (1988) The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI 1065-1109 (Princeton University Press), Chapter 1, p. 9, in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at <http://libro.uca.edu/alfonso6/alfonso.htm> (7 Dec 2002).

[378] MacKay, A. (1977) Spain in the Middle Ages, p. 25.

[379] Kennedy, H. (1996) Muslim Spain and Portugal (Longman), p. 147.

[380] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCIV, p. 236.

[381] Reilly (1988), p. 10.

[382] Historia Silense, Chapter 103, p. 60.

[383] Reilly (1988), Chapter 2, p. 14, and Chronicon Regum Legionensium, pp. 82-3.

[384] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVI, p. 242.

[385] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 82.

[386] Chronicon Lusitanum, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 418.

[387] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 309.

[388] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 82.

[389] Historia Silense (Pérez), 75, p. 179.

[390] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 80.

[391] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVI, p. 242.

[392] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 313.

[393] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 81.

[394] Historia Silense, Chapters 12 and 81, pp. 33 and 45.

[395] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XCIV, p. 428.

[396] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVI, p. 242.

[397] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVII, p. 245.

[398] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 376 bis, p. 403.

[399] Eslonza, Part I, V, p. 8.

[400] España Sagrada XXVII, VII, p. 456.

[401] Cluny Tome IV, 3508, p. 625.

[402] Historia Silense, Chapter 103, p. 61, interpreted as meaning the monasteries under control of the crown.

[403] Barton and Fletcher The World of El Cid, p. 61 footnote 191.

[404] López Ferreiro, A. (1900) Historia de la Santa Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela (Santiago), Tomo III, Apéndice, I, p. 1.

[405] Eslonza, Part I, VI, p. 10.

[406] Eslonza, Part I, VII, p. 13.

[407] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, XV, p. 50.

[408] Infantado de Covarrubias, XX, p. 50.

[409] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 386.

[410] Historia Silense, Chapter 11, p. 32.

[411] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 81.

[412] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1063, MGH SS XXIII, p. 793.

[413] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XCIV, p. 428.

[414] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVI, p. 242.

[415] Reilly (1988), Chapter 3, p. 49.

[416] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 376 bis, p. 403.

[417] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 309.

[418] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 313.

[419] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 83.

[420] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1989)"Corónicas" Navarras (Zaragoza) 2.16, p. 41.

[421] Salazar y Acha, J. ´Reflexiones sobre la posible historicidad de un episodio de la Crónica Najerense´, Principe de Viana, Anejo no. 14, 1992, pp. 149-56.

[422] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1988) Crónica Najerense (Zaragoza, Textos Medievales 15), p. 110, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Reflexiones sobre…´, p. 150.

[423] Salazar y Acha, J. ´Reflexiones sobre la posible historicidad de un episodio de la Crónica Najerense´, Principe de Viana, Anejo no. 14, 1992, p. 154.

[424] Rodríguez, R. (ed.) Catálogo de Documentos del Monasterio de Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas, 191, p. 60, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Reflexiones sobre…´, pp. 152 and 153.

[425] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34.

[426] Florez, H. (1770) Memorias de las reynas cathólicas (Madrid), Tomo I, p. 157.

[427] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice CXII, p. 436.

[428] Reilly (1988), Chapter 3, p. 46.

[429] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XCIV, p. 428.

[430] ES II 57.

[431] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 81.

[432] Historia Silense, Chapter 81, p. 45.

[433] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVI, p. 242.

[434] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 361, p. 342.

[435] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVIII, p. 248.

[436] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 376 bis, p. 403.

[437] España Sagrada XXVII, VII, p. 456.

[438] Cluny Tome IV, 3508, p. 625.

[439] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, I, p. 1.

[440] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, III, p. 25.

[441] Eslonza, Part I, VI, p. 10.

[442] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, XV, p. 50.

[443] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 385.

[444] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 81.

[445] Cluny Tome IV, 3509, p. 627.

[446] Historia Silense, Chapter 13, p. 34.

[447] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 81.

[448] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XCIV, p. 428.

[449] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVI, p. 242.

[450] Reilly (1988), Chapter 2, p. 23.

[451] Chronicon Compostellana, España Sagrada 51 vols. (Madrid, 1747-1879), Vol. 20, p. 610, and Historia Silense, Chapter 13, p. 34.

[452] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 84.

[453] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 321.

[454] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 327.

[455] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 313.

