About John Coode, Colonial Governor of Maryland
John Coode (c. 1648, Cornwall – February or March 1709) is best known for leading a rebellion that overthrew Maryland's colonial government in 1689. He participated in four separate uprisings and briefly served as Maryland's governor (1689–1691) as the 1st Leader of the Protestant Associators.
Coode was born in Penryn, Cornwall, Kingdom of England about 1648, to a wealthy Cornish family. He attended Oxford University when he was only 16 years old and in 1669, Coode became an Anglican priest. In 1672, he journeyed to Maryland.
Coode served as a minister briefly in the colony, but soon renounced his priesthood in order to marry a wealthy widow, Susannah Slye. Susannah’s father, Thomas Gerrard, was an important figure in the colony, but had his grievances towards the ruling Calvert family. This relationship helped influence Coode's growing disfavor towards the Maryland government.
After his marriage to Susannah, Coode became involved in the affairs of the Colony. Over the next few years, he was appointed a captain of the militia, a justice in Saint Mary's County, and elected to the Maryland Assembly.
In 1681, Coode took part in a rebellion against the government. It is not known exactly what role he played in this plot, but after its ensuing failure, he was arrested along with former Maryland governor, Josias Fendall (ca. 1628-1687). Coode was later freed on bail, but he was removed from office and viewed as a dissident of the Calverts. Charles Calvert described both Fendall and Coode as "rank Baconists", comparing both men with the 1676 rebellion which had caused great disruption in neighbouring Virginia. Fendall was banished from Maryland, but Coode escaped punishment.
Protestant Revolution of 1689
In 1689, Coode planned another rebellion. An increasing number of Protestants had been moving to Maryland and they began to resent the fact that most political offices were held by Catholics or other close friends of the Calverts. Many Protestants were also upset because Maryland's government had not yet recognized the new Protestant king and queen of England, William and Mary, who had seized power from the Catholic King James II in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
In April 1689, John Coode helped lead "An association in arms, for the defence of the Protestant religion, and for asserting the right of King William and Queen Mary to the Province of Maryland and all the English dominions." Coode raised an army against Maryland's Catholic leaders, which was helped by a rumor he spread warning that the Catholics had invited the native tribes to come and kill the Protestants.
Coode's army of 700 men attacked the state house, a symbol of the proprietary government's authority and home to the colony's records. His army then marched into Saint Mary's City and forced the council to surrender power to them, defeating a proprietarial army led by Colonel Henry Darnall. Darnall later wrote: "Wee being in this condition and no hope left of quieting the people thus enraged, to prevent effusion of blood, capitulated and surrendered."  The victorious Coode and his Puritans set up a new government that outlawed both Catholicism and Anglicanism, and Darnall was deprived of all his official positions.
Coode was now in control of the colony, and on August 1, 1689, assumed the responsibility of the government under the title 'Commander-in-Chief'. He remained in power until the new royal governor, Nehemiah Blakiston was appointed on July 27, 1691. For a while, Coode participated in the new government, but he again became dissatisfied and would participate in two more uprisings against the colonial leadership.
In 1699, he was accused of speaking out against the Christian faith and was put on trial for blasphemy. A jury found him guilty and sentenced him to pay a 20 pound sterling fine and to be bored through the tongue with a red hot iron. However, the governor at the time, Nathanial Blakiston, pardoned him in respect for his past service in the rebellion of 1689.
Coode remained popular with the residents of Maryland who attempted to elect him to the Assembly, but the council used the fact that he had once been a priest to keep him out of the government. He spent the remainder of his life outside of the colony's politics. He died in February or March 1709.
In the Summer of 1689, the John COODE of St. Mary's County , Province of Maryland, impatient over the failure of the Catholic Lord Baltimore (Charles Calvert) to recognize the newly-crowned Protestant King William, led a bloodless coup d'etat. There was much tension in the province due to religion ruling politics and government, with the exclusive Roman Catholic government of the Proprietor, Lord Baltimore, limiting the political rights of an overwhelming Protestant citizenry. John COODE decided to take matters into his own hands, by forming the " Association in Arms for the Defence of the Protestant Religion ". This succesful and bloodless uprising began in August 1689 and was called " Coode's Rebellion " and the " Glorious Revolution of Maryland ". This was an important event in the history of Maryland, forever disenfranchising Roman Catholics, installing a Protestant government, ending religous freedom, and establishing the Anglican Church of England as the only Church of Maryland.
