Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay

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Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay

Russian: Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ
Also Known As: "Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Radzymin, Radzymin / Wołomin, Mazowieckie, Poland
Death: November 03, 1929 (84)
Warszawa, Mazowieckie, Poland (Flu)
Place of Burial: Warszawa, Mazowieckie, Poland
Immediate Family:

Son of Aleksander Baudouin de Courtenay and Jadwiga Baudouin
Husband of Cezaria Baudouin de Courtenay and Romualda Baudouin de Courtenay
Father of Cezaria Ehrenkreutz Jędrzejewiczowa; Zofia Baudouin de Courtenay; Świętosław Baudouin de Courtenay; Ewelina Małachowska-Łempicka and Maria Kieresant-Wiśniewska
Brother of Bronisława Baudouin de Courtenay and Aleksander Baudouin de Courtenay, Jr.

Occupation: Linguist
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay

Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (1845-1929) – językoznawca, uznawany za jednego z najwybitniejszych w historii dyscypliny. W latach 70. – 80. XIX wieku twórca szkoły kazańskiej w językoznawstwie. Wprowadził termin fonem w znaczeniu zbliżonym do współczesnego. Publicysta społeczny. Propagował także esperanto. Wikipedia PL

Jan Niecislaw Baudouin de Courtenay (March 13, 1845 - November 3, 1929) was a Polish linguist and slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations. For most of his life he worked at Imperial Russian universities: Kazan (1874-1883), Yuryev (as Tartu, Estonia was then known) (1883-1893), Kraków (1893-1899) and St. Petersburg (1900-1918)), where he was known as ???? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? (Ivan Aleksandrovich Boduen de Kurtene). In 1919-1929 he was a professor at the re-established Warsaw University in a once again independent Poland.

He was born March 13, 1845, in Radzymin, near Warsaw, to a family of distant French extraction. Descends from an aged French aristocratic kind leading the beginning from the Royal Louis VI and counting in the ranks the crusader Baldwin Flanders, subsequently of emperor Constantinople. One of his ancestors had been a French aristocrat who migrated to Poland during the reign of Polish King August II the Strong. In 1862 Baudouin entered the "Main School," a predecessor of Warsaw University. In 1866 he graduated from its historical and philological faculty and won a scholarship of the Russian Imperial Ministry of Education. Leaving Poland, he studied at various foreign universities, including those of Prague, Jena and Berlin. In 1870 he received a doctorate from the University of Leipzig for his Polish-language dissertation On the Old Polish Language Prior to the 14th Century.

Baudouin established the Kazan School of Linguistics in the mid-1870s and served as the professor at the local university from 1875. Later he was chosen as the head of linguistics faculty at the University of Yuryev (now Tartu, Estonia) (1883-1893). Between 1894 and 1898 he served the same post at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków only to be appointed to St. Petersburg, where he continued to refine his theory of phonetic alternations. After Poland regained her independence in 1918 he returned to Warsaw, where he formed the core of the linguistics faculty of the Warsaw University. Since 1887 he had a permanent seat in the Polish Academy of Skills and since 1897 he was a member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In 1925 he was one of the co-founders of the Polish Linguistic Society.

His work had a major impact on 20th century linguistic theory, and it served as a foundation for several schools of phonology. He was an early champion of synchronic linguistics, the study of contemporary spoken languages, and he had a strong impact on the structuralist linguistic theory of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. Among the most notable of his achievements is the distinction between statics and dynamics of languages and between a language, that is, an abstract group of elements, and speech (its implementation by individuals). Together with his student Miko?aj Kruszewski he also coined the term of phoneme.

Three major schools of 20th century phonology arose directly from his distinction between physiophonetic (phonological) and psychophonetic (morphophonological) alternations: the Leningrad School of Phonology, the Moscow School of Phonology, and the Prague School of Phonology. All three schools developed different positions on the nature of Baudouin's alternational dichotomy. The Prague School was the best known outside of the field of Slavic linguistics. Throughout his life he published hundreds of scientific works in Polish, Russian, Czech, Slovenian, Italian, French and German.

Outside of his scientific work, Baudouin de Courtenay was also a strong supporter of national revival of various national minorities and ethnic groups. In 1915 he was arrested by the Okhranka, Russian secret service, for publishing a brochure on autonomy of peoples under Russian rule. He spent 3 months in prison, but was released. In 1922, without his knowledge, he was proposed by the national minorities of Poland as a presidential candidate, but was defeated in the third round of voting in Polish parliament and eventually Gabriel Narutowicz was chosen. He was also and active esperantist and president of the Polish Esperanto Association.

He died in Warsaw. In 1927 he formally withdrew from the Roman Catholic Church without joining any other religious denomination. He is buried at the Warsaw Reformed Cemetery with an epitaph: “He sought the truth and justice.”

His daughter, Cezaria Baudouin de Courtenay Ehrenkreutz J?drzejewiczowa was one of the founders of Polish school of ethnology and anthropology as well as a professor at the universities of Wilno and Warsaw.

Foto - http://www.ra.ee/fotis/index.php?type=2&id=406301

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Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay's Timeline

1845
March 13, 1845
Radzymin, Radzymin / Wołomin, Mazowieckie, Poland
1885
August 2, 1885
Tartu, Estonia
1887
1887
1888
November 17, 1888
Dorpat
1892
1892
Tartu, Tartumaa
1897
1897
1929
November 3, 1929
Age 84
Warszawa, Mazowieckie, Poland
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Warszawa, Mazowieckie, Poland