[456] Reilly, B. F. (1982) The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca 1109-1126 (Princeton University Press), Chapter 7, p. 221, in the Library of Iberian Resources Online [consulted at http://libro.uca.edu/urraca/urraca.htm] (7 Dec 2002).

[457] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 81.

[458] Chronicle of Sahagún, cited in Barton and Fletcher The World of El Cid.

[459] Historia Silense, Chapter 81, p. 45.

[460] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XCIV, p. 428.

[461] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVI, p. 242.

[462] Kennedy (1996), p.. 151.

[463] Reilly (1988), Chapter 5, p. 95.

[464] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 1, p. 7.

[465] Reilly (1988), Chapter 5, p. 104.

[466] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, V, p. 31.

[467] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 88.

[468] Chronicon Lusitanum, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 420.

[469] Malmesbury, III.276, p. 256.

[470] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115, the editor in footnote 1 highlighting that elsewhere Orderic referred to King Alfonso as "Hildefonsus" and the possibility that the king of Galicia in question was in fact Alfonso's brother Garcia.

[471] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1086, p. 22.

[472] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115.

[473] Reilly (1988) Chapter 3, p. 47.

[474] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, pp. 400 and 405.

[475] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[476] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VI, 11, RHGF XII, p. 381.

[477] Cluny Tome IV, 3508, p. 625.

[478] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 307.

[479] Sandoval, P. de (1792) Historia de los reyes de Castilla y de León, Vol. I, p. 212.

[480] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 321.

[481] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 241.

[482] Kerrebrouck, p. 557 footnote 30.

[483] Ex Chronico Trenorciensi, RHGF XI, p. 112.

[484] Chifflet, P. F. (1644) Histoire de l´abbaye royale et de la ville de Tournus (Dijon), Preuves, p. 331.

[485] Cluny Tome IV, 3533, p. 654, dated 1117 "Spanish Era".

[486] Godefroy, T. (1610) De l'origine des roys de Portugal yssus en ligne masculine de la maison de France (Paris), quoted in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 560 footnote 16, which says that this chronicle fragment was first published at Frankfurt in 1596.

[487] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[488] Referred to by Reilly (1988), Chapter 6, footnote 58.

[489] San Salvador de Oña I, 99, p. 127.

[490] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 240.

[491] Sahagún (Pérez), Apéndice I, Historia del monasterio de Sahagun, Cap. VII, p. 300.

[492] Sahagún (Pérez), Lib. II, cap. V.2, p. 72.

[493] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[494] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VI, 11, RHGF XII, p. 381.

[495] ES II 57.

[496] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Bourgogne, Lorraine et Espagne', pp. 233-4, n. 1, cited in Bouchard, p. 273.

[497] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 247.

[498] Chapter 12, p. 247 footnote 68.

[499] Silos 24, p. 30.

[500] Silos 25, p. 31.

[501] Silos 26, p. 33.

[502] Eslonza, Part I, VI, p. 10.

[503] Reilly (1988), Chapter 14, p. 296.

[504] Reilly (1988), Chapter 1, p. 32 footnote 68.

[505] Cluny, Tome V, 3735, p. 83.

[506] Sahagún (Pérez), Apéndice I, Historia del monasterio de Sahagun, Cap. VIII, p. 300.

[507] Sahagún (Pérez), Lib. II, cap. V.2, p. 72.

[508] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[509] Reilly (1982) Chapter 1, p. 33.

[510] San Salvador de Oña I, 71, p. 107.

[511] San Salvador de Oña I, 86, p. 121.

[512] Mañueco Villalobos, M. & Zurita Nieto, J. (1917) Documentos de la Iglesia Colegial de Santa María la Mayor de Valladolid (Valladolid) ("Valladolid Santa María"), Tome I, X, p. 62.

[513] San Salvador de Oña I, 116, p. 149.

[514] Reilly (1988), Chapter 14, p. 297.

[515] Reilly (1988), Chapter 15, p. 325.

[516] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 88.

[517] Chronicon de Cardeña, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 378.

[518] Salazar y Acha, J. de ´Política matrimonial de Alfonso VI de Castilla´, Anales de la Real Academia Matritense de Héraldica y Genealogía, Vol. II (1992-93, Madrid), p. 319, quoting in translation an extract quoted in Levi Provençal, E. ´La mora Zaida, femme d´Alphonse VI de Castille, et leur fils l´infant don Sancho´, Hesperis 18 (1934), pp. 1-8 and 200-1.