John COODE's eminent biographer, David W. Jordan, has published a short web version of Coode's exploits in Maryland.
John COODE was peripherally associated with Combs families, especially through his father-in-law's family, that of Dr. Thomas Gerard of Clement's Hundred, St. Mary's County, Maryland. This article will point out the COMBS links to John COODE. John COODE and two of his brothers-in-law, Nehemiah Blackistone and Kenelym Cheseldyne, were co-conspirators in the Glorious Revolution of Maryland . This fervor my have first eminated from the Gerard family as Dr. Thomas Gerard was a dissident over excessive taxation and often in opposition to the Catholic proprietor. Gerard owned land in Northumberland County, Virginia (later Westmoreland County) where he stayed during times of his personna non grata status in Maryland.
The study of Rev. John COODE requires knowledge of the family of his father-in-law, Dr. Thomas GERARD, of St. Clement's Hundred, St. Mary's County, Maryland, who was also a member of Lord Baltimore's Council. Dr. Thomas GERARD (1608-1673) was a Catholic, and came from a noble lineage of Catholics who were activists against the Protestant royalty in England. Thomas Gerard's uncle, Rev. John Gerrard, S. J., was convicted of conspiracy in the infamous Gunpowder Plot in 1605, and was tortured in the Tower of London. Dr. Thomas Gerard's relative, Sir Thomas Gerard, Lord Baron of Byrne, was one of the Catholic gentry who financed Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore, for the initial colonization of Maryland in 1634. On that expedition of the ships Ark and Dove , were Richard Gerard, Knight-Baronett (and son of Sir Thomas Gerard), brother or cousin of Dr. Thomas Gerard, and a sister, Ann Gerard Cox. Sir Thomas Gerard had been granted land at St. Clements Hundred , over 16,000 acres. Dr. Thomas Gerard was named Lord of the Manor at St. Clements Hundred in 1734.
Interestingly, Thomas Gerard of St. Mary's County, Maryland, married a Protestant, Susannah SNOWE (c1610-c1666), and raised their eight children as Protestants. Thomas Gerard was the freeholder over St. Clement's Hundred, a large tract of some 20,000 + acres between the Wicomico River and St. Clement's Bay.
Children of Dr. Thomas Gerard and Susannah Snowe
m1 Mary Haywood
m2 Anne Pope
m1 Elizabeth Barber
m1 Wilkes Maunders
m3 Michael Curtis
m1 Bridget Faulkner
Beitzel, EW. Thomas Gerard and His Sons-In-Law, In: Hollowak, TL, Maryland Genealogies. A Consolidation of Articles from the Maryland Historical Magazine , vol. 1, Genalogial Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1980, pp. 478-495.
Walton, J. Gerard's Daughters, In: Hollowak, TL, Maryland Genealogies. A Consolidation of Articles from the Maryland Historical Magazine , vol. 1, Genalogial Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1980, pp. 496-503.
Freeman, M. & C. Freeman, Thomas Gerard Family ,http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Plains/8415/gerard.html
1650 -1665 Northumberland County, Virginia
18 October 1650 Thomas GERRARD , Gentleman, patented 1,000 acres in Northumberland County upon the south side of Potomeck River, beginning at the mouth of Herring Creek on the north side, which issues out of Nomeny River , for transportation of 20 persons: Thomas GERRARD, Susana GERRARD, Susa .his daughter, Temp. GERRARD, Fra. GERRARD, Justinian GERRARD , Henry CHELSLY and for adventure of a servt. __, Cornelius CANEDY, John GOLDSMITH , Mary STRONG, John SHANKS , Edw. SHELLY, John TAYLOR, Fra. HUTTON, John GERRARD , Richd. WRIGHT, Tho. DOWNE, Richd. WALDER, Joell GIBBS. Land due for 4 Indians. (Virginia Patent Book 2, p. 249, In; Nugent, N. M., Cavaliers and Pioneers. Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 , volume 1, Richmond, VA, p. 198.)
