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About James Stone
As at 29 August 2012, no information has been found about James' parents or siblings or confirmation of his year of birth. In his army enlistment papers he describes himself as having been born in the parish of St Patrick's, in or near the town of Dublin, and was 21 years old when he enlisted in Kilkenny on 24 November 1836 (ie born about 1815). In the record of his visit to the doctor at Chatham on 23 December 1845, his age is given as 31 (ie born about 1814) with comment ‘says 32’ (ie born about 1813). His headstone records he was a native of Dublin, Ireland, who died 12 January 1887, aged 73 years (ie born about 1814). So he could have been born between 1813 and 1815.
The traditional Irish naming practice was: the eldest son would be named after his paternal grandfather; the second son after his maternal grandfather; and the third son after his father. The irishgenealogy.ie site has a record for a James Stone, son of Patrick and Anne Stone, god parents Daniel Nugent and Emilia Clarke, being baptised on 10 January 1813, from the records of St Mary’s Pro-Cathedral, Dublin. As James Stone's eldest son was named Patrick, this would fit.
As for the birth place, there is no ‘parish of St Patrick's’ in Dublin, though of course St Patrick's Cathedral is one of the main churches of Dublin.
(Information from his surviving records from the UK National Archives)
James was born in the parish of St Patrick's in or near the town of Dublin in the county of Dublin. By trade a Labourer. He enlisted on 24 November 1836 and was attested (affirmed the answers he gave on his enlistment were correct) on 25 November 1836 at the age of 21 years, for the 40th Regiment of Foot. He enlisted at Kilkenny in the county of Kilkenny for a bounty of £3.
His service number was 988. He served 8 years and 68 days, of which 7 years 2 months were overseas - 3 years and 3 months in the East Indies (ie India) and 3 years 11 months in Scinde, Baluchistan and Afghanistan (ie Pakistan and Afghanistan).
He was discharged due to the injury he received at the Battle of Maharajpore, (12 miles north of Agra in the States of Scinde, now the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh) on 29 December 1843, where he was wounded when he was shot through the left thigh.
For his service in the Afghan campaign in 1842 he was awarded a medal inscribed "Candahar, Ghuznee, Cabul" ("Kandahar, Ghazni and Kabul"). This was awarded for participation in all three sieges, of the city of Kandahar, the mountain pass fortress of Ghazni and the Afghan capital of Kabul.
He was granted a bronze star for Maharajpore.
Candahar, Ghuznee, Cabul medal [information from Medal Yearbook 2018, p.130.]
Silver medal, 36mm; with a 40mm ribbon, watered silk of pink, white, yellow, white and blue, representing an eastern sky at sunrise. The medal was issued by the Honorable East India Company in 1842 to both HEIC and British troops who took part in the First Afghan War, 1841-1842. On one side of the medal is a profile of Queen Victoria, while the other lists the campaign the recipient participated in. As James was awarded a medal with all three names shows he participated in all three campaigns.
Gwalior Star [information from Medal Yearbook 2018, p.132.]
Bronze six-pointed star with a silver centre star bearing the name of the battle (Maharajpoor or Punniar), and the date 29 December 1843 and on the reverse side the name of the recipient and regiment, 45mm; with a 40mm ribbon, watered silk of pink, white, yellow, white and blue, representing an eastern sky at sunrise. The medal was issued by the Honorable East India Company in 1843 to both HEIC and British troops who took part in the Gwalior campaign. The bronze metal from guns captured at the battles of Maharajpoor and Punniar was used in the manufacture of the medals.
His discharge papers noted 'he was never tried by a Court Marshal, and that his conduct has been very good'.
Service in the 40th Regiment of Foot
Note information has been sourced from:
Historical records of the 40th (2nd Somersetshire) Regiment, now 1st Battalion The Prince of Wales Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment) : from its formation, in 1717, to 1893 / by Captain R. H. Raymond Smythies. Devonport, Devon : A.H. Swiss, 1894.
Diary of a march through Sinde and Affghanistan with the troops under the command of Sir William Nott, K.C.B., etc, and sermons delivered on various occasions during the campaign of 1842 / by the Rev. I.N. Allen. London : J. Hatchard, 1843.