[519] Salazar y Acha ´Política matrimonial de Alfonso VI de Castilla´, p. 320.

[520] Montaner Frutos, A. ‘La mora Zaida, entre historia y leyenda’, Taylor, B. & West, G. (eds.) (2005) Historicist Essays on Hispano-Medieval Narrative: In Memory of Roger M. Walker (Leeds), p. 272, available in Google Book “Limited Preview”.

[521] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 234.

[522] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 88.

[523] Reilly (1988), Chapter 16, p. 339.

[524] Reilly (1988), p. 339.

[525] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, XXIII, p. 70.

[526] Reilly (1988), Chapter 15, p. 325.

[527] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 234, and Chapter 16, p. 339 footnote 46. .

[528] Sahagún (Pérez), Lib. II, cap. V.3, p. 73.

[529] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[530] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VI, 11, RHGF XII, p. 381.

[531] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[532] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 307.

[533] Jimena is discussed in José M. Canal Sánchez-Pagín 'Jimena Muñoz, amiga de Alfonso VI' Anuario de estudios medievales 21 (1991), pp. 11-40.

[534] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[535] Chronicon de Cardeña, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 378.

[536] Reilly (1988), Chapter 6, p. 109.

[537] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 192.

[538] Quintana Prieto, A. (ed.) (1971) Tumbo Viejo de San Pedro de Montes (León) ("San Pedro de Montes"), 42, p. 127.

[539] San Pedro de Montes, 63, p. 149.

[540] San Pedro de Montes, 79, p. 166.

[541] San Pedro de Montes, 94, p. 181.

[542] San Pedro de Montes, 97, p. 184.

[543] San Pedro de Montes, 110, p. 198.

[544] San Pedro de Montes, 106, 107, 113, 117, and 121, pp. 194, 195, 202, 208, and 213.

[545] San Pedro de Montes, 127, 131, 132, and 135, p. 221, 225, 226, and 230.

[546] Rodríguez González, M. C. ´Concubina o esposa. Reflexiones sobre la unión de Jimena Muñiz con Alfonso VI´, Studia Historica, Historia Medieval No. 25 (2007), p. 164, citing Ayala Martínez, C. (1995) Libro de privilegios de la Orden de San Juan de Jerusalén en Castilla y León (siglos XII-XV) (Madrid), doc. 21.

[547] Rodríguez González ´Concubina…Jimena Muñiz´, p. 164, citing Ayala Martínez (1995), doc. 22.

[548] Cavero Domínguez, G. & Martín López, E. (eds.) (2000) Colección documental de la Catedral de Astorga (León) ("Astorga Cathedral"), Vol. II, 642, p. 61.

[549] Herrero Jiménez, M. (ed.) (1994) Colección documental del archivo de la catedral de León, Vol. X, Obituarios medievales (León) (“León Cathedral Necrology”).

[550] Sandoval, P. de (1792) Historia de los reyes de Castilla y de León, Vol. I, p. 347.

[551] Rodríguez González ´Concubina…Jimena Muñiz´, p. 166, quoting text of inscription now in Museo de San Marcos de León.

[552] Sandoval, P. de (1792) Historia de los reyes de Castilla y de León, Vol. I, p. 347.

[553] According to Salazar y Acha, J. (2000) La casa del Rey de Castilla y León en la Edad Media (Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales Madrid), p. 57, the earliest use of the title Infante/Infanta was by the children of Alfonso VI King of Castile and León.

[554] This date is suggested by Reilly (1988), Chapter 10, p. 192.

[555] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[556] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 248, though no source is given. This date is consistent with Sancho having been of age to have fought at Uclés in 1108.

[557] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 88.

[558] Reilly (1982) Chapter 1, p. 39, referring to a document of the monastery of Oña dated 23 Apr 1107.

[559] San Salvador de Oña I, 116, p. 149.

[560] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, XXIII, p. 70.

[561] Reilly (1982) Chapter 1, p. 42.

[562] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 386.

[563] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[564] Reilly (1988), Chapter 14, p. 318.

[565] Salazar y Castro, L. (1694) Pruebas de la Casa de Lara (Madrid) ("Salazar y Castro (Lara), Pruebas"), p. 653.

[566] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[567] Reilly (1988), Chapter 14, p. 318.

[568] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 421.

[569] Reilly (1982), Chapter 7, p. 218.

