James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, Regent of Scotland
|Also Known As:||"1st Earl of /Moray/", "James /Stewart/", "1st Earl of Moray", "Earl of Moray"|
|Birthplace:||Edinburgh, Midlothian, , Scotland|
|Death:||Died in Linlithgow, West Lothian, , Scotland|
|Cause of death:||Assasination|
|Place of Burial:||St. Giles|
Son of James V, King of Scots and Margaret Erskine
|Occupation:||Regent of Scotland|
|Managed by:||Private User|
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James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray
James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. 1531 – 23 January 1570) a member of the House of Stewart as the illegitimate son of King James V, was Regent of Scotland for his half-nephew, the infant King James VI of Scotland, from 1567 until his assassination in 1570. Until 1562 he was known as Lord James, and his title was Lord of Abernethy.
Moray was born in about 1531, the most notable of the many illegitimate children of King James V of Scotland. His mother was the King's favourite mistress, Lady Margaret Erskine, daughter of John Erskine, 5th Lord Erskine, and wife of Sir Robert Douglas of Lochleven. On 31 August 1536 he had a charter of the lands of Tantallon and others. James was appointed Prior of St Andrews, Fife, in his youth in 1538. This position supplied his income. As early as May 1553, the imperial ambassador to England, Jean Scheyfve, heard that Mary of Guise planned to make him Regent of Scotland in place of James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault.
On 5 August 1557, Moray, his half-brother Lord Robert, and Lord Home led a raiding party from Edinburgh towards Ford Castle in Northumbria and burnt houses at Fenton before retreating on the approach of an English force led by Henry Percy. James attended the wedding of his legitimate half-sister, Mary, Queen of Scots, in Paris. To fund this trip his mother obtained credit from Timothy Cagnioli, an Italian banker in Edinburgh.
James became a supporter of the Scottish Reformation. At Perth in June 1559 he plucked down the images in various churches. An English commentator praised James for his virtue, manhood, valour and stoutness as a leader of the Protestant Lords of the Congregation.
Despite their religious differences, Moray became the chief advisor to his sister, Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1561 after her return from France. She was the only surviving child of his father's marriage to Mary of Guise. Although James disturbed her priests celebrating mass at Holyroodhouse in September 1561, she made him Earl of Moray and Earl of Mar the following year. With the earldom came Darnaway Castle with its medieval hall, notable even then as "verie fayer and large builded." Moray also had a smaller house called Pitlethie near Leuchars in Fife, which his father had used.
In October 1562, he defeated a rebellion by George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly, at the Battle of Corrichie near Aberdeen. Moray opposed the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, to Lord Darnley in 1565, and he embarked upon the unsuccessful Chaseabout Raid, together with the Earl of Argyll and Clan Hamilton. He was subsequently declared an outlaw and took refuge in England. Returning to Scotland after the murder of David Rizzio, he was pardoned by the Queen. He contrived, however, to be away at the time of Darnley's assassination, and avoided the tangles of the marriage with Bothwell by going to France.
Mary abdicated at Loch Leven Castle on 24 July 1567. Moray returned to Edinburgh from France on 11 August 1567, escorted from Berwick-upon-Tweed by James Melville of Halhill, with a French ambassador, De Lignerolles. William Cecil, the English secretary of State had arranged his transport from Dieppe in an English ship. He was appointed Regent of Scotland on 22 August.
The appointment was confirmed by Parliament in December. When Mary escaped from Loch Leven on 2 May 1568 the Duke of Chatelherault and other nobles rallied to her standard, but Moray gathered his allies and defeated her forces at the Battle of Langside, near Glasgow on 13 May 1568. Mary was compelled to flee to England. For this and the subsequent management of the kingdom he secured both civil and ecclesiastical peace, and earned the title of "The Gude Regent".
In September 1568, Moray chose commissioners and went to York to discuss a treaty with England. During this conference he produced the casket letters which were supposed to incriminate Queen Mary, and justify his rule in Scotland. It was later said that a plan to assassinate him at North Allerton on his way back had been called off.
Scotland was now in a state of civil war. Moray moved against the supporters of Queen Mary in their south-west homelands with a military expedition in June 1568 called the 'Raid of Dumfries' or 'Raid of Hoddom.' The Regent's army and the royal artillery was taken to Biggar, where his allies were commanded to muster on 10 June, and on to Dumfries. The army was protected by a scouting party led by Alexander Hume of Manderston, the vanguard was commanded by the Earl of Morton and Lord Hume. Behind was the 'carriage', the artillery train, followed by Moray himself. The Laird of Cessford followed behind, and the army was flanked by the scouting parties of the Lairds of Merse and Buccleuch.