History of the Regiment
The 40th Regiment of Foot was founded in 1717 in Nova Scotia, in what is now Canada. The regiment was involved in skirmishes with the French and Indians who entered the British territory, including the attack on Quebec in 1759, which ended French rule in North America. In 1762 the Regiment was shipped to Barbados where it captured Havana as part of the war with Spain. In 1764 the regiment sailed for Ireland and remained there until 1775 when it sailed back to North America, first to Boston, then evacuated to Halifax, Nova Scotia, then to New York, and participated in other battles during the American War of Independence. Following the signing of the peace treaty in 1783, the regiment sailed for England. In 1782 British regiments were also given county names and the 40th Regiment was also given the name ‘2nd Somersetshire Regiment’. Between 1784 and 1789 the regiment was located in different towns in England, before moving to Ireland, where it stayed until 1794, when part of the regiment sailed for Barbados to attack the French in the West Indies, while the rest sailed for Holland to attack the French, marching to Bremen and sailing back to England. Once back in England they sailed for the West Indies. Several battles were fought against the French before returning to England in 1798. In 1800 the regiment was sent to Egypt to fight the French, returning to England in 1802 following the signing of the peace treaty with France. In 1806 part of the regiment sailed for South America (returning in 1807) while the rest went to Ireland. Between 1808 and 1814 the regiment participated in a number of battles in Spain and France against the French, returned to England and returned to France in 1815 and participating in the Battle of Waterloo. The Regiment remained in France until 1817. Between 1817 and 1823 the regiment was based in different towns in England and Ireland before the soldiers were used as guards on different convict ships sailing for New South Wales. They remained in New South Wales and Tasmania until 1828 when they shipped to India. The regiment was to remain in India until 1845. It was while the regiment was in India that James served.
James Stone’s service in the 40th Regiment of Foot was in present day India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Note the Regiment’s movements during this time was in response to ‘The Great Game’ – the British feared the Russian Empire’s expansion into central Asia would threaten India, the ‘Jewel in the Crown’, through using Afghanistan as a staging post for a Russian invasion of India. The British sought to counter this by putting their own puppet ruler on the throne in Kabul.
It is not known when James sailed for India after enlistment in Ireland in November 1836. Calculating years of service in India and Afghanistan would indicate an arrival in India around December 1837.
The Morning Post, 3 July 1837, p 4., reported that Lieutenant Smith and Ensign Olpherts of the 40th were embarking on the Ganges for Bombay on the 13th, as was an officer of another regiment, so it could be expected other troops of the 40th would have traveled with them. [Lloyds Register of Shipping, July 1837-June 1838, lists barque Ganges sailing from London to Calcutta]. The Morning Post, 1 August 1837, p. 4, reported (among other ships sailing July 29 and 30 from Gravesend) the Ganges for Bombay. The History of the 40th Regiment recorded 24 privates had died during 1837, so James would have been a replacement for the deceased soldiers. The strength of the regiment at 31 December 1837 was 776, including 640 privates.
In 1837 the regiment was located at Deesa in the present day state of Gujarat in north west India. In December 1838 the regiment received orders to proceed, fully equipped for field service, to the coast to Mandvi, a port city also in the present state of Gujarat, (a march of 240 miles / 385 km) for eventual service in the Sind area (the state of Sindh in modern day Pakistan). The 40th regiment was to form part of a reserve force, to be assembled at Karachi (now in modern day Pakistan), and was to be stationed in Lower Sind.
Meanwhile an army of 21,000 British and Indian troops, accompanied by 38,000 civilian camp followers (craftsmen, stretcher bearers, cooks, servants, barbers, tailors, armourers, cameleers, etc., as well as families of both Indian and British soldiers), had set out from the Punjab in December 1838 for Afghanistan. By late March 1839 the British forces had crossed the Bolan Pass, reached the Afghan city of Quetta, and begun their march to Kabul. In August 1839 the British replaced Afghanistan's Emir, Dost Mohammad Khan with the pro-British, Shuja Shah Durrani.
The strength of the regiment on 31 December 1838 was 728, including 595 privates, 25 privates having died during the year. Deesa was left around 31 December 1838 and the regiment arrived at Mandevi on 27 January 1839. The same day the troops commenced boarding HMS Wellesley, moored offshore. The fleet set sail and on 1 February 1839 anchored at the mouth of the harbour of Karachi. Troops were landed the following morning to take the fort guarding the harbour, capturing it. During March and April there were a number of deaths from cholera and dysentery. In July part of the regiment sailed up the Indus river. On 8 September 1839 about 200 new recruits arrived, having been on board ship for about five months. On 18 October the regiment marched out of Karachi en route for Sakar.
This was summer and although the first day was only 10 miles, the heat was oppressive and no equipment or stores arrived at the camp until late afternoon and then no wood could be found to cook food. By the third day it was decided to march only at night. By 25 November 1839 the force had reached Sakar, where following a rest, the new recruits were drilled and instructed.