24 October 1655 Thomas GERARD patented 300 acres in Northumberland County, 200 acres abutting southerly upon land of Tho. KEDBY, westerly upon a creek issuing out of great Wicocomocoe River &c, 100 acres southerly upon land of said Kedby sold to John JOHNSON, westerly upon land said Gerrat [Gerrard] bought of Thomas WATTS , easterly upon land of Mr. James HAWLY, 200 acres granded unto Thomas WATTS, Junr. , 1 April 1650 & assigned to said Gerrard & 100 acres for transportation of 2 persons: Mary WESSON & Xpr [Christopher] PEIRCE. (Virginia Patent Book 4, p. 11, In: Nugent, N. M., Cavaliers and Pioneers. Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 , volume 1, Richmond, VA, p. 325.)
Thomas WATTS was the brother-in-law of Simon STACY of Stafford County, Virginia and Calvert County, Maryland. In 1688 Simon Stacy witnessed a deed of land, formerly owned by Archibald Combs in Stafford County. Stacy was the progenitor of the Stacy-Combs-Cody families of Stafford, Russell, and Lee Counties, Virginia, Surry County, North Carolina, and Perry County, Kentucky. The land of Archibald Combs was eventually sold to Parson John WAUGH of Overwharton Parish, Stafford County, a contemporary of Rev. John COODE.
Thomas Gerard lived at his aptly named Westmoreland County, Virginia, residence of 3,500 acres, Gerard's Reserve .
1662 January 9, patent of 1,000 acres in Northumberland County, Virginia to Thomas GERRARD on south side of Potomack River, north and north easterly upon Machotique (Matchotick) Creek opposite land of George LUDLOW, Esqr, east and south easterly upon land of Nich. JERNEW, assigned by Major William HOCKADAY to whom it was granted 3 April 1661. (Virginia Patent Book 4, p. 90, In: Nugent, N. M., Cavaliers and Pioneers. Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 , volume 1, Richmond, VA, p. 424. This land was re-patented 16 October 1665, Virginia Patent Book 5, pp. 425, 500, In: Cavelier and Pioneers , p. 552.).
Several of Thomas Gerard's children lived in Westmoreland County, Virginia, namely Justinian Gerard, John Gerard, and Frances Gerard. Robert Slye, son-in-law of Dr. Thomas Gerard, did not move from St. Mary's County, Maryland to Virginia, although he conducted business there.
1660 September 28. Peter BRACKET of Brantoye, merchant, in the County of Suffolk in New England, doe make my trusty and well beloved friend Mr. Robert SLYE of Matapony in Maryland my attornye to receive of Mr. Thomas LUND somewhere in Potomeck river all tobaccoes and bills as hee hath in his hands of mine.
Win: John MILLS , Francis ELIOTT
recorded 28 August 1661.
1657-1659 St. Mary's County Maryland
The seeds of discontent were sown in St. Mary's County prior to the arrival of John COODE in c1670-1672. His future father-in-law, Dr. Thomas GERARD, as a member of the Council, was active in the causes of ensuring instability in the government as early as 1658. Robert Slye's home, Bushwood , was the dowery of Susannah Gerard, daughter of Dr. Thomas Gerard, and wife of Robert. Bushwood Manor would remain a seat of sedition after Robert Slye's death, since John Coode would move in after marrying the widow, Susannah Gerrard Sly.
1658 October 5
That Whereas all persons of his Lordships Councell are by Oath bound the debates of the said Councell to keepe Secrett ... Yet so it is that Thomas GERRARD Esq of St Clements Mannor ...by him taken the Private debates of the Councell disclosed viz at Mr Robert SLYES house at or about the beginning of May last... false & scandalous speaches & Reports hath cast abroad .... Insinuateing Cunningly unto the People (viz at or about the beginning of May last at Mr Robert Slye aforesaid) that the Governor would yeald unto any thing ...requested by the People at Annarundell then & there sayeing the Governor will give them any thing or words to that effect. ... Sayeing what cares Captaine FENDALL what he gives away since there was never Governor yett but had halfe the Rents fines & forfeitures..
...Wherevpon were Read the depositions of Luke GARDNER & Walter PAKES ... Captaine Nicholas GUYTHER then sworne saith he was on board COVILLS ship with Mr GERRARD that he came from on board with him to Mr PACKERS landing that he can not sweare that he was Drinke but that he had bin drinking & further saith not Mr Henry COURSEY then sworne Also saith that he was on board of Covills ship with Mr Gerrard that the said Gerrard had drunke somthing extraordinary but was not so much in drinke but he could gett out of a Carts way & further saith not..
