Historical records matching Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
<private> Schlossberg (Kennedy)child
<private> Radziwell (Bouvier)sibling
About Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
Married in St. Mary's Church, Newport, R.I. The reception was held at the Hammersmith Farm in a Victorian house. Wedding night at Waldorf- Astoria, N.Y.C., N.Y., and then honeymooned in Acapulco, Mexico, in a pink stone villa on the Pacific Ocean, lent to them by the President of Mexico.
N.B. Her sister, Lee Radziwill was born Caroline Lee Bouvier.
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis (July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and served as First Lady during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. She was later married to Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis from 1968 until his death in 1975. In later years she had a successful career as a book editor. She is remembered for her style and elegance.
1 Early life
2 Education, introduction to society, and first job
3 Kennedy marriage and family
4 Candidate's wife
5 First Lady of the United States
5.1 Celebrity status
5.2 Social success
5.3 White House restoration
5.4 Foreign trips
5.5 Death of an infant son
6 Assassination and funeral of John F. Kennedy
7 Life following the assassination
8 Onassis marriage
9 Later years
9.1 Life in New York
11 Fashion icon
12 Legacy, memorials, and honors
13 Cultural depictions
13.3 Plays and theatre works
14 Further reading
16 External links
Born Jacqueline Lee Bouvier in Southampton, New York, she was the daughter of John Vernou Bouvier III, a Wall Street stock broker, and his wife Janet Norton Lee. She had a younger sister, Caroline Lee Bouvier, born in 1933, and later known as Lee Radziwill.
Jacqueline Bouvier was of mostly Irish, Scottish, and English descent; her French paternal ancestry is distant, with her last French ancestor being Michel Bouvier, a Philadelphia-based cabinetmaker, merchant and real estate speculator who was her great-great–grandfather and a contemporary of Joseph Bonaparte and Stephen Girard. Both sides of her family made exaggerations about their heritage, with the Bouviers claiming descent from French nobility and the Lees declaring they were part of the "Virginia Lees."
She spent her early years between New York City and East Hampton, New York at the Bouvier family estate "Lasata". At a very early age she became an accomplished equestrienne, a sport that would remain a lifelong passion. As a child, she also enjoyed drawing, reading and lacrosse. This idyllic childhood came to an end when her parents divorced in 1940.
Her father never remarried, but her mother married second husband Standard Oil heir Hugh D. Auchincloss, Jr. in 1942, and they had two children, Janet and James Auchincloss. Jacqueline and her sister Lee then lived with their mother's new family, dividing their time at their stepfather's two vast estates, "Merrywood", in McLean, Virginia, and "Hammersmith Farm," in Newport, Rhode Island. They remained close to their father, and visited him often in New York City, where he lived.
Education, introduction to society, and first job
She was educated at selective schools such as the Holton-Arms School in Bethesda, Maryland (1942–1944) and Miss Porter's School in Farmington, Connecticut (1944–1947). When she made her society debut in 1947, Hearst columnist Cholly Knickerbocker dubbed Jacqueline "Debutante of the Year".
She spent her first two years of college at Vassar in Poughkeepsie, New York, and spent her junior year (1949–1950) in France at the University of Grenoble and the Sorbonne in a program through Smith College. Upon returning home to the United States, she transferred to The George Washington University in Washington, D.C., graduating in 1951 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French Literature. Her college graduation coincided with younger sister Lee's graduation from high school, and the two sisters spent the summer of 1951 on a trip through Europe. This trip was the subject of Kennedy's only autobiographical book, One Special Summer, which is also the only one of her publications to feature her drawings.
On leave from college, she was hired as the "Inquiring Photographer" for The Washington Times-Herald where her name headed the column. Her job was to ask witty questions of people she met in Washington, D.C. The questions and amusing responses would then appear alongside the interviewee's photograph in the newspaper. She was hired at a weekly salary of $42.50, but later raised when she was promoted to "Inquiring Camera Girl".
During that period she was briefly engaged to a young stock broker, John Husted, but the engagement was called off after three months.
Kennedy marriage and family
Jacqueline Kennedy at Hammersmith Farm in Newport, Rhode Island on the day of her wedding in 1953.Jacqueline Bouvier and then-Senator John Kennedy were in the same social circle and often attended the same functions. It was at a dinner party organized by mutual friends, journalist Charles Bartlett and his wife Martha Buck Bartlett, that they were formally introduced in May 1952. Kennedy was then busy running for a seat at the United States Senate. They began dating sporadically and after he was elected senator in November of the same year, the relationship grew more serious and eventually led to a proposal. Their engagement was officially announced on June 25, 1953. 