Following the capture of Kabul, the majority of the British troops had returned to India, leaving 8,000 in Afghanistan, but it soon became clear that Shuja's rule could only be maintained with the presence of a stronger British force. So the 40th regiment and other Indian forces were sent to Afghanistan to reinforce the troops there.
In January 1841 the regiment marched to Mangal-ka-shir, then to Dadar and on the morning of 26 March 1841 they marched out to take the Bolan Pass to Quetta in Afghanistan. The regiment stayed at Quetta until October when it marched for Kandahar. While in Quetta, 60 men died from fever and dysentery, and most of the regiment were sick. On 23 October 1841 the regiment marched into Kandahar, the second largest city in Afghanistan.
1841 British Army, Worldwide Index record : First name(s) James; Last name Stone; Sex Male; Service number 988; Rank Private; Unit or regiment 40th Foot; Year 1841; Location Quettah, Bombay; Country India; The National Archive reference WO 12/5352 (General muster books and pay lists, 40th Foot, 1st Battalion).
The situation in Kabul had continued to deteriorate. In November 1841 a senior British officer and his aides were killed by a mob and a supply depot overrun. On 23 December the British government representative and other senior military officers were killed. On 1 January 1842, Major General Sir William Elphinstone negotiated an agreement to allow his army to withdraw to the British garrison at Jalalabad, more than 90 miles (140 km) away. As the army (a total contingent of troops and camp followers of 16,500) began its march, it came under attack from Afghan tribesmen. Most of the column died of exposure, frostbite or starvation or were killed during the fighting.
Kandahar (where the 40th was located and where the largest British force was stationed) was also threatened. General Nott assumed command of the troops and the 40th, with some native Indian infantry, advanced to the Arghandab valley, through the Baburwala pass. They continued down the Arghandab River until a place to ford the river was located. The Afghans were on the other side of the river and Afghans were in the water courses leading into the river firing at the troops. The 40th advanced through a swamp and then fixed bayonets and advanced on the main body of Afghans, who retreated across the plain.
Conditions became very difficult at Kandahar with the Afghans massing close to the town, little food for the animals and little wood to heat and cook, so a number of troops died in the freezing conditions (Temperatures average 5°C in January, although lows can drop well below freezing). A large number of troops guarded the encampment day and night as the Afghans continued to gather around Kandahar.
In early March General Nott again led a large force out to attack the Afghans but had to return without any major battle as the mounted Afghans simply rode out of range. While the main force had been away from Kandahar, the Afghans had attempted to storm the gates of the town (Kandahar was surrounded by a wall with five gates) and it was only the sick and injured of the 40th and the other Indian troops that had remained that had kept them at bay.
In May a force of troops from Quetta, including the 41st Regiment, arrived to reinforce the 40th. The Rev. Allen, who wrote the second book mentioned above, was with the 41st..
On 19 May the 40th marched out to relieve the troops at the garrison of Khelat-i-Ghilzai and bring them back to Kandahar.
Towards the end of July the British Government decided to evacuate all the troops from Afghanistan. It was decided that the sick and wounded at Kandahar would be evacuated back to India via Quetta and the Bolan Pass while the rest of the troops would advance on the fortress town of Ghazni, recapture Kabul and then leave Afghanistan via the Khyber pass.
On 6 August 1842, the 40th (651 in total with 20 sick going via Quetta), along with all the other troops, marched out of Kandahar. Allen notes in his book that it was very hot – 111°F to 116°F (43°C to 47°C) in the tents. They carried 60 days supplies, accompanied by 10,000 camels. During the march the Afghans were frequently seen about the hills, firing their guns, but keeping a distance from the troops, though there were a few battles along the way, including one at Goain. They reached the fortress of Ghazni on 6 September 1842, which they subsequently destroyed, also removing the 800 year old sandalwood gates from the tomb of Sultan Mahamud. (The gates were subsequently erected at Agra in India).
On 10 September the army continued its march to Kabul. Again the Afghans were always near by, firing at the troops from a distance. On 17 September the troops arrived at Kabul, joining up with the other British force from Jalalabad, having traveled over 300 miles (about 480 km) since leaving Kandahar in August.
The troops remained in Kabul for three weeks, but as winter approached the decision was made to leave. The 40th formed part of the rear guard, leaving Kabul on 12 October 1842. There were a number of engagements as the troops were fired on by the Afghans as they passed through the passes while protecting the baggage train. In addition there were episodes of heavy rain which halted the march. On 3 November they entered the Khyber Pass and suffered continuing attacks on the baggage and camels, before arriving at Peshawar on 7 November (where the British East India Company had set up an advanced base), eventually arriving at Ferozepore, in present day Punjab, India on 23 December 1842. Ferozepore was a few miles from the Sutlej River which marked the frontier between the British East India Company ruled India and the Sikh ruled Punjab. The military cantonment there had been established by the British East India Company in 1839 to protect its territory from the Sikh ruled Punjab.
