Israel (Jack) Rosen
|Birthplace:||Whitechapel, London, England|
|Place of Burial:||South Woodford, London E 18, England|
|Occupation:||Bus Driver, Taxi Driver|
|Managed by:||David Jonathan Rose|
About Israel (Jack) Rosen
John (Jonas) Rosen, age 42, head of house, Glazier
Martha Rosen, age 40, wife
Esther Rosen, age 16, Tailoress
Lucy Rosen, age 12, school
Lazarus Rosen, age 10, school
Barry Rosen, age 8, school
Janey Rosen, age 5, school
Israel Rosen, age 2
Willy Rosen, age 4 months
12 Buckle Street Buildings, Buckle Street, Whitechapel, London
1891 England Census
Jonas Rosen, age 51, head of house, Glazier & Painter
Martha Rosen, age 50, wife
Francis Rosen, age 21, Tailoress
Lazarus Rosen, age 20, Shoofer
Barnett Rosen, age 18, Fur Cutter
Jane Rosen, age 16, Fur Machinist
Isaac Rosen, age 13
7 Winthrop Street, Whitechapel, London
1901 England Census
Battle of the Falkland Islands
The Battle of the Falkland Islands was a British naval victory over the Imperial German Navy on 8 December 1914 during the First World War in the South Atlantic. The British, embarrassed by a defeat at the Battle of Coronel on 1 November, sent a large force to track down and destroy the German cruiser squadron responsible.
Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee commanding the German squadron of two armoured cruisers, SMS Scharnhorst and SMS Gneisenau, and three light cruisers, Nürnberg, Dresden and Leipzig attempted to raid the British supply base at Stanley on the Falkland Isles. A larger British squadron of two battlecruisers, HMS Invincible and HMS Inflexible, three armoured cruisers, HMS Carnarvon, HMS Cornwall and HMS Kent, and two light cruisers, HMS Bristol and HMS Glasgow, had arrived in the port only the day before.
Visibility was at its maximum: the sea was placid with a gentle breeze from the north west, the sun bright, the sky clear. The advance cruisers of the German squadron had been detected early on, and by nine o'clock that morning the British battlecruisers and cruisers were in hot pursuit of the five German vessels, these having taken flight in line abreast to the south-east. All except Dresden were hunted down and sunk.
The British battlecruisers mounted eight 12-inch (305 mm) guns apiece, whereas Spee's SMS Scharnhorst and SMS Gneisenau each had eight 8.24-inch (209 mm) guns. Additionally, the battlecruisers could make 25½ knots against Spee's 22½ knots. Thus the British battlecruisers could outrun their opponents and significantly outgun them. An obsolete pre-dreadnought battleship, HMS Canopus, had also been grounded at Stanley to give a stable gunnery platform and act as a make-shift fortress for the defence of the area.
Following Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee's success on 1 November 1914 at the Battle of Coronel, off the coast of Valparaiso, Chile, where his German East Asia Squadron sank the cruisers HMS Good Hope (Admiral Cradock's flagship) and HMS Monmouth, von Spee's force put into Valparaíso. As required under international law for belligerent ships in neutral countries, the ships left within 24 hours, moving to Mas Afuera, 400 miles off the Chilean coast. There they received news of the loss of SMS Emden, which had previously detached from the squadron and had been raiding in the Indian Ocean. They also learned of the fall of the German colony at Tsingtao in China, which had been their home port. On 15 November the squadron moved to Bahia San Quintin on the Chilean coast, where a ceremony was held to distribute 300 Iron Cross, second class, amongst the crew, and an Iron Cross, first class, awarded to Admiral Spee.