They were married on September 12, 1953, at St. Mary's Church in Newport, Rhode Island. The wedding was performed by Archbishop Richard Cushing. The wedding was considered the social event of the season with an estimated 700 guests at the ceremony and 900 at the lavish reception that followed at Hammersmith Farm.
The wedding cake was created by Plourde's Bakery in Fall River, Massachusetts.
Her wedding dress was created by designer Ann Lowe of New York City. The dress is now housed in the Kennedy Library in Boston, Massachusetts.
Following a honeymoon in Acapulco, Mexico, the couple settled in McLean, Virginia. Behind all the glamour, however, not all was easy. Jacqueline found it hard to adjust to the demands of political life and the pressure put on her by the Kennedy family. Her husband had serious health issues, suffering from Addison's Disease, and from chronic and debilitating back pain from a wartime injury. He underwent two spinal surgeries which proved almost fatal due to complications. While he was recovering from the surgeries, Jacqueline encouraged him to write a book, Profiles in Courage, which is about several U.S. senators who risked their careers to fight for the things in which they believed. The book was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for biography in 1957.
Jacqueline suffered a miscarriage in 1955 and gave birth to a stillborn baby girl in 1956.
The Kennedys sold their estate, Hickory Hill to Robert and Ethel Kennedy and moved to a townhouse on N Street in Georgetown. Jacqueline successfully gave birth to a second daughter, Caroline, in 1957, and a son, John, in 1960, both via Caesarian section.
Name Birth Death Notes
Arabella Kennedy August 23, 1956 August 23, 1956 Stillborn daughter
Caroline Bouvier Kennedy November 27, 1957 Married to Edwin Schlossberg; has two daughters and a son. She is the last surviving child of Jacqueline and John F. Kennedy.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. November 25, 1960 July 16, 1999 Married to Carolyn Bessette. Both Kennedy and his wife died in a plane crash, as did Lauren Bessette, Carolyn's sister, on July 16, 1999, off Martha's Vineyard in a Piper Saratoga II HP piloted by Kennedy.
Patrick Bouvier Kennedy August 7, 1963 August 9, 1963 Died from hyaline membrane disease at the age of two days, which is now more commonly called infant respiratory distress syndrome.
Jacqueline Kennedy campaigning alongside her husband in Appleton, Wisconsin, in March 1960On January 2, 1960, Kennedy announced his candidacy for President of the United States, and began campaigning around the country. Mrs. Kennedy took an active role in the campaign, even speaking to grocery store shoppers over the PA system in one town. In Appleton, Wisconsin, she signed autographs for junior high school students, commenting that her signature would be more legible than John's. Campaigning in West Virginia hit her the hardest, as she had not witnessed that degree of poverty before. Later, in the White House, when the need for new glassware came up, Jackie suggested that Morgantown Glassware from the impoverished state supply it.
Shortly after Kennedy announced his presidential run, Jacqueline learned that she was pregnant and, due to previous problem pregnancies, her doctor instructed her to stay at home. From Georgetown, Jacqueline helped her husband by answering thousands of campaign letters, taping TV commercials, giving interviews both televised and printed and by writing a weekly newspaper column, Campaign Wife, which was distributed across the country. She was assisted by her personal secretary, Mary Barelli Gallagher.
First Lady of the United States
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2009)
Mrs. Kennedy, the president, André Malraux, Marie-Madeleine Lioux Malraux, Lyndon B. Johnson and Lady Bird Johnson having just descended White House Grand Staircase on their way to a dinner with the French cultural minister, April 1962. Mrs. Kennedy wears a gown designed by Oleg Cassini.In the general election on November 8, 1960, Kennedy narrowly beat Republican Richard Nixon in the 1960 presidential election. Two weeks later, Jacqueline gave birth to son John Jr. by Caesarean delivery. When Kennedy was sworn in as president on January 20, 1961, Jacqueline became, at age 31, one of the youngest First Ladies in history, just behind Frances Folsom Cleveland and Julia Tyler.
Mrs. Kennedy ranks among the most popular of First Ladies. She was a stark contrast from her recent predecessors, who were all much older. She was not only young and attractive, but intelligent and cultivated, and possessed an innate sense of style and elegance. Though she was sometimes criticized for her aloofness, expensive tastes, and European ways, the American public quickly took to her, and made her its idol.