The 40th remained at Ferozepore until the end of January 1843. On 1 February they commenced marching to Meerut, arriving on 1 March. (The Meerut cantonment is where the Indian Rebellion of 1857 started, when Hindu and Muslim soldiers were given rifle cartridges rumoured to have a coating made of animal fat. The bullet wrapping was to be opened by mouth before use, which affected the religious sensibilities of both Muslims and Hindus).
In September 1843 the 40th was detailed to form part of an ‘Army of Exercise’ at Agra. They left on 20 November and arrived at Agra on 2 December 1843. Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India and was the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1658. The Tāj Mahal is located at Agra.
The Maratha Empire, (the Marathas were a Hindu warrior group from the western Deccan (present day Maharashtra) which had controlled much of central and northern India), had been defeated by the British East India Company in 1818, giving the British control over almost the entire Indian subcontinent. The Maharajah of Gwalior had died and a young child was appointed as the Maharajah with British support. However, Marathas in Gwalior saw the failed British campaign in Afghanistan as an opportunity to regain independence and remove the young Maharajah. Lord Ellenborough (the British East India Company's governor-general of India), foreseeing the possibility of the Marathas in Gwalior making an attempt for independence, had formed the Army of Exercise near Agra. After attempts to negotiate failed, the British advanced in a two pronged attack. The British, under the command of General Sir Hugh Gough clashed with Marathan forces, under the command of Maharajah Scindiah, in two battles on the same day; 29 December 1843 - Battle of Maharajpore and The Battle of Punniar. It was at the Battle of Maharajpore that James was wounded.
The Battle of Maharajpore, 29 December 1843
The Marathan army had 14 battalions, 1,000 artillery men with 60 guns and 6,000 cavalry at Maharajpore. The British faced them with troops from the 40th Regiment of Foot with the 2nd and 16th Native Infantry Regiments forming the central column, the 39th Regiment of Foot with the 56th Native Infantry Regiment and a field battery forming the left column and the 16th Lancers with two troops of horse artillery as well as other artillery forming the right column.
The centre column advanced to attack to where it was believed the main enemy force was located. However, during the night the Marathans had moved and the British were surprised as they came under heavy fire from the Marathan artillery in their new positions. The central column then received the order to take the battery positions which they did under continuous heavy fire from shot, grape, canister and chain. The guns were to the South-East of Maharajpore with two battalions of Marathan troops for each battery and in Maharajpore with seven battalions for each battery and the British fought hand to hand with the Marathans, both sides taking heavy casualties, to clear the positions. The Marathans fought intensely and few escaped the battle. The British finally defeated the Marathans with 797 men killed, wounded or missing. The Marathans were estimated to have lost 3,000 to 4,000 men.
James was shot through the left thigh.
The Regiment returned to Meerut by mid February 1844, so it is assumed that was where James convalesced. In August the Regiment was notified it would be returning to England. In mid November the Regiment proceeded to the coast and embarked on ships, arriving at Calcutta on 23 January 1845.
In his time in India, James had marched from the mouth of the Indus River on the west coast, through present day Pakistan and Afghanistan, crossed the upper Indus traversing the Punjab, then to the very centre of British India at the battle of Maharajpore, finally arriving on the east coast of India at Calcutta.
On 1 February 1845 at Calcutta, a Regimental Board discharged James from the Regiment due to disability. As James was examined at Chatham, Kent in December 1845, while the regiment did not arrive back in England until February 1846, he must have travelled separately.
James was examined at the Army Hospital at Chatham, Kent and discharged from the Army on 26 December 1845 on to an army pension and returned to Ireland.
WO 22/183 - Royal Hospital Chelsea. Returns of payment of Army and other pensions. Army and other pensions paid out locally in Ireland. Londonderry. 1842-1852. Record of Pensioners newly admitted to Out-Pension to the Londonderry District includes: Private James Stone, 40th foot, admitted as an Out-Patient 23 December 1845; pension commenced to be paid in the Londonderry district from 16 January 1846.
The Irish Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration between October 1845, when the potato crop was destroyed by disease, and 1852. During the famine approximately 1 million people died of starvation and disease and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%. The potato was the principal food for the bulk of the population and the failure of the crop and British government actions and inactions to help the population through food supplies and public works had a lasting impact on the Irish society and countries such as the USA where many Irish emigrated to.