... the whole councell calleing them Rogues sayeing he would not sitt with such Rogues & in particular falsely Chargeing Captaine William Stone Mr Job Chandler & Doctor Luke Barber (three persons of his Lordships Councell eminent for theyr fidelitys & sufferings in his Lordships behalfe with secrett complyance with his Lordships Opposers then (viz Mr Richard BENNETT)...
Nowe so it is that the said Thomas GERRARD being on the 23th of March 1656 required to Attend the said Lieutenant at a Provinciall court to be houlden at Newtowne ... did willfully & malitiously refuse to attend his said Charge and Office... hath diverse times misbehaved himselfe & offended in Drunkennes & other Lewd behaviour ... I doe charge him with the sd Drunkenes & Lewd behaviour Comitted on board of Covills ship Rideing in St Georges River & in his passage from thence to Mr Edward Packers Landing & from that Landing in his passage up the River to Mr Thomas Mathews his house...
(Archives of Maryland, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1660-1661, volume 3, pp. 354-357.)
1660 Fendall's Rebellion
In 1655 the Puritans of Maryland took control of the government at the Battle of Severn, capturing the Governor, William Stone, executing many of the leaders, and thereby usurping the Catholic Proprietor, Lord Baltimore. Baltimore installed Josiah FENDALL, a Protestant, as his Lt. Governor in 1656 to retake control of the Maryland government, but truly under control of Parliament. But it took until 1658-1660, coincident with the overthrow of Puritan Oliver Cromwell in England, for negotiations in England successfully restore Lord Baltimore's authority and restored religious toleration.
John COODE's future father-in-law, Dr. Thomas GERARD, helped lead the failed 1659-1660 Fendall's Rebellion with Maryland's Lt. Governor Josias FENDALL, Robert SLYE, William BURGESS, John HATCH, and others. However, Dr. Thomas Gerard wa s a member of the Council, so his participation was truly treason.
At a Councell held at Mr Robert SLYES howse in Saint Clements Mannor in Saint Maryes County on ffryday 2 Marcy 1659
The Governor Josias FENDALL Esqr, Phillip Calvert Esqr Secretary Thomas GERRARD Esquier.
Present: Coll John Price Robert CLARKE Esqr Collonell Nathaniell Utye Baker Brookes Esqr Doctor Luke Barber
(Archives of Maryland, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland 1636 - 1667 , Volume 3, p. 383)
On 12 March 1659/60 at Bushwood , St. Clement's Hundred, the home of Robert SLYE, a meeting was held to constitute a new government that no longer held to Baltimore's authority, and which would not recognize the Upper House of the Assembly. Fendall and his supporters had control of the government into 1660.
Fendall and Gerard were indicted for sedition. Lord Baltimore wrote on the 24th August 1660:
Touching your proceeding with FFENDALL and his Complices I would have yow proceede against such of them as yow shall not thinke fitt to pardon, by inflicting upon them paines of death or any other punishment as the Provinciall Court shall adjudge, yea, if there be neede yow may proceede against them by Martiall lawe, and in a Court Martiall, and upon no tearmes to pardon ffendall so much as for life, nor if yow can doe it (without hazarding the regaineing of the Province, to pardon so much as for life any of those that sate in the Councell of warr at An Arundell, and Concurred to the Sentence of death against Mr Eltonhead, or other of my honest freinds then and there murthered, and have now againe engaged against me in this Second Rebellion, but to doe Justice upon them, and I shall justify yow in it, And if yow shall thinke fitt to pardon GERRARD or HATCH for life or Member, yet not to pardon either of them for loss of Estate or bannishment out of the Province unless yow find it necessary for the Resettiment of my Right, and the publick peace there, And this I hope is a positive directions, and such I have bene allwaies carefull to give as nere as I could Soe as I knowe not what they meane that Say I use to leave my selfe a hole to gett out at, for in directions at this distance somthing wilbe allwaies fitt to be left to the discression of them upon the place, and the way which upon such reasons is at any tyme left by me to their discressions is left to them not to myselfe. If yow cannott otherwise reduce ffendall I thinke yow may do well by proclamation to give a considerable reward to any that shall bring him alive, or his head to yow to be paid out of his Estate, or rather then faile out of my Revenue there, And the like for Gerrard or others as yow shall see Cause, But for the Gennerallity of the People excepting the persons abovementioned I thinke yow shall do well and I will have yow to proclaime a Gennerall Pardon to all of them that shall submitt to my Jurisdiction there forthwith upon the publication of the said Proclamation, and not Act anything afterwards against it, or my Right there.