Along the way Moray captured houses belonging to supporters of Queen Mary, including Lord Fleming's Boghall, Skirling, Crawford, Sanquhar, Kenmuir, and Hoddom where the cannon were deployed, and Annan where he rendezvoused with Lord Scrope the Captain of Carlisle Castle to discuss border matters. Scrope estimated the army to number 6,000 men, and returned to Carlisle where he saw Queen Mary's servants play football on 14 June. Moray then took Lochmaben Castle, which the Laird of Drumlanrig was left to hold, and then captured Lochwood and Lochhouse before returning to Edinburgh via Peebles. At Dumfries, a number of Lord Maxwell's supporters surrendered. Moray was responsible for the destruction of Rutherglen castle, which he burned to the ground in 1569 in retribution against the Hamiltons for having supported Mary at the Battle of Langside.
In June 1569 Moray went north to Brechin where he accepted hostages sent by the Earl of Huntley, then at Dunnotar Castle he proclaimed that he had, "reparit (arrived) in proper person (as Regent) to thir north partis of firm purpose and deliberation to reduce sic as hes neglectit their duty in time bypast ..., intending to use lenitie (leniency) and moderation."
At Aberdeen he held talks with Huntly himself. At Inverness, on 4 June 1569, Moray met the Highland and Island chiefs with the Earls of Caithness and Sutherland and Lord Lovat . His secretary, John Wood, said "such a power had seldom been seen there," Moray wrote that "the journey is to put down troubles in the north."
On 8 February 1561/2 at Holyrood, Moray married Agnes Keith, daughter of William Keith, 4th Earl Marischal. The marriage produced three daughters:
- Elizabeth Stuart, 2nd Countess of Moray (? - 18 November 1591), married between 23 January 1580 and 1581 James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray
- Lady Annabel Stuart (? - before 1572)
- Lady Margaret Stuart (8 Apr 1569 - 1586), contract for the marriage signed on 27 June 1584 with Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll, without issue.
On Thursday 19 January 1570 Moray was at Stirling Castle where he had invited the English diplomat Sir Henry Gate, Marshal of Berwick, and the soldier Sir William Drury for dinner in the Great Hall. Later in his bedchamber he told the English visitors he would meet with them and certain Scottish nobles at Edinburgh on Monday or Tuesday to discuss the rendition of English rebels. Moray was troubled by the problem of Dumbarton Castle, which was held against him by supporters of Mary, Queen of Scots. On 21 January, he sent letters to summon Morton, Lindsay and Home to the meeting in Edinburgh.
Moray was assassinated in Linlithgow on 23 January 1570 by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, a supporter of Mary. As Moray was passing in a cavalcade in the main street below, Hamilton fatally wounded him with a carbine shot from a window of his uncle Archbishop Hamilton's house. The belief that a second shot killed Lady Mondegreen, who was in the street, watching the cavalcade is an urban myth. It was the first recorded assassination by a firearm.
The Regent's body was shipped to Leith then taken to Holyrood Abbey. Moray was buried on 14 February 1570 in St. Anthony's aisle at St. Giles, Edinburgh. Seven earls and lords carried his body; William Kirkcaldy of Grange held his standard, and John Knox preached at the funeral. Knox's own prohibition of funeral sermons (on the grounds that they glorified the deceased and displayed distinctions between rich and poor) was waived for the occasion. Moray's tomb was carved by John Roytell and Murdoch Walker, with a brass engraved by James Gray. His wife, Agnes Keith, was buried inside his tomb when she died in 1588. Moray was succeeded by his eldest daughter and heir, Elizabeth Stewart, 2nd Countess of Moray, whose husband, James Stewart of Doune acquired the earldom on their marriage.
Notable media depictions of Moray include Patrick McGoohan's portrayal of James Stewart (pre-Regency) in the 1971 film Mary, Queen of Scots. He also features in Sir Walter Scott's 1820 novel The Monastery.