Mary Barelli Gallagher was Mrs. Kennedy's personal secretary for 11 years until 1964. She wrote a book, a personal memoir of her years with Jackie Kennedy, "My life with Jacqueline Kennedy." Mary Barelli Gallagher shows a more everyday mother/wife side of Mrs. Kennedy. Gallagher drew a bath for the President himself, sat John Jr. as a toddler down in her own kitchen with Jackie during a visit and gave him a crust of Italian bread to chew on. She procured Jackie's cigarettes—Newports, a menthol brand, that incidentally shared a name with the city of the Kennedy-Bouvier wedding. Gallagher regreted her loss of contact with Jackie Kennedy after all their years together. But Jackie had to move on, shedding her past and those in it to enter new chapters of her life as she created them.
Like any First Lady, she was forced into the public spotlight, with everything in her life under scrutiny. While she did not mind giving interviews or being photographed, she was worried about the effect such treatment might have on her children. Mrs. Kennedy was determined to protect them from the press and give them a normal childhood.
Mrs. Kennedy planned numerous social events that brought the First Couple into the nation's cultural spotlight. She invited artists, writers, scientists, poets, and musicians to mingle with politicians, diplomats, and statesmen. She spoke fluent French. Her appreciation for art, music, and culture marked a new chapter in American history. Jackie's skill at entertaining gave White House events the reputation of being magical.
The President and Mrs. Kennedy at La Morita, Venezuela, on December 16, 1961For instance, when she orchestrated a dinner at Mount Vernon in honor of Pakistan's President Ayub Khan, whom President Kennedy wanted to honor for his role in supporting the U.S. in a recent crisis, she banished large U-shaped dining tables, replacing them with smaller round tables that seated eight. Her social graces were legendary, as can be noted from the way she communicated with Charles De Gaulle in Paris and Nikita Khruschev in Vienna. The President's summit in Vienna turned out to be a disaster, but the Premier's enjoyment of Mrs. Kennedy's company was subsequently deemed one of the few positive outcomes. When Soviet Premier Khrushchev was asked to shake President Kennedy's hand for a photo, the Communist leader said, "I'd like to shake her hand first."
Due in part to her French ancestry and her educational background, Jacqueline had always felt a bond with France. This was a love that would later be reflected in many aspects of her life, such as the menus she chose for White House state dinners and her taste in clothing and love of ballet. She chose French interior designer Stéphane Boudin of Maison Jansen to consult on the White House Restoration and decoration of the private family quarters on the second and third floors of the Executive Mansion. Mrs. Kennedy recruited a Vietnamese-born French chef to become White House chef.
White House restoration
The White House Blue Room as redecorated by Stéphane Boudin in 1962. Boudin chose the period of the Madison administration, returning much of the original French Empire style furniture.The restoration of the White House was Jacqueline Kennedy's first major project. She was dismayed during her pre-inauguration tour of the White House to find little of historic significance in the house. The rooms were furnished with undistinguished pieces that she felt lacked a sense of history. Her first efforts, begun her first day in residence (with the help of society decorator Sister Parish), were to make the family quarters attractive and suitable for family life and included the addition of a kitchen on the family floor and rooms for her children. Upon almost immediately exhausting the funds appropriated for this effort, she established a fine arts committee to oversee and fund the restoration process; she also asked early American furniture expert Henry du Pont to consult.
Her skillful management of this project was hardly noted at the time, except in terms of gossipy shock at repeated repainting of a room, or the high cost of the antique Zuber wallpaper panels installed in the family dining room ($12,000 in donated funds), but later accounts have noted that she managed the conflicting agendas of Parish, du Pont, and Boudin with seamless success; she initiated publication of the first White House guidebook, whose sales further funded the restoration; she initiated a Congressional bill establishing that White House furnishings would be the property of the Smithsonian Institution, rather than available to departing ex-presidents to claim as their own; and she wrote personal requests to those who owned pieces of historical interest that might be donated to the White House.
On February 14, 1962, Mrs. Kennedy took American television viewers on a tour of the White House with Charles Collingwood of CBS. In the tour she said, "I just feel that everything in the White House should be the best—the entertainment that's given here. If it's an American company you can help, I like to do that. If not—just as long as it's the best." Working with Rachel Lambert Mellon, Mrs. Kennedy oversaw redesign and replanting of the White House Rose Garden and the East Garden, which was renamed the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden after her husband's assassination. Her efforts on behalf of restoration and preservation at the White House left a lasting legacy in the form of the White House Historical Association, the Committee for the Preservation of the White House which was based upon her White House Furnishings Committee, a permanent Curator of the White House, the White House Endowment Trust, and the White House Acquisition Trust.