(Archives of Maryland, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1660-1661, volume 3, pp. 396-397.)
Capt. John HATCH (1614-1681) was a Puritan of Charles County. His son-in-law was Lt. Governor Josias FENDALL who married Mary Hatch. Another son-in-law of Hatch, Capt. John DENT, participated in the 1681 uprising with Fendall and COODE. John Dent also was with COODE in 1689 for the Glorious Revolution as Captain of Foote for Choptico Hundred.
Josias Fendall and Thomas Gerard were found guilty of sedition, were banished from the province, and suffered confiscation of their estates and manors. Thomas Gerard, no doubt, went to Virginia to his plantation in Westmoreland County. In 1661, both Fendall and Gerrard petitioned the Council for pardons, which were granted, although both lost the priviledge of holding public office.
At a Councell held at Saint Marys 28th of February 1660. To the honoble the Governor and Councell of the Province of Maryland. The humble peticon of Thomas GERRARD . Sheweth Whereas yor peticonr his whole Estate was by this honoble Courte Confiscated, and his person banished this Province, whereby yor peticonr is made altogether incapable of Releiveing either himselfe, wife or Children and therefore humbly Implores the mercy and favor of the Right honoble the Lord Proprietary and of this honoble Courte that they will be pleased to mittigate their Judgemt both for the said Estate and Banishmt And yor petr shall ever pray &c. Thomas Gerrard .
Whereupon the Councell tooke into Consideracon the said peticon and Desired that the Sentence of Banishmt be by the Governor pardoned and that the said Thomas GERRARD be had held and reputed as a Freeman of this Province to all Intents and pourposes Saving that he shall not at any tyme beare office within this Province, nor have voyce in Electing nor be Elected Burgess in any Assembly for the future Provided the said Gerrard make Recognizance of tenn thousand weight of tobacco, to the Lord Proprietary for his Good behaviour towards the Governmt here.
And as to his Estate they further desired that he might have itt restored in Statu quo prius (vizt) before Judgemt passed in the Provinciall Courte paying his just fees to the Sherriffe and officers of the Courte and chargeing a bill of Exchange for one hundred pounds Sterling payable in London at tenn Dayes sight to some person whome the Governor shall appoynte and Give bond to pay five thousand weight of tobacco next Crop to the Lord Proprietary And that after Recognizance entred and bill of Exchange and bond Given as aforesaid he may have a pardon under the greate Seale according to the Intent of theis presents
(Archives of Maryland, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1660-1661, volume 3, pp. 405-407.)
1668 Westmoreland County, Virginia
Robert SLYE, husband of Susannah Gerard (later the wife of Rev. John COODE), was one of several men who testified against Mr. Richard COLE to the court in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Robert Slye was a member of the Lower House in Maryland, acting as the speaker in 1663-1664. Richard Cole was quoted as calling the Governor of Virginia, Sir William Berkeley, along with prominent persons of the county, some very unpleasant names. Was this Richard Cole a premonition of Bacon's Rebellion (1676) against Berkeley, or merely the rantings of an intoxicated man?
Deposition of Richard SEARLES... he asked your deponent if he could tell who wett his capp at Mr. HARDWICKES. Your deponent replyed he knew not, whereupon COLE said it was either that rogue HARDWICK or HUTT, or else that ass-Negro driver WASHINGTON, but I will have them all before the Governor and Councell for they are a company of catepiller followes....I know said hee the Governor loves a prettie wooman, therefore send downe my wife and my buisenesse will goe well enough.. .
Deposition of Robert SLYE... on the Honorable Sir William Berkeley saying that he was a raskall and that he had a Knight of Malta for his pimpe that was a better man than he... Major Gennll. Smith he said was a foole and a loggarhead with one of which termes he villyfyed the Honorable the Governor of Maryland and the Chancellor both, Mr. Isaac ALLERTON'S father (dead many years since)....