Being on a Pension, James was able to buy food.
It is not known where James lived in Ireland on his return from India, though his pension commenced in the Londonderry District in 1846 and in 1855 he transferred from the Londonderry to the Plymouth district for the voyage to Western Australia, so it is assumed he may have lived initially in Londonderry, though after he married his first child Patrick, born March 1854, was born in the county Donegal town of Buncrana, so he may have lived in Buncrana or elsewhere in Donegal. While Londonderry is still its official name, Derry was the original name, changed to Londonderry in 1613, and is in the process of being changed back to Derry by the Derry City Council.
Griffith's Valuation covering Londonderry was not compiled until 1858-59, by which time James had already left Ireland.
The following are records for James Stone's found in different sources between 1845 and 1855, though none are believed to be for the correct James Stone.
James Stone of Bevicuros, Dublin signed the petition for clemency for William Smith O'Brien in 1848.
Griffith's Valuation for Ireland lists :
- James Stone – 1847, tenant (house), Townland: Bluebell, Parish: Drimnagh, County:Dublin;
- James Stone – 1847, tenant (house), Townland: Huntstown, Parish: Mulhuddart, County: Dublin;
- James Stone – 1848, tenant (house), Townland: Huntstown, Parish: Mulhuddart, County: Dublin;
- James Stone – 1849, tenant (house), Townland: Huntstown, Parish: Mulhuddart, County: Dublin;
- James Stone – 1850, tenant (house, offices & land), Townland; Clonconey, Parish: Clonmore, County: Kilkenny;
- James Stone – 1850, tenant (land), Townland: Oldtown, Parish: Clonenagh & Clonagheen, County: Queens;
- James Stone – 1854, tenant (house & land), Townland: Corporationland, Parish: Trim, County: Meath;
- James Stone – 1854, tenant (land), Townland: Legan, Parish: Kilmanaghan, County: Westmeath.
The 1851 Dublin City Census Transcription of heads of households, prepared by Dr D A Chart around 1910, records:
- Jas. Stone, Hanbury Lane, St. Catherine's parish, Dublin; and
- Jas. Stone, Church St., St. Michan's parish, Dublin
In 1849 the British government had decided to use army pensioners as guards on convict ships to Australia instead of regular soldiers. The government offered military pensioners free transport for their families and a grant of land in return for guarding the convicts on the voyage and being available for the defense of the colony. (see MILITARY PENSIONERS to the COLONIES. The Morning Chronicle (London, England), Wednesday, September 12, 1849; Issue 24928).
James married Anne O'Donnell, a widow, maiden name Doherty or Docherty. A marriage record has not been identified. From wife Anne's 1901 Death certificate they were married in Donegal. Son Patrick was born in Buncrana, Donegal in March 1854 so it could be assumed they married before that date and possibly at Buncrana. The Roman Catholic Marriage records for the parish of Desertegney, which include Buncrana commence in 1871; Church of Ireland records commence 1848.
Neither the irishgenealogy.ie site or the rootsireland.ie site has a record for a marriage taking place between 1845 and 1855.
Some time in 1854 or early 1855 James volunteered to become a Pensioner Guard, guarding convicts being transported to Western Australia.
Army pension record for Jas Stone, 40th regiment of Foot, admitted 23 December 1845, at 6d per day, residence Londonderry, with an annotation '3 / Guard / 595 W.Australia 1/6'.
WO 22/184 - Royal Hospital Chelsea. Returns of payment of Army and other pensions. Army and other pensions paid out locally in Ireland. Londonderry. 1852-1862. Monthly return of changes which have taken place among Out-Pensioners of Chelsea ... lists for the Londonderry District: James Stone, 40th foot, paid up to 31 March 1855, until transfer to District 3 Plymouth as Convict Guard.
Need to check WO 22/86 - Royal Hospital Chelsea. Returns of payment of Army and other pensions. Army and other pensions paid out locally in England. Plymouth 3rd. 1852-1862.
Second son James was born at Princetown, Devon near the Dartmoor Prison in July 1855, while the family were waiting for the convict ship which would take them to Western Australia.
James, wife Ann and sons Patrick and James sailed for Western Australia with convicts from the Dartmoor Prison, Devon, on the William Hammond, on 5 January 1856. On the William Hammond were (according to the Surgeons record for the voyage) 250 convicts, 30 pensioner guards, 20 women (presumably the wives), 40 children, plus the ship's crew.