- James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, Earl of Mar1,2,3
- M, #37686, b. circa 1532, d. 23 January 1570
- Father James V Stewart, King of Scotland2,3 b. 10 Apr 1512, d. 14 Dec 1542
- Mother Margaret Erskine2,3 d. 5 May 1572
- James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, Earl of Mar was born circa 1532; Age 6 in 1538.2,3 He married Agnes Keith, daughter of William Keith, 4th Earl Marischal and Margaret Keith, on 10 February 1562 at St. Giles, Edinburgh, Lothian, Scotland; They had 3 daughters (Elizabeth, wife of James Stewart, Earl of Moray; Annabel; & Margaret, wife of Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll).4,2,3 James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, Earl of Mar died on 23 January 1570 at Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland; Assassinated; buried at St. Giles, Edinburgh.5,2,3
- Family Agnes Keith d. 16 Jul 1588
- Elizabeth Stewart+ d. 18 Nov 1591
- Margaret Stewart6,7 b. bt 21 Jan 1570 - 18 Apr 1570, d. 3 Aug 1586
- [S11510] Unknown author, The Complete Peerage, by Cokayne, Vol. IX, p. 182-183.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 599-600.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 678.
- [S11563] The Scots Peerage, Vol. I, edited by Sir James Balfour Paul, p. 345.
- [S11585] The Scots Peerage, Vol. VI, edited by Sir James Balfour Paul, p. 316.
- [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. V, p. 97.
- [S11565] The Scots Peerage, Vol. III, edited by Sir James Balfour Paul, p. 576.
- From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p1255.htm#i37686
- James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray1
- M, #108329, b. 1531, d. 20 January 1569/70
- Last Edited=7 Oct 2012
- Consanguinity Index=0.09%
- James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray was born illegitimately in 1531.1 He was the son of James V Stewart, King of Scotland and Margaret Erskine.1 He married Lady Anne Keith, daughter of William Keith, 3rd Earl Marischal and Margaret Keith, on 8 February 1561/62.4 He died on 20 January 1569/70 at Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland, shot by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh.5 He was buried at St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.6
- On 31 August 1536 he had a charter of the lands of Tantallon and others.5 He was the Prior of St. Andrews and Pittenweem in 1538 at St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland.5 He was educated at St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland.6 On 7 February 1550/51 he was legitimated.6 He was Prior of Mâcon in France in 1555, with papal dispensation to hold three beneficies.6 He held the office of Ambassador to France in 1558, jointly.6 He was chief advisor to his half sister, Queen Mary of Scots.6 In 1562 he resigned the Earldom of Mar in favour of his uncle.7 He was created 1st Lord Abernethy [Scotland] on 30 January 1561/62.7 He was created 1st Earl of Moray [Scotland] on 30 January 1561/62.1,7 He was created 1st Earl of Mar [Scotland] on 7 February 1561/62.1,7 He was created 1st Lord Strathdearn [Scotland] in 1563.6 In 1566 he returned to Scotland after consenting to Rizzio's murder.6 He fought in the Battle of Corrichie, where he commanded Mary Queen of Scots forces to victory.6 In 1565/66 he was exiled for his oppostion to Mary Queen of Scots marriage to Darnley.6 In 1567 he withdrew to France before before the Queen's marriage to the Earl of Bothwell.6 In 1567 he was granted a new charter of the Lordship of Strathdearn with special remainder to the heirs general.6 He held the office of Regent of Scotland between 22 August 1567 and 1570.5
- Children of James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray and Lady Anne Keith
- Elizabeth Stewart, Countess of Moray+6 d. 18 Nov 1591
- Lady Annabel Stewart6 d. c Nov 1572
- Lady Margaret Stewart7 d. 1586
- [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 242. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
- [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
- [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
- [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume IX, page 183. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
- [S323] Sir James Balfour Paul, The Scots Peerage: founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's The Peerage of Scotland (Edinburgh, Scotland: David Douglas, 1904), volume I, page 23. Hereinafter cited as The Scots Peerage.