Deposition of James COLESTRAM (former servant to Col. Thomas Speake, brother-in-law of Rev. John COODE)... Mr. Richard Cole did rayle against the Right Honorable Sir William Berkeley in most obsceane and filthy languadge, saying he was a loggarhead and a puppie to call him a foole and that he had fucked him out of twenty pounds sterling and that he would neither be kicked nor fucked out of his money by never a Governor of Christendome, and since God damn him he would tell him soe...
(Dorman, J. F., Westmoreland County, Virginia Deeds, Patents, Etc. 1665-1677. Part 0ne With Records, 1664-1665, From Deeds and Wills No. 1, 1653-1671., 1973, Washington, D.C., pp. 31-33.)
A Richard Cole came to Maryland in 1634 as a transported passenger on the one of the ships Ark or Dove , the expedition of Leonard CALVERT to start the Maryland Colony. Was this the same Richard COLE who was a neighbor to Dr. Thomas Gerard and Col. Isaac Allerton (see below for more on Isaac) in Westmoreland County, Virginia? It might be a surprise to the reader that a Richard Cole was also a justice in Northumberland County.
1661 August 20, Mr. Richard COLE, Merchant, patented 1,350 acres in Northumberland County beginning at a poynt at the east side of the mouth of Machoticque River extending along Potomack east by north &c to a tree dividing this & land of James HURD, to land of Mr. Isaak ALLERTON &c 1,050 acres granted to Wm GOOWER 18 February 1650 & 300 acres the residue for transportation of 6 persons: Jno EDWARDS, Jno. WILLIAMS, Susan EDMOND, Edwd. JAMES, Peter STORY, Hanah DEW.
(Virginia Patent Book 4, p. 323, In: Nugent, N. M., Cavaliers and Pioneers. Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 , volume 1, Richmond, VA, p. 403.)
Richard COLE (d. 1764), Merchant, testified on behalf of Dr. Thomas Gerard in a lawsuit filed by Rev. Peter TEMPLE, step-father of George LUDLOW, Esq, minor, and son of Thomas LUDLOW of York County, Virginia, over young George Ludlow's land having been encroached upon by Gerard's survey claims. Richard Cole later characterized Dr. Thomas Gerrard as a hog thief and...
"a base fellow and a whoremaster and that he would be with a Negro woman or an Indian woman when he wished "
(Westmoreland County Deeds and Patents, 1665-1677, p. 24, In: Billings, W. M., Temple v. Gerard, 1667: An Example of Appellate Practices in Colonial Virginia , Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 94, No. 1, January 1986, pp. 88-107).
Col. Isaac ALLERTON Jr (1627/30-1702) was the son of Puritan Isaac ALLERTON, Sr of Plymouth Colony , " dead many years since ", and his second wife, Fear Brewster. Isaac ALLERTON Sr (c1583/86-1659) came to America on the Mayflower , from Leiden, Holland. He was the uncle of John COMBS of Plymouth Colony, and the brother-in-law of Digory PRIEST, who married Sarah ALLERTON. Isaac Allerton Sr died 1659 testate in New Haven, CT, but had extensive business dealings in the Atlantic coast colonies, including Virginia.
Isaac ALLERTON Jr was married 1) Elizabeth and 2) Elizabeth widow of Thomas WILLOUGHBY. Isaac Allerton, Jr's daughter, Mary ALLERTON, married John NEWTON, step-son of Rose (maiden name unknown), widow of Dr. Thomas GERARD. Col. Isaac Allerton Jr. also lived on land on Matchotick Creek, near Dr. Thomas Gerard.
1660 September 30 Henry CORBIN, Gentleman, Capt. Peter ASHTON, & Mr. William THOMAS, patented 900 acres in Northumberland County beginning on land of John SHEAPARD & Nicholas JERNEW, north westerly on Major HOCCADAY, northeasterly on said Hoccaday and LUDLOW, northwesterly to land of Mr. ALLERTON & southwesterly on Col. LEE. (Virginia Patent Book 4, p. 476, In; Nugent, N. M., Cavaliers and Pioneers. Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 , volume 1, Richmond, VA, p. 409.)
