Jean-Baptiste Sicard Sicard, Sieur de Carufel

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Jean-Baptiste Sicard Sicard, Sieur de Carufel

Also Known As: "Sieur de Carufel"
Birthdate: (78)
Birthplace: Saint-Jacques, Castres, Castres, Tarn, France
Death: August 1742 (78)
Maskinonge, Quebec, Canada
Place of Burial: Maskinongé, Quebec, Canada
Immediate Family:

Son of Pierre Sicard, seigneur de la Lande and Marie De Forgues
Husband of Geneviève Raté, Ratté
Father of Ursule Sicard dite Carufel; Marie-Anne Sicard; Jean Sicard De Carufel; Joseph Sicard de Carufel, Sieur de Carufel; Louis Sicard dit Desrives and 7 others

Occupation: Seigneur, sergent et Enseigne, Officier-Sergent
Managed by: Andrea Bernadette Twiss-Brooks
Last Updated:

About Jean-Baptiste Sicard Sicard, Sieur de Carufel

Noble Officier Sergent

Married 27 Nov 1694 St-Pierre, Ille-D'Orleans, Montmorency, Quebec, Canada to Genevieve Rate
At the age of 19, Jean-Baptiste [Pierre and Marie de Fargue's son] joined the Marine Troops under the command of Capitan [Écuyer ] François-Marie-Renaud d'Avesne des Meloizes. The Company, recruited by the new governor, Jacques-René Brisay de Denonville, was integrated into the 500-man detachment that left the port of LaRochelle in 1685. During the Atlantic crossing scurvy and typhoid claimed 60 victims. Eighty more soldiers were hospitalised at the Hôtel-Dieu -- already overcrowed with 300 fever patients -- upon their arrival in Quebec on August 1, 1685. [In 1685 The population of New France was 10,725 French and 1,538 settled savages.]

After only a few weeks rest, Denonville and his men left for Fort Frontenac (Kingston). The Governor found the colony in horrible disarray, hundreds of colonists had abandoned their land to become coureurs de bois. In addition to the challenge of social reform, Denonville was faced with the imminent danger presented by the Iroquois and the English surrounding the French possessions.

The first mention of Jean's presence in New France is the act in the Notre-Dame de Quebec church register dated 20 January 1686 in which the young nobleman renounced his faith. According to the "Acte d'Abjuration", Jean SICARD, native of the parish of St. Jacques in the city of Castres-d'Albigeois in Haut-Languedoc, a sergent in the regiment of Renaud d'Avesnes des Meloizes recanted from the pretended reformed religion [a fait abjuration de la religion pretendue reformee] before Jean Baptiste DE LACROIX DE ST VALLIER, Bishop of Quebec. Witnesses were: Jacques DEBRISAY DE DENONVILLE, Governor, Lieutenant General of the Army, Quebec and his wife Catherine COURTIN. [The fact that Jean recanted his faith would support the notion he was either a Cathare -- one of the many Albigeois who suffered religious persecution and fled from France c1538-1750 or a Protestant.]

On June 13, 1687, at the head of 832 marine troops, more than 900 militiamen and 400 indigenious allies, Denonville headed up-river resolved to crush the Tsonnontouans who, with arms furnished by the New York English, were harassing the colony in the southern Lake Ontario/Niagara region. Fort Denonville was built "on the same side as Fort Conti, which is today the site of Fort Niagara, USA, opposite Niagara -on-the-Lake." Before returning to Montreal, Governor Denonville, left about 100 men under the command of Raymond Blaise des Bergères de Rigauville. Scurvy and the Iroquois wiped out all but Blaise and twelve men. [Although not documented, it is probable that the young Sicard de Carufel took part in the manoeuvres as Capitan Raymond Blaise was his commanding officer and among the twelve who survived the winter of 1687-88.] From 1690 to 1720 the fort was abandoned.

Towards the end of 1688, shortly after returning to Montreal, Raymond Blaise des Bergères replaced Captain François Lefebvre-Duplessis-Faber as the head of the troops stationed at Fort Louis in Chambly. A duel between the two men on July 15, 1689 landed both in prison. They were tried the next day in Montreal. On November 16, the Souvereign Council absolved them and ordered Lefebvre to pay Blaise 600 pounds in damages. According to the transcript, Jean Sicard de Carufel, first sergeant in the Company was called to care for Blaise des Bergères' wound.