[570] Alexandri Telesini Cœnobii Abbatis de Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis ("Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis)", Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), III.I, p. 129.

[571] Cronica di Romualdo Guarna arcivescovo Salernitano (Chronicon Romualdi II archiepiscopi Salernitani) ("Romualdo Guarna"), Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), 1145, p. 16.

[572] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[573] Marseille Saint-Victor II, Chartularium Majus, 686, p. 25.

[574] L'abbé Goiffon (ed.) (1882) Bullaire de l´abbaye de Saint-Gilles (Nîmes) ("Bullaire de Saint-Gilles"), XV, p. 30.

[575] Guiberto Historia quæ dicitur gesta dei per Francos, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, IV (Paris, 1879) ("Guibert") II.XVIII, p. 150.

[576] Runciman, S. (1952) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 65.

[577] Ayala Martínez, C. de (1995) Libro de los privilegios de la orden de San Juan de Jerusalén in Castilla y León (Siglos XII-XV) (Instituto Complutense) ("San Juan de Jerusalén Castilla León"), 10, p. 152.

[578] Cluny Tome V, 3927, p. 280.

[579] Rodríguez González, M. C. ´Concubina o esposa. Reflexiones sobre la unión de Jimena Muñiz con Alfonso VI´, Studia Historica, Historia Medieval No. 25 (2007), p. 164, citing Ayala Martínez, C. (1995) Libro de privilegios de la Orden de San Juan de Jerusalén en Castilla y León (siglos XII-XV) (Madrid), doc. 21.

[580] Sahagún (Pérez), Apéndice III, Escritura CCX, p. 570.

[581] Reilly (1982), Chapter 7, p. 218, footnote 35. .

[582] Canal Sánchez-Pangín, J. M. 'La Infanta doña Elvira, hija de Alfonso VI y de Jimena Muñoz, a la luz de los diplomas', Archivos leoneses 33 (1979), pp. 271-87.

[583] San Juan de Jerusalén Castilla León, 18, p. 161.

[584] Fernández Catón, J. M. (ed.) (1990) Colección documental del archivo de la Catedral de León (León) ("León Cathedral"), Vol. V, 1407, p. 164.

[585] León Cathedral, Vol. V, 1416, p. 179.

[586] San Pedro de Montes, 150, 151, 152, 157, 160, 168, 177, and 185, pp. 248, 249, 250, 255, 259, 268, 279, and 287.

[587] Astorga Cathedral, Vol. II, 703, p. 89.

[588] San Pedro de Montes, 171, p. 271.

[589] León Cathedral, Vol. V, 1471, p. 263.

[590] León Cathedral Necrology.

[591] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87.

[592] Rodríguez González, M. C. ´Concubina o esposa. Reflexiones sobre la unión de Jimena Muñiz con Alfonso VI´, Studia Historica, Historia Medieval No. 25 (2007), p. 145, quoting Fernández Catón, J. M. (1990) Colección documental del Archivo de la Catedral de León (1109-1187) (León), Vol. V, doc. 1436.

[593] Sahagún (Pérez), Apéndice I, Historia del monasterio de Sahagun, Cap. XXI, p. 306.

[594] Godefroy, T. (1610) De l'origine des roys de Portugal yssus en ligne masculine de la maison de France (Paris), quoted in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 560 footnote 16, which says that this chronicle fragment was first published at Frankfurt in 1596.

[595] Sousa, A. C. de (1739) Provas da Historia Genealogica da Casa Real Portugueza (Lisbon), Tomo I, I, p. 2.

[596] Eslonza, Part I, VI, p. 10.

[597] Historia Compostelana, España Sagrada XX, pp. 517-8.

[598] Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris (Manchester UP) (“Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris“), I, 5, p. 165.

[599] Chronicon Lusitanum, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 422.

[600] Some time in 1096 according to Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 254.

[601] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 194, and Le Hête, T. Les Comtes Palatins de Bourgogne et leur descendance agnatique (1995) p. 176.

[602] Castro Toledo, J. (1981) Colección diplomática de Tordesillas (Valladolid) (“Tordesillas”), 8, p. 6.

[603] Tordesillas, 9, p. 7.

[604] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 251.

[605] This date is suggested by Reilly (1988), Chapter 10, p. 192.

[606] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[607] San Salvador de Oña I, 116, p. 149.

[608] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, XXV, p. 75.

[609] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, XXVII, p. 79.

[610] Silos 30, p. 43.