1662 March 28 Isaak ALLERTON patented 500 acres in Westmoreland County, 300 acres on south side of Lower Machotique River , 2 miles up the same & near Oyster Shell Poynt & 200 acres bounding southeasterly towards said land &c, 2 white oaks being in a line of division between this & land of Mr. Henry VINCENT, northeasterly upon land of Capt. Richard WRIGHT & southwesterly on land of Jno. HAWKINS, 300 acres granted to George WATTS 19 October 1653, assigned to Jno Wood who assigned to Said ALLERTON & 200 acres for transportation of 4 persons: Anthony HARRIS, Stephen HARRIS, Peter MACRO, Wm. ANDREWES. (Virginia Patent Book 4, p. 315, In; Nugent, N. M., Cavaliers and Pioneers. Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 , volume 1, Richmond, VA, p. 401.)
1665 October 20 Mr. Isaak ALLERTON , patented 1,600 acres in Northumberland County, south side of Potomack River & eastward side of Machotigue River alias Trent, beginning on the south side of a vallie or marsh deviding this & land of Wm. GOOCH, up the river south southwesterly to a Creek issuing out of said River Trent deviding this from land of Mr. Richd. LEE & granted to Lewis BURWELL on 17 October 1650, & assigned to Richd. TURNY 3 September 1651, who assigned to the above. (Virginia Patent Book 5, p. 431, In; Nugent, N. M., Cavaliers and Pioneers. Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 , volume 1, Richmond, VA, p. 334.
Isaac ALLERTON Jr and John LEE were members of the Virginia Council, and officers in the Westmoreland County militia. Isaac Allerton Jr also owned land in Stafford County, Virginia, adjoining Joseph COMBS I of Aquia Creek. Dr. Thomas Gerard was a business partner with Henry CORBIN, Isaac ALLERTON, and John LEE in 1670 in Westmoreland County, Virginia, typified as " Bon Vivants ", who together built a banquet hall where their lands adjoined each other.
1669 St. Mary's County, Maryland
Dr. Thomas GERARD'S overseer was Philip COMBE, who arrived in St. Mary's County, Maryland, in 1664. Philip claimed 150 acres, later identified as Coomes Purchase in Charles County, for transporting his wife Elizabeth COMBE and servant Sarah HOWGATE in 1658 and himself in 1664. Philip also declared that he was a resident of Charles County and that he was the former overseer of Thomas GERRARD of St. Mary's County. Philip was sued by Thomas GERRARD in 1665.
County of St Marys ss: To the Honble the Gouernor & Councell of the Prouince of Maryland The humble petn of Thomas GERRARD agst Philip COMBES -Most humbly sheweth That whereas yor petr formerly (that is to say) in the yeare of Our Lord 1663 in the Month of March did agree and Contract wth the said Philip COMBES serve yor petr for the yeare then next ensueing as his Overseer for and untill the prfecting and finishing of one Cropp of tobaccoe and doeing and prforming of other Services and Labours, by vertue whereof the said COMBES into the said service Entred dureing which aforesaid time of his service he had & received of and from yo petr severall Goods and merchan dizes: and allsoe the said COMBES did otherwise dampnifye yor petr during his said service to the vallue of Two thowsand pounds of tobacco, soe that yor Petr was made worse and had damage by the said COMBES the sume and quantity of two thowsand fower hundd and seaventy pounds of tobaccoe and Caske, all which yor petr hath often in freindly manner requested the sd COMBES to pay which he the said COMBES hath heitherto refused to doe and still doth refuse to yor petitionrs damage of three thowsand pounds of tobaccoe and Caske- May it therefore please yor Honnors to Consider the prmisses and grant yor petitioner Ordr against the said COMBES for his damages aforesaid his Costs-And as in duty bound
(Archives of Maryland, Proceedings of the Provincial Court, 1663-1666 , Volume 49, pp. 461-462).
1669 At a Council held of the Right Honble the Lord Proprietary held at Saint Marys the 15th day of December 1669. Present Philip Calvert Esq William Calvert Esqr Jerome White Esqr Councillors Baker Brooke Esqr Samuel Chew Esqr His Lordships Instructions concerning the Annual Rent of 4s for every hundred Acres was debated several Pattents being in the hands of the honble the Chancellor before the receipt of his Lordships Instructions whereof were signed by the Honble Charles Calvert Esqr Governor before his departure out of this Province resolved that those only pass the Seal and are as follows
...Philip COMBS 150 acres...