Broadcasting of the White House restoration greatly helped the Kennedy administration. The United States sought international support during the Cold War, which it achieved by affecting public opinion. Mrs. Kennedy’s celebrity and high profile status made viewing the tour of the White house very desirable. The tour was taped and distributed to 106 countries since there was a great demand from the elite as well as people in power to see the film. In 1962 at the 14th Annual Emmy Awards (NBC, May 22), Bob Newhart emceed from the Hollywood Palladium; Johnny Carson from the New York Astor Hotel; and NBC newsman David Brinkley hosted at the Sheraton Park Hotel in Washington D.C. and took the spotlight as a special Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Trustees Award was given to Jacqueline Kennedy for her CBS-TV tour of the White House. Lady Bird Johnson accepted for the camera-shy First Lady. The actual Emmy statuette is on display in the Kennedy Library located near Boston, Massachusetts. Focus and admiration for Jacqueline Kennedy took negative attention away from her husband. By attracting worldwide public attention, the First Lady gained allies for the White House and international support for the Kennedy administration and its Cold War policies.
Before the Kennedys visited France, a television special was shot in French with Mrs. Kennedy on the White House lawn. When the Kennedys visited France, she'd already won the hearts of the French people, impressing the French public with her ability to speak French. At the conclusion of the visit, Time magazine seemed delighted with the First Lady and noted, "There was also that fellow who came with her." Even President Kennedy joked, "I am the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris — and I have enjoyed it!"
Pakistani President Ayub Khan and Jacqueline Kennedy with Sardar.At the urging of John Kenneth Galbraith, President Kennedy's ambassador to India, Mrs. Kennedy undertook a tour of India and Pakistan, taking her sister Lee Radziwill along with her, which was amply documented in photojournalism of the time as well as in Galbraith's journals and memoirs. At the time, Ambassador Galbraith noted a considerable disjunction between Mrs Kennedy's widely-noted concern with clothes and other frivolity and, on personal acquaintance, her considerable intellect.
While in Karachi she found some time to take a ride on a camel with her sister. In Lahore, Pakistani President Ayub Khan presented Mrs. Kennedy with a much-photographed horse, Sardar (the Urdu term meaning ‘leader’). Subsequently this gift was widely misattributed to the king of Saudi Arabia, including in the various recollections of the Kennedy White House years by President Kennedy's friend, journalist and editor Benjamin Bradlee. It has never become clear whether this general misattribution of the gift was carelessness or a deliberate effort to deflect attention from the USA's preference for Pakistan over India. While at a reception for herself at Shalimar Gardens, Mrs. Kennedy told guests "all my life I've dreamed of coming to the Shalimar Gardens. It's even lovelier than I'd dreamed. I only wish my husband could be with me." While in Lahore, she had a friendly chat with Iranian Empress Farah Pahlavi, whom many compared to Mrs. Kennedy.
Death of an infant son
Early in 1963, Jacqueline became pregnant again and curtailed her official duties. She spent most of the summer in the Kennedy family's Cape Cod compound at Hyannis Port, where she went into premature labor on August 7, 1963. She gave birth to a baby boy, named Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, via emergency Caesarian section at Otis Air Force Base, five and a half weeks early. Because his lungs were not fully developed, Patrick could not breathe and he was air-lifted to Boston Children's Hospital where he was placed in an oxygen-rich, pressurized room. He died of Hyaline Membrane disease (now known as Respiratory Distress Syndrome) on August 9, 1963.
Shortly after, Mrs. Kennedy received an invitation from her sister Lee to go on a Mediterranean cruise aboard Aristotle Onassis's luxury yacht. Despite concerns of the President's entourage over possible bad publicity it might bring, Jacqueline and her sister went on the cruise along with Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. and his wife. Upon her return, feeling reinvigorated, she made her first public appearance at the White House in the middle of November 1963 and decided to accompany her husband on an official pre re-election campaign visit to Texas.
Assassination and funeral of John F. Kennedy
Main article: John F. Kennedy assassination
John & Jacqueline Kennedy at Love Field in Dallas on the day of the assassinationOn November 21, 1963, the First Couple left the White House for a political trip to Texas, stopping in San Antonio, Houston, and Fort Worth that day. After a breakfast on November 22, President and Mrs. Kennedy flew from Carswell Air Force Base to Dallas's Love Field on Air Force One, accompanied by Texas Governor John Connally and his wife Nellie. A 9.5-mile (15.3 km) motorcade was to take them to the Trademart where the President was scheduled to speak at a lunch. Jackie was seated next to her husband in the limousine, with the Governor and his wife seated in front of them, while Vice President Johnson and his wife followed in another car in the motorcade.
