About Jean III de Grailly
Sir Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch KG
(d. Paris, 7 September 1376), son of Jean II de Grailly, Captal de Buch, Vicomte de Benauges, and Blanch de Foix, was a cousin of the Counts of Foix and a renowned military leader in the Hundred Years' War who was praised by the chronicler Jean Froissart as an ideal of chivalry.
Attached to the English side in the conflict, he was made Count of Bigorre by Edward III of England, and was also a founder and the fourth Knight of the Garter in 1348. He played a decisive role as a cavalry leader under Edward, the Black Prince in the Battle of Poitiers in 1356.
In 1364 he commanded the forces of Charles II of Navarre in Normandy, where he was defeated and captured by Bertrand du Guesclin at Cocherel. After his release the following year, he defected to the French side and was made lord of Nemours by Charles V of France. However, he soon re-established his loyalty to the English, and in 1367 he went to Spain with the Black Prince, fighting at the Battle of Nájera. Here he again faced Bertrand du Guesclin, but this time it was du Guesclin who was captured, and the Captal was put in charge of the prisoner. He was rewarded for his service by being made the Constable of Aquitaine in 1371.
Again fighting for the English, he commanded an English relief force when the French attacked La Rochelle in 1372. While attempting to lift the siege of Soubise his force was surprised by a French force led by Owain Lawgoch, a Welsh soldier of fortune in the French service. The Captal and Sir Thomas Percy, seneschal of Poitou, were captured. The Captal spent the remainder of his life as a prisoner at the Temple in Paris because Charles V believed him too dangerous to ransom back to the English.
Froissart gives an account of the Captal de Buch's chivalry and courage at the time of the peasant uprising in 1358 called the Jacquerie (see link).
Since he left no heirs from his marriage to Rose d' Albret, his uncle, Archambaud, count of Foix and of Bigorre took the title Captal de Buch, which passed to his descendants the Counts of Foix.
Arms of Jean III de Grailly, captal de Buch
Notes The arms of Jean III de Grailly and his heirs consist of:
Crest A man's head in profile with asses' ears Argent.
Escutcheon Or, on a cross Sable five escallops Argent.
1.^ Beltz, George, Memorials of the Most Noble Order of the Garter From its Foundation to the Present time, (Kessinger Publishing), 29-30. 2.^ Beltz, 30. 3.^ Nicolle, David, and Graham Turner, Poitiers 1356: The Capture of a King, (Osprey Publishing, 2004), 17. 4.^ Nicolle, 17. 5.^ Wagner, John A., Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006), 139. 6.^ Macauly, Gregor (2010). "The Arms of the Founder Knights of the Garter". The New Zealand Armorist: The Journal of the Heraldry Society of New Zealand 114 (Autumn 2010): 9–11.  ReferencesBeltz, George, Memorials of the Most Noble Order of the Garter From its Foundation to the Present time, Kessinger Publishing. Nicolle, David, and Graham Turner, Poitiers 1356: The Capture of a King, Osprey Publishing, 2004. Turnbull, Stephen. The Book of the Medieval Knight. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1985. ISBN 0-85368-715-3 Wagner, John A., Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006.
Froissart on the Jacquerie Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911: Captal