- [S37] BP2003 volume 2, page 2769. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
- [S37] BP2003. [S37]
- From: http://thepeerage.com/p10833.htm#i108329
- Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 54
- Stewart, James (1531?-1570) by Thomas Finlayson Henderson
- STEWART, Lord JAMES, Earl of Mar, and afterwards Earl of Moray (1531?–1570), regent of Scotland (often called by English historians the ‘Regent Murray’), was natural son of James V of Scotland by Lady Margaret Erskine—younger daughter of John Erskine, fifth earl of Mar of that name, and afterwards married to Sir Robert Douglas of Lochleven [see under James V]. Queen Mary Stuart was his half-sister. He is in the peerages and other books usually stated to have been born in 1533 or 1534, but in a papal dispensation of 1534 he is stated to be in his third year (Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. p. 670). On 20 Oct. 1534 he was designated heir to his elder natural brother in the lands of Douglas, which were then conferred on his brother by the king (Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 1513–46, No. 1425); and on 31 Aug. 1536 he himself received a grant of the lands and famous stronghold of Tantallon, Haddingtonshire (ib. No. 1620). In 1538 he obtained the priory of St. Andrews, and he was also prior of Mâcon in France. In 1541 he entered the university of St. Andrews, and he remained at the university until 1544, but there is no evidence that he graduated. He accompanied the young Princess Mary to France in 1548 (Lindsay of Pitscottie's Chronicle, ed. 1814, p. 506; Lord Herries, Memoirs, p. 23). Chalmers (ii. 277) quotes the terms of his pass, 9 July 1548, which gave him license to go to France ‘to the sculis and to study, and to do other his lawful business.’ He had, however, returned, according to Lord Herries, ‘but newly’ (Memoirs, p. 24) by September 1549, when he collected the levies of Fife, and repelled a strong force of English raiders under Lord Clinton, driving them to their ships, with a loss of six hundred killed and wounded and one hundred prisoners (ib.) In October of the same year he sat as prior of St. Andrews in the provincial council held at Edinburgh (Wilkins, Concilia, iv. 46). On 16 Jan. 1549–50 he was contracted in marriage to Christian, countess of Buchan, infant daughter of the master of Buchan, but the contract was never fulfilled. On 6 Sept. 1550 he had a license to pass to France for ‘dressing some affairs of the queen’ (Chalmers, iii. 279), and on 7 Feb. 1550–1 he obtained from the queen of Scots letters of legitimation (Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 1546–80, No. 565). In 1552 he again visited France, going by way of England (Chalmers, ii. 280), and in the register of the English privy council for 1550 and 1552 are entries of sums of money paid to James Stewart, among other Scots, on four separate occasions. On this account it has been inferred that while in France he acted as a spy in the interests of England; but there is no proof that the James Stewart referred to was Lord James, nor, if there were, is it known that he was paid as a spy. But without doubt Lord James at a comparatively early period was a sympathiser with the reformed doctrines, and therefore inclined to the English alliance. He is included by Knox among the persons of rank who after Knox's return to Scotland in 1555 resorted to his teaching at the house of the laird of Dun (Works, i. 250), and his resorting thither implied previous dissatisfaction with the old doctrines. Knox afterwards returned to Geneva, but in March 1556–7 Lord James, with four others, signed a letter inviting him to return to Scotland (ib. p. 268).
- .... etc.
- .... That Elizabeth would have agreed to a bona fide arrangement of this kind is unlikely, but the negotiations were suddenly cut short by the assassination of Moray at Linlithgow by James Hamilton (fl. 1566–1580) [q. v.] of Bothwellhaugh, on 21 Jan. 1569–70. His body was removed to the abbey of Holyrood, and on 14 Feb. was carried thence to St. Giles', where it was buried in the south aisle, Knox, according to Calderwood, making a sermon in which ‘he moved three thousand persons to shed tears for the loss of such a good and godly governor.’ The following Latin epitaph by George Buchanan was engraven in brass and set above his tomb: ‘Jacobo Stewarto, Moraviæ comiti, Scotiæ proregi, viro ætatis suæ longe optimo, ab inimicis, omnis memoriæ deterrimis, ex insidiis extincto, ceu patri communi, patria mœrens posuit.’
- Moray by his own party was canonised as the ‘good regent;’ but the epithet ‘good’ can only be allowed of him in its strict puritanic sense; his goodness was essentially that of a cold temperament. His house, says Calderwood, was ‘like a sanctuary;’ his solemnity was indeed too preternatural to be wholesome even if it were wholly sincere. And if strictly good and honourable in his private relations, he allowed himself a very wide latitude in politics; while it is certain that here he was even less generous than he was just. No doubt he professed, and probably believed, that he was influenced by the highest possible motives, but these for the most part harmonised with his own advancement; and to suppose that one of his overmastering temperament was destitute of personal ambition would be absurd. Still his task was one of supreme difficulty, and his opponents were at least as unscrupulous as himself. Judged by the political standards of his time, he cannot be charged with conduct that was exceptionally unprincipled, and his career was suddenly cut short before his abilities and aims as a ruler could be so tested as to enable us to pronounce a full and decisive opinion on his character and motives.