Spee also received recommendations to return to Germany, if he could. His ships had used half their ammunition at Coronel, which could not be replaced, and had difficulties obtaining coal. Intelligence reports suggested that the British ships Defence, Cornwall and Carnarvon were stationed in the river Plate, and that there had been no British warships at Stanley when recently visited by a steamer. Spee had been concerned about reports of a British battleship, the Canopus, but its location was unknown. On 26 November the squadron set sail for Cape Horn, which was reached on 1 December, then anchored at Picton Island, where they stayed for three days distributing coal from a captured British freighter, and hunting. On 6 December Spee proposed to raid the Falkland Islands before turning north. The raid was unnecessary, because the squadron already had as much coal as they could carry, and was opposed by most of Spee's captains, but he decided to proceed.
On 30 October retired Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Fisher was reappointed First Sea Lord to replace Admiral Prince Louis of Battenberg, who was forced to resign because of public outcry against a perceived German prince running the British navy. On 3 November Fisher was advised that Spee had been sighted off Valparaiso and acted to reinforce Cradock by ordering HMS Defence, already sent to patrol the eastern coast of South America, to reinforce his squadron. On 4 November news of the defeat at Coronel arrived. As a result, the battlecruisers Invincible and Inflexible were ordered to leave the Grand Fleet and sail to Plymouth for overhaul and preparation for service abroad. Chief of Staff at the Admiralty was Vice-Admiral Doveton Sturdee. Fisher had a long standing disagreement with Sturdee, who had been one of those calling for his earlier dismissal as First Sea Lord in 1911, so he took the opportunity to appoint Sturdee Commander in Chief, South Atlantic and Pacific, to command the new squadron from Invincible.
On 11 November Invincible and Inflexible left Devonport, although repairs to Invincible were incomplete and she sailed with workmen still onboard. Despite the urgency of the situation and their maximum speed of around 25 knots, the ships travelled at a steady 10 knots. Running at high speed used a disproportionately greater quantity of coal, so to complete the long journey it was necessary to travel at the most economic speed. The two ships were also heavily loaded with supplies. Secrecy of the mission was considered important so as to surprise Spee, but on 17 November, Lieutenant Hirst from Glasgow heard locals discussing the forthcoming arrival of the ships while ashore at Cape Verde. The news failed to reach Spee. Sturdee arrived at the Abrolhos Rocks on 26 November, where Rear Admiral Stoddart awaited him with the remainder of the squadron.
Sturdee announced his intention to depart for the Falkland Islands on 29 November. From there, the fast light cruisers Glasgow and Bristol would patrol seeking Spee, summoning reinforcements if they found him. Captain Luce of Glasgow, who had been at the battle of Coronel, objected that there was no need to wait so long and persuaded Sturdee to depart a day early. The squadron was delayed during the journey for 12 hours when a cable towing targets for practice firing became wrapped around one propellor of Invincible, but the ships arrived on the morning of 7 December. The two light cruisers moored in the inner part of Stanley Harbour, while the larger ships remained in the deeper outer harbour of Port William. Divers set about removing the cable wrapped around Invincible's propellor. Cornwall extinguished her boiler fires to make repairs, and Bristol dismantled one of her engines. The famous ship SS Great Britain, reduced to the humble role of a coal bunker, played a part in the battle, supplying coal to the Invincible and the Inflexible. The armed merchant cruiser Macedonia was ordered to patrol the harbour, while Kent maintained steam in her boilers, ready to replace Macedonia the next day, 8 December. Spee's fleet arrived the morning of the 8th.
Spee's cruisers, the Gneisenau and Nürnberg, approached Stanley first. At the time, the entire British fleet was coaling. Had Spee pressed the attack, not only would Sturdee's ships have been easy targets, but any ship that tried to leave would have faced the full firepower of the German ships. Having a vessel sunk might also have blocked the rest of the British squadron inside the harbour. Fortunately for the British, the Germans were surprised by gunfire from an unexpected source: the Canopus, which had been grounded as a guardship and was behind a hill. This was enough to check the Germans' advance. The sight of the distinctive tripod masts of the British battlecruisers confirmed that they were facing a better-equipped enemy. The Kent was already making way out of the harbour and had been ordered to pursue Spee's ships.