The Presidential limousine before the assassination. Jacqueline is in the back seat to the President's left.After the motorcade turned the corner onto Elm Street in Dealey Plaza, Jackie heard what she thought to be a motorcycle backfiring, and did not realize that it was a gunshot until she heard Governor Connally scream. Within 8.4 seconds, two more shots had rung out, and Jackie had leaned in toward her husband. The final shot struck the President in the head, and she screamed out, "They've killed my husband; Jack Jack!" Jackie then climbed out of the back seat and crawled over the trunk of the car for reasons that are debated. Her Secret Service agent, Clint Hill, ran to the car and leapt onto it, directing Mrs. Kennedy back to her seat. The car rushed to Dallas's Parkland Hospital, Jackie talking to her husband and cradling his head in her arms along the way. When the limousine reached the hospital, Jackie initially refused to leave her husband, telling her Secret Service agent, who urged her to release the President from her arms, "you know he is dead". Only after his head was covered by agent Clint Hill's suit jacket did she relent and allow them to take her husband from her. Jackie ran alongside the stretcher that was transporting her husband into the hospital.
A few minutes into the President's treatment, Jackie, accompanied by the President's doctor, Admiral George Burkley, left her folding chair outside Trauma Room One and attempted to enter the operating room. Nurse Doris Nelson stopped her and attempted to bar the door to prevent Mrs. Kennedy from entering. Jackie persisted, and the President's doctor suggested that she take a sedative, which she refused. "I want to be there when he dies," she told Burkley. He eventually persuaded Nelson to grant her access to Trauma Room One, saying "It's her right, it's her prerogative".
Later, when the casket arrived, Jackie took her wedding ring off and slipped it onto the President's finger. She told aide Ken O'Donnell, "Now I have nothing left."
Jackie wearing her blood-stained pink Chanel suit while Johnson took oath of office as president.After his death she refused to remove her blood-stained clothing, and regretted having washed the blood off her face and hands. She continued to wear the infamous blood-stained pink suit as she stood next to Johnson on board the plane when he took the oath of office as President. She told Lady Bird Johnson, "I want them to see what they have done to Jack."
Jacqueline Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, John Jr., Caroline, and Peter Lawford depart the U.S. Capitol after a lying-in-state ceremony for John Fitzgerald Kennedy, November 24, 1963Jacqueline took an active role in planning the details of the state funeral for her husband, based on Lincoln's state funeral, including the riderless horse and Lincoln catafalque on which his coffin rested in the Capitol rotunda. She led the nation in mourning as the President lay in repose at the White House and then lay in state in the Capitol. The funeral service was held for the President at St. Matthew's Cathedral. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery and Jackie was the first to light the eternal flame at the grave site, which had been created at her request. Lady Jean Campbell reported back to The London Evening Standard: "Jacqueline Kennedy has given the American people… one thing they have always lacked: Majesty."
Following the assassination, she stepped back from official public view. She did, however, make a brief appearance in Washington to honor the Secret Service agent, Clint Hill, who had climbed aboard the limousine in Dallas to try to shield her and the President.
Life following the assassination
A week after the assassination, Mrs. Kennedy was interviewed in Hyannisport on November 29 by Theodore H. White of Life magazine. In that session, she compared the Kennedy years in the White House to King Arthur's mythical Camelot, commenting that the President often played the title song of Lerner and Loewe's musical recording before retiring to bed. She also quoted Queen Guinevere from the musical, trying to express how the loss felt. "Now he is a legend when he would have preferred to be a man."
Jackie Kennedy's Official White House PortraitThe steadiness and courage of Jacqueline Kennedy during the assassination and funeral won her admiration around the world. Following his death, Jackie and her children remained in their quarters in the White House for two weeks, preparing to vacate. Johnson made several phone calls that were recorded via Dictabelt from the Oval Office to Jackie in the residence; the two also shared several letters and notes back and forth through messengers after the assassination. A letter from Jackie to Johnson is displayed in the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum where she thanks him for his kindness in allowing her and the children to remain in the White House with the promise to vacate soon. In the first call on December 2, 1963, she told him that she knew how rare it was to have something in a President's handwriting and that she now had more in his handwriting than she did in Jack's. The President encouraged her to come and visit with him to spend time talking.