Jean returned to France in 1696 and, on May 22, in a ceremony held before a notary in Castres, the noble Jean Sicard, lord of Farguettes, officer in the Marine Troops in Canada, declared his loyalty and respect for his father, Pierre Sicard, and, in addition to words of affection and courtesy by Pierre, was emancipated and declared free to make his own decisions.

There are indications that Jean bore arms with "de geules, au paon rouant d'or, au chef cousu d'azur chargé de trois étoiles d'argent." -- registered to the St. Maurice de Coudols family. [There is no indication that, following the Sicards being declared nobles at the Montpellier tribunal of 1669, the family registered their own coat of arms.]

Jean returned to Nouvelle France and, on March 18 1704 after living ten years in Saint-Pierre d'Orléans, had the sale of property to his brother-in-law, Pierre Ratté notarised by Etienne Jacob. At the time of the birth of their fifth child, Louis, in March 1705, Jean and Geneviève were living in Maskinonge in the seigneurie des Legardeur de Repentigny. The Governor, Marquis Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil (1703-1726) and the intendant François de Beauharnois officially granted Jean Sicard the fief de Carufel on April 21, 1705 in an "Acte de concesson.

The domain, two leagues [a "lieue" is an old unit of measure about 4 km] across by the same depth was in the area now known as Saint Justin. "de l'espace de terre qui reste dans la riviére Maskinongé, dans le lac St. Pierre, depuis celle qui a esté cy-devant concédée au sieur Le Gardeur jusqu'au premier sault de la dite riviére, ce qui contient deux lieues ou environ de front sur pareille profondeur En titre de Fief et seigneurie, haute, moyenne et basse justice." In return, Jean, an officer in the troops of the marine detachment, made an act of faith and hommage for the fief and seigneurie to de Vaudreuil et de Beauharnois.

Under the French seigneurial regime, seigneurs were duty-bound to promote colonization by providing "immigrants with favourable conditions for the settlement and agricultural development ..." [Translated] "From the time he took possession of his fief," wrote l'abbé Hermann Plante, "the lord of Carufel attempted to establish himself; but the timing was not good. In 1705, it was difficult to move away from the Saint Lawrence River. The clearing of the seigneurie in Maskinongé wasn't advanced enough to provide for colonisation... fear of the Iroquois still existed. The peace treaty signed four years earlier in Montreal between the French and the savages buried the hatchet but the Indians hypocritical temperment made attracting settlers difficult. The 1701 treaty, still unproven and providing no guarantees, did little to aid the lord of Carufel in attracting settlers to move far from the river... But the lord was aging," adds l'abbé Plante, "he didn't want to die before realising the profits from his land." After vain attempts to attract his companions to follow him, around 1720 Jean travelled up the Maskinongé River, the only route at the time, and, with his sons, began working on the south-west side about a quarter of a league from the Maskinongé fief.

In a statement/ennumeration of 19 February 1723, Jean declared a sixteen foot square house enclosed by a pallisade and three acres of workable land. Few seigneurs could afford to live off their annual rents and, unless a seigneurie has 25-50 settled families, maintenance costs generally surpassed revenues. While clearing the land, at least until 1732, Jean continued his military career as Ensign of the Troops of the colony. There are also several transactions recorded in the minutes of Pierre Petit including an agreement August 16, 1728 with the Ursulines of Trois-Rivières ending a land boundary dispute.

The 27 January 1737, the land-clearing septuagenarian made his testament in favour of his children. Four years later, in 1741, Jean Sicard de Carufel witnessed the sale of portions of his land as his children sold their share to their brother-in-law, Jean-François Baril-Duchesny, spouse of Geneviève. The old officer-colonist-lord descended from the French aristocracy did not survive long afterwards. He died in August 1743 at the age of 77.

Eight of Jean's ten children married before their father's death; the others married in 1745 and 1751.

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Jean-Baptiste Sicard Sicard, Sieur de Carufel's Timeline

April 27, 1664
Saint-Jacques, Castres, Castres, Tarn, France
August 1, 1685
Age 21
Saint Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, France
August 1, 1685
Age 21
Saint Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, France
September 17, 1695
Age 31
Saint-Pierre-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, L'Île-d'Orléans Regional County Municipality, Québec, Canada
July 12, 1698
Age 34
Saint-Pierre, Île d'Orléans, Québec, Canada
June 11, 1700
Age 36
Saint-Pierre, Île d'Orléans, Québec, Canada
June 12, 1701
Age 37
Saint-Pierre, Île d'Orléans, Québec, Canada
January 25, 1705
Age 40
Trois Rivières, St-Maurice, Québec, Canada