The Inquirer & Commercial News (Perth, WA), Wednesday 2 April 1856, p2.
On the 28th ultimo [ie 28 March], the convict ship William Hammond, H. Edwards, Master; Dr MacLaren, Surgeon Superintendent; 250 prisoners, of whom 198 are intended for public works, and 52 having tickets-of-leave on landing; 30 Pensioner Guard, 20 women, and 40 children.
The William Hammond sighted the light at Rottnest Island on the evening of the 28th and the first passengers did not come ashore until the 29th, so all the official records record the ship arriving on the 29th of March 1856. They would have disembarked onto lighters or other small craft and then sailed or rowed to shore as the Short Jetty at Fremantle was not built until 1857, and the Long Jetty (which replaced the Short Jetty) was not finished until 1873, and the inner harbour was not opened until 1897.
While the records for the convicts are detailed, the records for the guards are patchy and James has not been identified on a list, however the William Hammond is the only match.
'The William Hammond was a barque used to transport convicts to Western Australia.
Built in Sunderland in 1853 for Thomas and Co, the William Hammond was 149.5 feet (45.6 m) long, 28.6 feet (8.7 m) wide and 19 feet (5.8 m) deep, and weighed 683 tons. In 30 September 1854, it sailed from Plymouth to Hobart with 261 emigrating passengers on board. It docked in Hobart on 25 December, after a journey of 83 days, during which three children died.
When appointed to transport convicts to Western Australia in 1855, the William Hammond was still considered a new ship, and had an A1 rating. With Horatio Edwards as captain and George MacLaren as surgeon-superintendent, the William Hammond embarked 35 convicts from the Woolwich prison hulk Defence on 6 December 1855, and another 32 convicts from the hulk Warrior shortly afterwards. On 8 December she was towed out of Woolwich dock and sailed down the River Thames. After clearing the Straits of Dover she encountered stormy weather in the English Channel. She sailed along the south coast of England, docking at Portsmouth. On 17 December she took on 59 more convicts, and the following day she anchored off the Isle of Portland, where it took on 80 convicts from Portland Prison. It left Portland on 24 December, but shortly afterwards a sailor named John Gollately fell overboard while trying to stow the jib. Another sailor, John Deady, attacked the Chief Mate, David Kid, saying it was his fault the man fell overboard. The William Hammond then set in at Plymouth, where Deady was tried before a magistrate and sentenced to 21 days imprisonment. Six sailors who due to various illness were deemed unfit to travel were also disembarked. After taking on 45 more convicts from Dartmoor Prison, the William Hammond sailed for Western Australia on 5 January 1856.
The William Hammond sailed with 32 crew, 250 convicts and 98 passengers, most of whom were pensioner guards and their families. She sailed directly to Fremantle, and the journey took 84 days. Only one person died on the journey, a corporal in the pensioner guard named Henry Fraser, probably of tuberculosis. No convicts died, although there were reported cases of dysentery, diarrhoea and nyctalopia (night blindness). The only other incident occurred on 28 January, when Kid was found to be drunk on his watch, having accessed the stores of rum without permission.
At about 7 P.M. on 28 March 1856, the William Hammond sighted the lighthouse on Rottnest Island. Anchor was dropped in the lee of Rottnest early the next morning, and at 7 A.M. the Fremantle harbourmaster boarded the ship. The passengers were disembarked by mid-afternoon, and the convicts were disembarked over the next two days.
Little is known of the William Hammond's subsequent service, except that there is a record of immigrants arriving in Melbourne on the William Hammond in 1862." From Wikipedia, retrieved 5 June 2011.
It is not known what James did between his arrival in 1856 and being allotted land at Greenough in 1868. While the pensioners were not retained as permanent convict guards after the voyages, the number of convicts would indicate they were probably employed to guard them and with the withdrawal of regular soldiers (the last left in 1863), the Enrolled Pensioner Force assumed all responsibilities. Twin girls (Jane Anne and Catherine) were born 10 October 1857 (in a tent on the beach at Fremantle according to family lore), daughter Bridget was born in Fremantle in 1860, with youngest son John born in Fremantle in 1863, so it could be assumed James and the family were based in Fremantle and probably lived in the pensioner cottages built in Fremantle near the Convict Establishment. (Fremantle Prison).
Those soldiers who came to Western Australia as guards aboard the convict transports were known as the Pensioner Guards (also known as the Enrolled Pensioner Force or Enrolled Guards). The Enrolled Pensioner Guards comprised of aged or invalid military personnel who were unfit for active duty but capable of fulfilling a role as garrison troops or convict guards.