After spending the winter of 1964 in Averell Harriman's home in the Georgetown section of Washington, D.C., before purchasing her own home on another block of the same street, Jackie decided to purchase an apartment at 1040 Fifth Avenue in New York in the hope of having more privacy for her children. She sold her new Georgetown house and the home - Wexford - that had been built in Atoka, Virginia, where she and President Kennedy had intended to retire. She spent a year in mourning, making few public appearances, zealously guarding her privacy. During this time, her daughter Caroline told her school teacher that her mother cried frequently.
She perpetuated her husband's memory by visiting his grave site on important anniversaries and attending selected memorial dedications. These included the 1967 christening of the Navy aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) (decommissioned in 2007), in Newport News, Virginia, and a memorial in Hyannisport, Massachusetts. In May 1965, Mrs. Kennedy and Queen Elizabeth II jointly dedicated the United Kingdom's official memorial to President Kennedy at Runnymede, England. This memorial included several acres of soil given in perpetuity from the United Kingdom to the United States of America on the meadow where the Magna Carta had been signed by King John in 1215. She also visited Ireland in 1967 to officially open a special park, dedicated to the late President, located near New Ross, where her husband's ancestors came from. Shortly after this, in 1971 nude photos were taken by a paparazzo of Mrs. Kennedy sunbathing. These were published in the August 1975 issue of Hustler magazine after having been purchased by Larry Flynt. It lead to much embarrassment but became one of the best selling issues of the magazine for that year.
She oversaw plans for the establishment of the John F. Kennedy Library, which is the repository for official papers of the Kennedy Administration. Original plans to have the library situated in Cambridge, Massachusetts, near Harvard University, proved problematic for various reasons, so it is situated in Boston. The finished library, designed by I.M. Pei, includes a museum and was dedicated in Boston in 1979 by President Jimmy Carter, nearly 16 years after the assassination. The governments of many nations donated money to erect the library, in addition to corporate and private donations.
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2009)
During her widowhood, Jacqueline was romantically linked by the press to a few men, notably David Ormsby-Gore and Roswell Gilpatric, but nothing came out of it. So when the news of her marriage to Aristotle Onassis broke out, it came as a total shock to the world. Her motives for the marriage are open for debate, but beyond financial security, it is reasonable to believe that at that point in her life she desperately needed an escape from the Kennedys and the United States, as she came to fear for her life and that of her children after the assassination of her brother-in-law Robert F. Kennedy in June 1968.
The wedding took place on October 20, 1968, on Skorpios, Onassis's private island in the Ionian Sea, Greece. Jacqueline gave up Secret Service protection and her Franking Privilege, to which a widow of a president of the United States is entitled, after her marriage to Onassis.
For a time, the marriage brought her much adverse publicity and seemed to tarnish the image of the grieving presidential widow, and she became the target of paparazzi who were following her everywhere much to her displeasure and dismay. Despite it all, the marriage initially seemed successful enough, the couple dividing their time between New York City, Paris and Skorpios.
Then tragedy struck again, Onassis's only son Alexander died in a plane crash in January 1973. The once invincible Onassis was left a broken and disillusioned man and the marriage turned sour. His health began deteriorating rapidly and he died in Paris, on March 15, 1975. Her legacy was severely limited under Greek law, which limited how much a non-Greek surviving spouse could inherit. After two years of legal battle, Jacqueline eventually accepted from Christina Onassis, Onassis's daughter and sole heir, a settlement of $26,000,000, waiving all other claims to the Onassis estate.
Life in New York
Onassis's death in 1975 made Mrs. Onassis, then 46, a widow for the second time. Now that her children were older, she decided to find work that would be fulfilling to her. Since she had always enjoyed writing and literature, in 1975 Jacqueline accepted a job offer as an editor at Viking Press. But, in 1978, the President of Viking Press, Thomas H. Guinzburg, authorized the purchase of the Jeffrey Archer novel Shall We Tell the President?, which was set in a fictional future presidency of Edward M. Kennedy and described an assassination plot against him. Although Guinzburg cleared the book purchase and publication with Mrs. Onassis, upon the publication of a negative Sunday New York Times review which asserted that Mrs. Onassis held some blame for its publication, she abruptly resigned from Viking Press the next day. She then moved to Doubleday as an associate editor under an old friend, John Sargent, living in New York City, Martha's Vineyard and the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis, Massachusetts. From the mid 1970s until her death, her companion was Maurice Tempelsman, a Belgian-born industrialist and diamond merchant who was long separated from his wife.
