J. Robert Oppenheimer

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Julius Robert Oppenheimer

Also Known As: "Doctor Atomic", "Father of the Atomic Bomb"
Birthdate: (62)
Birthplace: New York, NY, United States
Death: February 18, 1967 (62)
Princeton, NJ, United States (Throat Cancer)
Place of Burial: Cremated, (ashes scattered over the Virgin Islands)
Immediate Family:

Son of Julius Seligmann Oppenheimer and Ella Oppenheimer
Husband of Katherine (Kitty) Oppenheimer
Father of Private and Katherine (Toni) Oppenheimer
Brother of Frank Friedman Oppenheimer

Occupation: Physicist
Managed by: Judith Berlowitz, busy editing
Last Updated:

About J. Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer [see note] was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Oppenheimer was the wartime head of the Los Alamos Laboratory and is among those who are credited with being the "father of the atomic bomb" for their role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II undertaking that developed the first nuclear weapons used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico; Oppenheimer later remarked that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."

After the war, Oppenheimer became chairman of the influential General Advisory Committee of the newly created United States Atomic Energy Commission. He used that position to lobby for international control of nuclear power to avert nuclear proliferation and a nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union. After provoking the ire of many politicians with his outspoken opinions during the Second Red Scare, he suffered the revocation of his security clearance in a much-publicized hearing in 1954, and was effectively stripped of his direct political influence; he continued to lecture, write and work in physics. Nine years later, President John F. Kennedy awarded (and Lyndon B. Johnson presented) him with the Enrico Fermi Award as a gesture of political rehabilitation.

Oppenheimer's achievements in physics included the Born–Oppenheimer approximation for molecular wave functions, work on the theory of electrons and positrons, the Oppenheimer–Phillips process in nuclear fusion, and the first prediction of quantum tunneling. With his students he also made important contributions to the modern theory of neutron stars and black holes, as well as to quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and the interactions of cosmic rays. As a teacher and promoter of science, he is remembered as a founding father of the American school of theoretical physics that gained world prominence in the 1930s. After World War II, he became director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

note

^ The meaning of the 'J' in J. Robert Oppenheimer has been a source of confusion. Historians Alice Kimball Smith and Charles Weiner sum up the general historical opinion in their volume Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and recollections, on page 1: "Whether the 'J' in Robert's name stood for Julius or, as Robert himself once said, 'for nothing' may never be fully resolved. His brother Frank surmised that the 'J' was symbolic, a gesture in the direction of naming the eldest son after the father but at the same time a signal that his parents did not want Robert to be a 'junior.'" It is not Jewish custom to name children after living relatives. In Peter Goodchild's J. Robert Oppenheimer: Shatterer of Worlds, it is said that Robert's father, Julius, added the empty initial to give Robert's name additional distinction, but Goodchild's book has no footnotes, so the source of this assertion is unclear. Robert's claim that the 'J' stood "for nothing" is taken from an autobiographical interview conducted by Thomas S. Kuhn on November 18, 1963, which currently resides in the Archive for the History of Quantum Physics. On the other hand, Oppenheimer's birth certificate reads "Julius Robert Oppenheimer".

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"Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Along with Enrico Fermi, he is often called the "father of the atomic bomb" for his role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II project that developed the first nuclear weapons.

The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico; Oppenheimer remarked later that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."

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Links:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Robert_Oppenheimer

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=2216

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Oppenheimer.html

http://www.nndb.com/people/808/000047667/

http://www.doctor-atomic.com/

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J. Robert Oppenheimer's Timeline

1904
April 22, 1904
New York, NY, United States
1944
December 7, 1944
Age 40
Los Alamos, NM, United States
1967
February 18, 1967
Age 62
Princeton, NJ, United States
????
Cremated, (ashes scattered over the Virgin Islands)