[611] Cluny, Tome V, 3947, p. 301.

[612] Silos 32, p. 46.

[613] Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris I, 1, p. 162.

[614] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 309.

[615] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 327.

[616] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 409.

[617] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1032, MGH SS XXIII, p. 784, although this passage is out of date order.

[618] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[619] Cluny Tome IV, 3615, p. 776.

[620] Dijon Saint-Bénigne II, 365, p. 143.

[621] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 194, and Le Hête, p. 176.

[622] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 194.

[623] López Ferreiro (1900), Tomo III, Apéndice, V, p. 31.

[624] San Salvador de Oña I, 99, p. 127.

[625] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 251.

[626] Tordesillas, 8, p. 6.

[627] Tordesillas, 9, p. 7.

[628] Reilly (1988), Chapter 13, p. 276.

[629] Cluny, Tome V, 3774, p. 125.

[630] Reilly (1982) Chapter 1, p. 35.

[631] Dijon Saint-Bénigne II, 420, p. 198.

[632] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, I, 4.

[633] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 378.

[634] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, I, 4.

[635] Szabolcs de Vajay 'From Alfonso VII to Alfonso X, the first two centuries of the Burgundian dynasty in Castile and Leon - a prosopographical catalogue in social genealogy, 1100-1300', Studies in Genealogy and Family History in tribute to Charles Evans, edited Lindsay L Brook (Association for the Promotion of Scholarship in Genealogy Ltd, Occasional Publication no 2, 1989, Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 371.

[636] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[637] Reilly (1988), Chapter 16, p. 334.

[638] ES II 62.

[639] Eslonza, Part I, VIII, p. 17.

[640] Cluny, Tome V, 3970, p. 327.

[641] López Ferreiro, A. (1901) Historia de la Santa Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela (Santiago), Tomo IV, Apéndice, V, p. 12.

[642] Cluny, Tome V, 4072, p. 423.

[643] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 372.

[644] Infantado de Covarrubias, XXII, p. 53.

[645] Eslonza, Part I, XV, p. 28.

[646] Sahagún (Pérez), Apéndice III, Escritura CLXXIII, p. 539.

[647] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 386.

[648] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 386.

[649] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[650] Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris: Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester University Press), pp. 162-263.

[651] Silos 28, p. 37.

[652] Reilly (1982) Chapter 4, p. 126.

[653] Cluny, Tome V, 4038, p. 390.

[654] Cluny, Tome V, 4072, p. 423.

[655] Cluny, Tome V, 4073, p. 426.

[656] Cluny, Tome V, 4076, p. 428.

[657] Colmenares, D. de (1846) Historia de Segovia (Segovia), Tomo I, p. 240.

[658] Silos 57, p. 85.

[659] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 309.

[660] Chronicon Lusitanum, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 428.

[661] Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris I, 12, p. 168.

[662] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 376.

[663] Els Testaments, 11, p. 92.

[664] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 7, RHGF XII, p. 383.

[665] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 390.

[666] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 7, RHGF XII, p. 383.

[667] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1141, MGH SS XXIII, p. 834.

[668] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 372.

[669] Colmenares (1846), Tomo I, p. 240.

[670] Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris I, 32, p. 178.

[671] Yepes, A. de (1609) Coronica General de la Orden de San Benito, Tomo VII, Apendix, VIII, p. 10.

[672] Pérez, M. Crónica del emperador Alfonso, p. 157, cited in Torres (1999), p. 393.

[673] Florez (1770), Tomo I, p. 306.

[674] Valladolid Santa María, Tome I, XXXIII, p. 185.

[675] Valladolid Santa María, Tome I, XXXIV, p. 190.

[676] Valladolid Santa María, Tome I, XXXV, p. 194.

[677] Rodríguez de Diego, J. L. (2004) Colección diplomática de Santa María de Aguilar de Campoo (852-1230) (Junta de Castilla y León) (“Santa María de Aguilar de Campo”), 27, p. 128.

[678] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 7, RHGF XII, p. 383.

[679] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[680] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 402, note 27, quoting González, J. (1960) El Reino de Castilla en la época de Alfonso VIII (Madrid), Vol. 1, p. 137, n. 2.

[681] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 373.

[682] Barton & Fletcher, p. 172 footnote 60.

[683] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 7, RHGF XII, p. 383.

[684] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[685] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 7, RHGF XII, p. 383.

[686] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1155, p. 210.