She also continued to be the subject of much press attention, most notoriously involving the photographer Ron Galella. He followed her around and photographed her as she went about her day-to-day activities, obtaining candid, iconic photos of her. She ultimately obtained a restraining order against him and the situation brought attention to paparazzi-style photography.
Among the many books she edited was Larry Gonick's The Cartoon History of the Universe. He expressed his gratitude in the acknowledgments in Volume 2. Mrs. Onassis's continuing charisma is indicated by the delight the Canadian author Robertson Davies took in discovering that at a commencement exercise at an American university at which he was being honored, Jacqueline Kennedy was on hand, circulating among the honorees. On the other hand, her efforts on behalf of Doubleday to enlist Frank Sinatra, the Duchess of Windsor and Queen Elizabeth II as Doubleday authors were firmly rebuffed.
Former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis in 1986 during a visit from the President and First Lady, Ronald and Nancy ReaganJacqueline Onassis also appreciated the contributions of African-American writers to the American literary canon and encouraged Dorothy West, her neighbor on Martha's Vineyard and the last surviving member of the Harlem Renaissance, to complete The Wedding: a multi-generational story about race, class, wealth, and power in the United States. The novel received great literary acclaim when it was published by Doubleday in 1995 and Oprah Winfrey introduced the story in 1998 to millions of Americans via a television film of the same name starring Halle Berry. Dorothy West acknowledged Jacqueline Onassis's kind encouragement in the foreword.
She also worked to preserve and protect America’s cultural heritage. The notable results of her hard work include Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C, and Grand Central Terminal, New York's beloved historic railroad station. While she was First Lady, she helped to stop the destruction of historic homes in Lafayette Square, because she knew that these buildings were an important part of the nation’s capital and played an essential role in its history. Later, in New York City, she led a historic preservation campaign to save and renovate Grand Central Terminal from demolition. A plaque inside the terminal acknowledges her prominent role in its preservation. In the 1980s, she was a major figure in protests against a planned skyscraper at Columbus Circle which would have cast large shadows on Central Park, the project was cancelled, but a large twin towered skyscraper would later fill in that spot in 2003, the Time Warner Center.
From her apartment windows in New York City she had a splendid view of a glass enclosed wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art which displays the Temple of Dendur. This was a gift from Egypt to the United States in gratitude for the generosity of the Kennedy administration, who had been instrumental in saving several temples and objects of Egyptian antiquity that would otherwise have been flooded after the construction of the Aswan Dam.
In January 1994, Onassis was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a form of cancer. Her diagnosis was announced to the public in February. The family and doctors were initially optimistic, and she stopped smoking at the insistence of her daughter. Onassis continued her work with Doubleday, but curtailed her schedule. By April 1994, the cancer had spread, and she made her last trip home from New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center on May 18, 1994. A large crowd of well-wishers, tourists, and reporters gathered on the street outside her penthouse apartment at 1040 Fifth Avenue, and she died in her sleep at 10:15 pm on Thursday, May 19, at just 64. Her son said, in announcing her death to the world, "My mother died surrounded by her friends and her family and her books, and the people and the things that she loved. She did it in her own way, and on her own terms, and we all feel lucky for that."
Jacqueline Onassis's funeral was held on May 23 at Saint Ignatius Loyola Roman Catholic Church at Park Avenue and East 84th Street in Manhattan, which was the same church where she was baptized in 1929. At her funeral, her son, John, described three of her attributes as the love of words, the bonds of home and family, and her spirit of adventure. She was then buried next to President John F. Kennedy, and near their son Patrick and daughter Arabella at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. The New York Daily News ran an issue the next day saying, "Missing Her."
In her will, Onassis left her children an estate valued at $43.7 million by its executors.
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2008)
President Habib Bourguiba, his wife Moufida Bourguiba, President Kennedy and Jacqueline, in an Oleg Cassini "Nefertiti" dress, 1961.During her husband's presidency, Jacqueline Kennedy became a symbol of fashion for women all over the world. She retained French-born American fashion designer and Kennedy family friend Oleg Cassini in the fall of 1960 to create an original wardrobe for her as First Lady. From 1961 to late 1963, Cassini dressed Mrs. Kennedy in many of her most iconic ensembles, including her Inauguration Day fawn coat and Inaugural gala gown as well as many outfits for her visits to Europe, India and Pakistan. Mrs. Kennedy's clean suits, sleeveless A-line dresses and famous pillbox hats were an overnight success around the world and became known as the "Jackie" look. Although Cassini was her primary designer, Mrs. Kennedy also wore ensembles by European fashion legends such as Chanel, Givenchy, and Dior. More than any other First Lady her style was copied by commercial manufacturers and a large segment of young women.