- By his wife, Agnes Keith, Moray had two daughters: Elizabeth, married in 1580 to James Stewart or Stuart, afterwards earl of Moray (d. 1592) [q. v.], son of James, first lord Doune; and Margaret, married to Francis, earl of Errol. Moray's widow married, as her second husband, Colin Campbell, sixth earl of Argyll, whom she predeceased in July 1583.
- [In addition to the authorities quoted in the text, reference may be made to the bibliography appended to Mary Queen of Scots.]
- From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Stewart,_James_(1531%3F-1570)_(DNB00)
- WRONGLY LISTS HIS DAU. ELIZABETH'S HUSBAND JAMES STEWART AS HIS SON.
- James "Earl of Moray" Stewart
- Birth: 1531
- Death: Jan. 23, 1570 Linlithgow, Scotland
- James was the son of King James V Stewart, King of England and Margaret Erskine. James was born Circa 1531 in Scotland and died 23 Jan 1570 in Linlithgow assassinated by a fire arm, becoming the first recorded person assassinated by a firearm. He married Lady Anne Keith on 8 February 1561/62. He became the 1st Earl of Moray and attained the title of Earl of Mar.
- Family links:
- James King of Scots (1512 - 1542)
- Margaret Erskine Douglas (1515 - 1572)
- Anne Keith Campbell (1530 - 1588)*
- Elizabeth Stewart (1565 - 1591)*
- James 2nd of Moray" Stewart (1565 - 1591)*
- Adam Stewart (1530 - 1575)**
- 1st Lord Darnley John Stewart (1531 - 1563)**
- James Stewart (1531 - 1570)
- Robert Stewart (1533 - 1593)**
- Jean Stewart Campbell (1537 - 1588)**
- James Stewart (1540 - 1541)**
- Arthur Stewart (1541 - 1541)**
- Mary Stuart (1542 - 1587)**
- *Calculated relationship
- Erected by his Country to
- JAMES EARL OF MURRAY
- Regent of Scotland
- Restored by
- JOHN XII Earl of Moray
- Burial: Saint Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, City of Edinburgh, Scotland
- Find A Grave Memorial# 62038622
- From: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=62038622
James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. 1531 – 11 January 1570), a member of the House of Stewart, was Regent of Scotland from 1567 until his assassination in 1570.
Moray was the illegitimate son of King James V of Scotland and Lady Margaret Erskine, daughter of John Erskine, 5th Lord Erskine.
After the return of his half-sister Queen Mary I in 1561, he became her chief adviser, and was created Earl of Moray by her the following year. In 1562 he defeated a rebellion by George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly, at the Battle of Corrichie near Aberdeen. About this time Moray married Agnes (d. 1588), daughter of William Keith, 4th Earl Marischal.
After Moray opposed Mary's marriage to Lord Darnley in 1565, he embarked upon the unsuccessful 'Chaseabout Raid', together with the Earl of Argyll, and the Hamiltons. He was subsequently declared an outlaw and took refuge in England. Returning to Scotland after the murder of David Rizzio, he was pardoned by the Queen. He contrived, however, to be away at the time of Darnley's assassination, and avoided the tangles of the marriage with Bothwell by going to France. After the abdication of Queen Mary at Loch Leven, in July 1567, he was appointed regent of Scotland. When Mary escaped from Loch Leven (May 2, 1568), the Duke of Chatelherault and other nobles rallied to her standard, but Moray gathered his allies and defeated her forces at the Battle of Langside, near Glasgow (May 13, 1568), and compelled her to flee to England. For this and the subsequent management of the kingdom he secured both civil and ecclesiastical peace, and earned the title of "The Good Regent." Moray was responsible for the destruction of Rutherglen castle which he burned to the ground in 1569, in retribution against the Hamiltons for having supported Mary, at the Battle of Langside.
Moray was assassinated in Linlithgow in January 1570 by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, a supporter of Mary. The assassin, using a pistol, fired at Moray from a window as the latter was passing in a cavalcade in the main street below, fatally wounding him.His was the first ever recorded assassination by a firearm. He was buried on 14 February 1570 at St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. His wife, Agnes was buried inside his tomb when she died in 1588.
1st Earl of Moray;
Regent of Scotland
James Stewart,1st Earl of Moray's Timeline
May 22, 1533
Edinburgh, Midlothian, , Scotland
Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
January 11, 1570
Linlithgow, West Lothian, , Scotland
The Regent "Murray"