[687] Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X (1652), Radulphus de Diceto, Abbreviationes Chronicorum, col. 511.

[688] Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X (1652), Radulphus de Diceto, Ymagines Historiarum, col. 532.

[689] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 328.

[690] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 7, RHGF XII, p. 383.

[691] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 392.

[692] "Corónicas" Navarras 7.6, p. 72.

[693] Eslonza, Part I, X, p. 21.

[694] Eslonza, Part I, XIII, p. 25.

[695] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 322.

[696] Florez (1770), Tomo I, p. 284.

[697] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 403, note 41, citing Arco, R. del (1954) Sepulcros de la Casa Real de Castilla (Madrid), p. 203.

[698] "Corónicas" Navarras 1.11, p. 32.

[699] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 379.

[700] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 576.

[701] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 394.

[702] Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris I, 32, p. 178.

[703] Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris I, 91-93, pp. 201-2.

[704] Lacarra, J. M. 'Documentos para la reconquista del valle del Ebro', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. III (Zaragoza, 1947-8) V, p. 614.

[705] Torres (1999), p. 391.

[706] Yepes (1609), Tomo VII, Apendix, VIII, p. 10.

[707] Lorenzana, Cardinal de (ed.) (1793) Roderici Ximenii de Rada opera complectens, PP Toletanorum quotquot extant opera, Tome III (Madrid), Historia de rebus Hispaniæ, Lib. VII, XXII, p. 165.

[708] Faria i Sousa, F. & Alarcon, F. A. de (eds.) (1641) Nobiliario del Conde de Barcelos Don Pedro (Madrid) ("Pedro Barcelos"), Tit. XI, Castro, 10, pp. 89-90.

[709] Valladolid Santa María, Tome I, XXXV, p. 194.

[710] Sahagún (Pérez), Apéndice III, Escritura CLXXIII, p. 539.

[711] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 5, RHGF XII, p. 383.

[712] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[713] Torres (1999), p. 87.

[714] Eslonza, Part I, X, p. 21.

[715] Cluny, Tome V, 4076, p. 428.

[716] Eslonza, Part I, XIII, p. 25.

[717] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 373.

[718] Colmenares (1846), Tomo I, p. 240.

[719] Silos 56, p. 84.

[720] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 309.

[721] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 391.

[722] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 322.

[723] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 322.

[724] Cluny, Tome V, 4190, p. 536.

[725] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 404, note 47, quoting González (1960), Vol. 2, p. 138, n. 81.

[726] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 390.

[727] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[728] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 404, note 47, quoting González (1960), Vol. 2, p. 138, n. 81.

[729] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 390.

[730] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[731] Torres (1999), p. 88.

[732] Cluny, Tome V, 4230, p. 580.

[733] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 323.

[734] Chronicon Bernardi Iterii, p. 92.

[735] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 399.

[736] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1168, p. 246.

[737] Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X (1652), Radulphus de Diceto, Abbreviationes Chronicorum, col. 513.

[738] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 22.

[739] Castan Lanaspa, G. ´San Nicolás del Real Camino, un Hospital de Leprosos Castellano-Leones en la Edad Media (Siglos XII-XIV)´, Publicaciones de la Institución Tello Téllez de Meneses, no. 51 (1984) ("San Nicolás del Real Camino"), 2, p. 136.

[740] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, II, 17.

[741] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 323.

[742] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 399.

[743] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1212, MGH SS XXIII, p. 895.

[744] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, pp. 103-4.

[745] San Nicolás del Real Camino, 2, p. 136.

[746] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 322.

[747] Silos 75, p. 114.

[748] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, II, 11.

[749] Chronicon de Cardeña, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 378.

[750] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, II, 15.

[751] Chronicon de Cardeña, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 373.

[752] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Fontaines, p. 193.

[753] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, pp. 103-4.

[754] Colmenares (1846), Tomo I, p. 268.

[755] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice CLIII, p. 466.

[756] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice CLVI, p. 468.

[757] San Nicolás del Real Camino, 2, p. 136.

[758] Florez (1770), Tomo I, p. 409, quoting Archivo de Arlanza letra S. n. 428, and Nuñez Alfonso VIII, p. 140.

[759] Colmenares (1846), Tomo I, Cap. V, X, p. 66.

[760] Rades, F. de (1572) Chronicas de las tres Ordenes y Cavallerías de Sanctiago, Calatrava y Alcantara (Toledo), Chronica de Sanctiago, p. 17.