Between 1850 and 1868 approximately 1,100 pensioner guards and their families arrived in Western Australia, many of whom remained on as settlers. Upon completion of 7 years of service the Pensioner Guards were eligible for a free land grant.
Data from : The Veterans : a history of the Enrolled Pensioner Force in Western Australia, 1850-1888 / F.H. Broomhall.
Private 40th Regt. @ 6d. per diem
1868 Allocated Greenough Locs. G27 and G28 totalling 33 acs.
4 May 1874 Grant of Greenough Loc. G27 confirmed.
7 Sep 1874 Grant of Greenough Loc. G28 confirmed.
12 Jun 1887 Died aged 73. Informant of death, youngest son John
His son James married the daughter of fellow pensioner guard Patrick Hogan, while daughters Jane Ann and Catherine married sons of pensioner guard Jeremiah Buckley.
Around 1865/1867, the family moved to the Greenough, south of Geraldton to farm, taking up the free land grant available to James. A number of pensioner guards and their families moved to Geraldton and the Greenough. In 1868 James was allotted Greenough locations G27 and G28 comprising some 33 acres, though he probably was farming the land prior to it being granted to him. On 4 May 1874 Greenough location G27 grant was confirmed (ie he was given freehold title to the land). On September 7 1874 Greenough location G28 grant was confirmed.
The Perth Gazette and West Australian Times, Friday 25 December 1868, p 3
An article on the impact of the 'red rust' on the farmers on the Greenough recorded that J Stone had 26 acres of wheat and 6 acres of oats or barley under cultivation
Not sure if the following articles are relating to James Stone (who would have been aged about 60) or his son James Stone (who would have been aged about 20).
The Enquirer and Commercial News, Wednesday 5 August 1874, p4
At the July meeting of the Greenough Road Board it was resolved, 1— That as the only tenders to cart stone on to the Bootenal Road were from Henry Kemp and James Stone, and both at the same price, viz. 2s. 100 yds.; be given to each.
The Enquirer and Commercial News, Wednesday 6 January 1875, p. 4.
IMPOUNDED in the Public Pound, Greenough Flats, on the 13th inst., 9 brown Nanny Goats, driven in from Bootenal with James Stone's herd. If not claimed within the time allowed by law, will be sold to defray expenses. JAMES ADLAM, Poundkeeper. Bootenal, Dec. 15, 1874
Daughter Jane Ann married John Buckley at Greenough in 1877 and daughter Catherine married Daniel Buckley at Bootnal, Greenough on 22 August 1877, though since the marriage registration numbers are not consecutive it is assumed Jane Ann married earlier in the year.
The Enquirer and Commercial News, Wednesday 11 July 1877, p. 3.
Monthly meeting held 4th June, 1877. Present — Mr. T. Clinch (chairman), Messrs. F. Ventura, C. Connolly, J. Eakins, and A. Brand. Minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. Proposed by C. Connolly, seconded by F. Ventura, and carried, that tenders be invited, returnable on Monday, 2nd July, to dig a ditch from Bootenal Road, about 50 chains, towards Ventura's. Proposed by F. Ventura, seconded by A. Brand, that James Stone's account for 15s. 9d., hire of horse and cart in removing stone on the road, be paid ; carried. Proposed by A. Brand, seconded by F. Ventura, that the meeting be adjourned till Monday, 2nd July ; carried.
The Victorian Express, Wednesday 25 December 1878, p. 2.
WANTED, Grubbing Hands, to Grub land on the Bootenal Reserve. Apply to JAS. STONE, North Greenough.
The West Australian, Tuesday 18 November, 1879, p 3.
The barley harvest has commenced on the Greenough Flats and promises a good yield ; the wheat crops are rapidly changing, and also promise well. It has become of late the fashion to decry our Flats farming ; but I only wish that you Perth folk could inspect a few of our farms as they appear now. You would see many that are a credit to any country ; amongst them I might mention the farms of Mr. John Jones and Mr. G. Woolhouse on the Back Flats, those also of Mr. J. S. Maley, and Buckley and Stone on the Front Flats. If you saw these farms I think you would be bound to confess that you never saw anything equal to them out of the old
Son Patrick Stone married Helen Emily Roe on 8 February 1880 at St. Peter's Chapel, Bootenal, Greenough, WA by Rev. Fr. A. Lecaille.
The Victorian Express, Wednesday 24 March 1880, p. 2.
An advertisement for the Greenough Irish Relief Fund (to aid the distress currently prevailing in Ireland) list of subscribers includes Mrs J Stone - £1 1s.
The Victorian Express, Wednesday 12 January 1881, p. 2.