In the years after the White House, her style changed dramatically. Gone were the modest "campaign wife" clothes. Wide-leg pantsuits, blue jeans, large lapel jackets, silk Hermes head scarves and large, round, dark sunglasses were her new look. She also experimented with different styles, often wearing a large amount of jewelry, hoop earrings with her hair pulled back, and gypsy skirts.
Legacy, memorials, and honors
Grave of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis at the Arlington National Cemetery.The companion book for a series of interviews between mythologist Joseph Campbell and Bill Moyers, The Power of Myth, was created under the direction of Onassis, prior to her death. The book's editor, Betty Sue Flowers, writes in the Editor's Note to The Power of Myth: "I am grateful… to Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis, the Doubleday editor, whose interest in the books of Joseph Campbell was the prime mover in the publication of this book." A year after her death in 1994, Moyers dedicated the companion book for his PBS series, The Language of Life to Onassis. The dedication read: "To Jacqueline Onassis. As you sail on to Ithaka." Ithaka was a reference to the C.P. Cavafy poem that Maurice Tempelsman read at her funeral.
In December 1999, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis was among 18 included in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th Century, from a poll conducted of the American people.
Like her assassinated husband, Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis's legacy has been memorialized in various aspects of American and, to a later extent, non-American culture. They include:
A high school named Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis High School for International Careers, was dedicated by New York City in 1995, the first high school named in her honor. It is located at 120 West 46th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues, and was formerly the High School for the Performing Arts.
Joggers run around this reservoir in the northern portion of New York's Central ParkCentral Park's main reservoir was renamed in her honor as the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir.
On the campus of her alma mater, The George Washington University, a residence hall located on the southeast corner of I and 23rd streets NW in Washington, D.C. was renamed Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis Hall.
Near the White House, a garden was renamed the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden in her honor, shortly after the assassination of her husband.
In 2007, her name, along with her assassinated husband's, is being included on the list onboard the Japanese Kaguya mission to the moon launched on September 14, as part of The Planetary Society's "Wish Upon The Moon" campaign. In addition, they are included on the list onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission.
There is an award and a school at American Ballet Theatre named after her, in honor of her childhood study of ballet.
wife of the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and served as First Lady during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. She was later married to Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis from 1968 until his death in 1975. In later years she had a successful career as a book editor. She is remembered for her style and elegance.
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis (July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and served as First Lady during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. She was later married to Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis from 1968 until his death in 1975. In later years she had a successful career as a book editor. She is remembered for her style and elegance.
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis (July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and served as First Lady of the United States during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. Five years later she married Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis; they remained married until his death in 1975. For the final two decades of her life, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis had a successful career as a book editor. She is remembered for her contributions to the arts and preservation of historic architecture, her style, elegance, and grace. A fashion icon, her famous pink Chanel suit has become a symbol of her husband's assassination and one of the lasting images of the 1960s.
Jacqueline Lee "Jackie" Kennedy Onassis (July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and First Lady of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
Bouvier was the elder daughter of Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou Bouvier III and socialite Janet Lee Bouvier. In 1951, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature from George Washington University and went on to work for the Washington Times-Herald as an inquiring photographer.
In 1952, Bouvier met Congressman John F. Kennedy at a dinner party. In November of that year, he was elected to the United States Senate, and the couple married in 1953. They had four children, two of whom died in infancy. As First Lady, she aided her husband's administration with her presence in social events and with her highly publicized restoration of the White House. On November 22, 1963, she was riding with him in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas, when he was assassinated. She and her children withdrew from public view after his funeral, and in 1968 she married Aristotle Onassis.
Following her second husband's death in 1975, she had a career as a book editor for the final two decades of her life. She is remembered for her contributions to the arts and preservation of historic architecture, as well as for her style, elegance, and grace. She was a fashion icon; her famous ensemble of pink Chanel suit and matching pillbox hat has become a symbol of her husband's assassination and one of the most iconic images of the 1960s.She ranks as one of the most popular First Ladies and in 1999 was named on Gallup's list of Most Admired Men and Women in 20th century America.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis's Timeline
July 28, 1929
East Hampton, Suffolk County, New York, United States
Manhattan, New York, New York
August 23, 1956
Newport, Newport, Rhode Island, United States
November 27, 1957
New York, New York, United States
November 25, 1960
August 7, 1963
Falmouth, Barnstable, Massachusetts, United States
May 19, 1994
Manhattan, New York County, New York, United States