[761] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1212, MGH SS XXIII, p. 895.

[762] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 5, RHGF XII, p. 382.

[763] Sousa (1739) Provas, Tomo I, 20, p. 37.

[764] Sousa (1739) Provas, Tomo I, 21, p. 39.

[765] Breve Chronicon Alcobacense, Portugaliæ Monumenta Historica, Scriptores, Vol. I, p. 21.

[766] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143 and 1200, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 837 and 877.

[767] Arlanza, CXXVI, p. 232.

[768] RHGF XXI, Chronique anonyme des rois de France, p. 83.

[769] Matthew Paris, Vol. V, 1252, p. 354.

[770] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Hôtel-Dieu de Provins, p. 964.

[771] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 332.

[772] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 393.

[773] Colmenares (1846), Tomo I, p. 275.

[774] Silos 75, p. 114.

[775] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 379.

[776] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 323.

[777] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 395.

[778] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, II, 20.

[779] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), pp. 379 and 406, note 72, quoting Arco (1954), p. 246.

[780] Schottus, A. (ed.) (1608) Hispaniæ Illustratæ, Tomo IV (Frankfurt), Lucæ Tudensis Chronicon Mundi, ("Lucas Tudensis"), Liber IV, p. 107.

[781] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1212, MGH SS XXIII, p. 895.

[782] Ximénez de Embún y Val, T. (ed.) (1876) Historia de la Corona de Aragón: Crónica de San Juan de la Peña: Part aragonesa, available at Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes <http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=12477> (3 Aug 2007), XXXV, p. 148.

[783] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 394.

[784] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1212, MGH SS XXIII, p. 895.

[785] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 323.

[786] Pedro Barcelos, Tit. VII, Reyes de Portugal, 3 p. 30.

[787] Sousa (1739) Provas, Tomo I, 10, p. 17.

[788] Sousa (1739) Provas, Tomo I, 17, p. 31.

[789] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 380.

[790] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 5, RHGF XII, p. 383.

[791] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1143, MGH SS XXIII, p. 837.

[792] Eslonza, Part I, X, p. 21.

[793] Eslonza, Part I, XIII, p. 25.

[794] Colmenares (1846), Tomo I, p. 240.

[795] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 322.

[796] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 392.

[797] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 5, RHGF XII, p. 382.

[798] Chronicon Lusitanum, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, pp. 426 and 428.

[799] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, II, 10.

[800] Sahagún (Pérez), Apéndice III, Escritura CLXXIII, p. 539.

[801] Salazar y Castro, L. (1697) Historia genealogica de la casa de Lara (Madrid), Tomo III, Libro XVI, cap. II, p. 16, quoting Archivo de Uclés.

[802] Salazar y Castro (1697), Tomo III, Libro XVI, cap. II, p. 16, quoting Lucas Tudensis, Tome 4, lib. 4.

[803] Salazar y Castro (1697), Tomo III, Libro XVI, cap. II, p. 16.

[804] Salazar y Castro (1697), Tomo III, Libro XVI, cap. II, p. 16, quoting Coronica General.

[805] Salazar y Castro (1697), Tomo III, Libro XVI, cap. II, p. 15, quoting Lucas Tudensis, Tome 4, lib. 4.

[806] Salazar y Castro (1697), Tomo III, Libro XVI, cap. II, p. 16, quoting Rodericus Toletanus, lib. 7, cap. 23.

[807] Salazar y Castro (1697), Tomo III, Libro XVI, cap. II, p. 16, quoting Archivo de Uclés.

[808] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 374.

[809] Pedro Barcelos, Tit. VII, Pereiras, 31 p. 64, and Tit. X, Lara, 11, p. 78.

[810] Salazar y Castro (1697), Tomo III, Libro XVI, cap. I, p. 14.

[811] Salazar y Castro (1697), Tomo III, Libro XVI, cap. II, p. 18.

[812] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 402, note 32, quoting Arco (1954), pp. 58 and 168.

[813] Sobrado, Vol. II, 365, p. 351.

[814] Sánchez de Mora, A. (2003) La nobleza cast

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Zaida (Isabella) Alfonzo, reina consorte de León's Timeline

1071
1071
Denia, Alicante, Pais Valenciano, Spain
1093
September 13, 1093
Age 22
Spain
1093
Age 22
Of, Toledo, Castile
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San Isodoro de Leon