An article about the election of 3 members to the Greenough Roads Board on 30 December 1880, among those electors present was Jas. Stone.
Son James Stone married Mary Jane Hogan on 24 July 1882 at the Roman Catholic Church, Geraldton.
James died 12 January 1887 at Greenough.
Western Australian Death registration index record for James Stone, father, mother and place of birth unknown, died aged 73, No. 52 of 1887.
Western Australian Death certificate No. 52 of 1887. Name: James Stone; date of death: 12 January 1887; place of death: Greenough; age: 73; profession: pensioner; cause of death: Dropsy (certified by Dr Joseph King of Greenough); informant of death: John Stone, youngest son, at Greenough; registered 19 January 1887.
(Dropsy: An old term for Edema, the swelling of soft tissues due to the accumulation of excess water. In years gone by, a person might have been said to have dropsy. Today one would be more descriptive and specify the cause. Thus, the person might have edema due to congestive heart failure. Edema is often more prominent in the lower legs and feet toward the end of the day as a result of pooling of fluid from the upright position usually maintained during the day. Upon awakening from sleeping, people can have swelling around the eyes referred to as periorbital edema.)
Buried Greenough Cemetery.
Inscription on grave: James Stone, a native of Dublin, Ireland, who died 12 January 1887, aged 73 years.
Victorian Express (Geraldton, WA), Saturday 25 June 1887, page 4
ESTATE OF JAMES STONE THE ELDER (DECEASED.) NOTICE is hereby given pursuant to the The Act of Parliament of the 22nd and 23rd Vict. c. 35 intituled " An Act to further amend the Law of Property and to relieve Trustees" (adopted in the Colony of Western Australia by an Ordinance of the said Colony the 31st Victoria No 8) that all persona having any claims or demands upon or against the estate of James Stone the eider late of the Bootnal near Geraldton in the said Colony Military Pensioner deceased who died on the twelfth day of January 1887 and whose will was proved by John Stone and Patrick Stone the executors therein named on the third day of March 1887 in the Supreme Court of Western Australia in its Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction are hereby required to send in particulars of their debts or claims to the said executors at the office of the undersigned their solicitor on or before the 31st day of August 1887. And notice is hereby also given that after that day the said executors will proceed to distribute the assets of the said James Stone the elder deceased amongst the parties entitled thereto having regard only to the claims of which they shall then have had notice and that they will not be liable for the assets or any part thereof so distributed to any person of whose debt or claim they shall not have had notice. Dated this twenty-fourth day of June 1887. ARTHUR H. DU BOULAY, Marine Terrace, Geraldton, Solicitor for the said Executors. June 25th.
Probate record in the WA State Records Office, Consignment 3403; item No. 1887/832.
Probate of the will and codicil of James Stone, late of the Bootnal near Geraldton was granted to youngest son John Stone, of the Bootnal, farmer and eldest son Patrick Stone, of Geraldton, storekeeper. In the Will, which was written for James by the Greenough Roman Catholic Priest Adolph Joseph Lecaille, dated 9 November 1886, witnessed by Joseph King and John Kelly, which James signed with his mark, he bequeathed all his possessions to his wife Ann Stone, otherwise Ann Dougharty; his son John Stone and his daughter Bridget Stone. Ann and Bridget received 3/5ths of the property and John 2/5ths, except for Geraldton Town lot 8 which was bequeathed exclusively to Ann and Bridget, with the proviso that if either died, the other would inherit the whole property. The Codicil to the will, also dated 9 November 1886, stipulated that out of the property willed to Ann, John and Bridget, son James jnr was to receive 200 sheep within 4 years of his death, and son Patrick was to receive 200 sheep within 2 years from the date the 200 sheep were given to James. There is also a P.S. that on the 10th of November, Mr Stone requested that Mrs Stone, Bridget, Patrick, James and John shall each of them cause to be offered eight masses for the repose of his soul within two months after his demise, and eight other masses each as soon as possible afterwards.
The Municipal Inventory for the former Shire of Greenough includes 'Stone's Cottage Site', James Stone's Cottage, Brand Highway (east side) Greenough, associated with James Stone, previous owner. I assume it was his and not his son James' house.
James Stone's Timeline
Dublin City, Dublin, Ireland
March 14, 1854
Buncrana, Donegal, Ireland
July 25, 1855
October 10, 1857
Fremantle, WA, Australia
October 10, 1857
Fremantle, WA, Australia
April 21, 1860
June 30, 1863
January 12, 1887
Greenough, WA, Australia
Greenough, WA, Australia