Made aware of the German ships, Sturdee had ordered the crews to breakfast, knowing that the Canopus had bought them time while steam was raised.
To Spee, with his crew battle-weary and his ships outgunned, the outcome was seemingly inevitable. Realising his danger too late — and having missed the golden opportunity to shell Sturdee's fleet while in port — Spee and his squadron dashed for the open sea. The British left port around 10:00 AM. Spee was ahead by 15 miles (24 km) but there was a lot of daylight left for the faster battlecruisers to catch up.
It was 13:00 when the British battlecruisers opened fire, but it took them half an hour to get the range of the Leipzig. Realising that he could not hope to outrun the fast British ships, Spee decided to engage them with his armoured cruisers alone, to give the light cruisers a chance to escape. They turned to fight just after 13:20. The German armoured cruisers had the advantage of being to windward of a freshening north-west breeze, causing the funnel smoke of the British to obscure their target practically throughout the action. Author Hans Pochhammer indicates that there was a long respite during the early stages of the battle, as the British attempted to force Admiral Spee away from his advantageous position, which they could not.
Despite initial success by Scharnhorst and Gneisenau in striking Invincible, the British capital ships suffered little damage, thanks to their heavier armour. Spee then turned to escape, but the battlecruisers were within extreme firing range just forty minutes later.
Invincible and Inflexible engaged Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, while Sturdee detached his cruisers to chase the Leipzig and Nürnberg.
Inflexible and Invincible turned to fire broadsides at the armoured cruisers and Spee responded by trying to close the range. His flagship Scharnhorst took extensive damage with funnels flattened, fires and a list. The list became worse at 16:04 and she sank by 16:17. All hands were lost. Gneisenau continued to fire and evade until 17:15 by which time her ammunition had gone and her crew allowed her to sink, going down at 18:02. During her death throes, Admiral Sturdee continued to engage Gneisenau with his two battlecruisers and the cruiser Carnarvon, rather than detaching one of the battlecruisers to hunt down the escaping Dresden. Of the Gneisenau's crew, 190 were rescued from the water. The battlecruisers had received about 40 hits and lost one man, with four more injured.
Meanwhile, Nürnberg and Leipzig had run from the British cruisers. The Nürnberg was running at full speed but in need of maintenance, while the crew of the pursuing Kent were pushing her boilers and engines to the limit. Nurnberg finally turned to battle at 17:30. Kent had the advantage in shell weight and armour. Nurnberg suffered two boiler explosions around 18:30, giving the advantage in speed and manoeuvre to Kent. She then rolled over at 19:27 after a long chase. The cruisers Glasgow and Cornwall had chased down Leipzig. Glasgow closed to finish Leipzig which had run out of ammunition but was still flying her battle ensign. She fired two flares, so Glasgow halted fire. At 21:23, more than 80 miles (130 km) southeast of the Falklands, she rolled over, leaving only 18 survivors.
Ten British sailors were killed during the battle and 19 wounded; none of the British ships was badly damaged. In contrast, 1,871 German sailors were killed in the encounter, including Admiral Spee and his two sons. A further 215 survivors were rescued and ended up prisoners on the British ships. Most of them were from the Gneisenau, five from the Nürnberg and 18 from the Leipzig. Out of the 765 officers and men from the Scharnhorst, only 7 survived.
Of the known German force of eight ships, two escaped: the auxiliary Seydlitz and the light cruiser Dresden, which roamed at large for a further three months before her captain was cornered by a British squadron off the Juan Fernández Islands on 14 March 1915. After fighting a short battle, the Dresden's captain evacuated his ship, and then scuttled her by detonating the main ammunition magazine.
As a consequence of the battle, German commerce raiding on the high seas by regular warships of the Kaiserliche Marine was brought to an end. However, Germany put several armed merchant vessels into service as commerce raiders until the end of the war (for example, see Felix von Luckner).