(Archives of Maryland, Volume 5, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland 1667-1687/8 , p. 59)
1670 October 10, Charles County, Maryland Liber E, p. 82, Indenture from Philip COOMES of St. Mary's Co., planter, to John ALLEN , for 3,000 lb tobacco; a parcel of land called Coome's Purchase on the west side of Wicomico's main fresh ; bound by a swamp and John COATES; laid out for 150 acres; signed: Philip COOMES ; witnesses: Rich. EDLEN, __ MOORE. (Jourdan, E. G., Abstracts of Charles County Circuit Court and Land Records 1694-1722 , Volume III , 1994, Knoxville, TN, p. 27)
1680 August 10. Liber H, p. 334. Indenture from Thomas GERRARD , Gent. to Richard ROBINSON for 4,000 lb tobacco, a tract of land called Combe's Purchase , on the west side of Wicomico main fresh adjoining land of John COATES, laid out for 150 acres; signed: Tho. GERARD ; witnesses: Tho. LOMAX , Alexander SMITH (mark), John POSEY (mark) (Jourdan, E. G., Abstracts of Charles County Circuit Court and Land Records , Volume II, 1990, Knoxville, TN, p. 62)
John Allen owned a Mill on Piscataway Creek, near Randolph HANSON and John TENNISON. During Bacon's Rebellion, John COODE was deployed to the mill area to survey the damage from an Indian attack at Randolph HANSON'S home. However, the lands on Wicomico are apparently at or closer to St. Clement's Hundred.
1671 St. Mary's County, Maryland
Robert SLYE, husband of Susannah Gerard, died in 1671 and left a Last Will & Testament naming his children. These would be the step-children raised by John COODE and Susannah after their marriage in 1673.
Robert SLYE of Bushwood St. Clements Mannor, St. Maries County, Province of Maryland, merchant; little daughters Elizabeth and Francis- Rich Neck lyeing between Matopeny and Bushwood , equally divided between them at the time of marriage or at sixteen years of age; kinsman Mr Strangwayes Mudd of London; youngest son Robert- Lapworth ,Norwood Lapworth Lodge &Cher Doule , 3 other tracts adjoining, if son dies before age 18, then equally to remaining children; wife Susannah SLYE- all stock, dwelling house and 1/2 land at Bushwood during her life and afterward to son Gerard; eldest son Gerard SLYE- rest of estate real & personal; son Gerard sole executor, if he dies before age 18, then friends Mr Thomas NOTLEY & Mr Benjamin HOLLY, brothers Mr Justinian GERARD & Mr Nehemiah BLACKISTONE; sole guardianship of children to wife during their minority, if she dies to Mr. Benjamin HOLLY & Nehemiah BLACKISTONE; if all children die without heirs, 1,000 acres Bushwood to brothers-in-law Thomas GERARD, John GERARD & sister-in-law Mary GERARD, Rich Neck to eldest son of my sister Mrs Elizabeth RUSSELL of London, Lapworth to my nephew Timothy COOPER, Norwood Lapworth Lodge &Cher Donte to nephew Thomas COOPER both of Springfield in New England; signed: 10 January 1670 by Robert Slye (seal); witnessed 18 January 1670 by John BLACKTISON, Ebenezer BLACKISTON, John (his mark) BULLOCK, Mary GERARD; proved 13 March 1670 by Mr. John BLACKISTONE, Mrs. Mary GERARD
1673 Westmoreland County, Virginia
Susannah Snowe GERARD died about 1663, and Dr. Thomas Gerard remarried to Rose, widow of John Tucker. John and Rose TUCKER lived in Westmoreland County, Virginia, where John Tucker left a will in 1671 and died in 1673. Dr. Thomas Gerard's will was probated in both Westmoreland County, Virginia and in St. Mary's County, Maryland.
Will of Tho: GARRAD of Machotecks in the County of Westmoreland, Esqr. dated 1 Feb. 1672/73. To be buried as nigh as possibly I can to my deceased wife Susanna Garrard . The personall estate to me belonging either in the province of Maryland, in the Colony of Virginia and the Kingdome of England, upon the seas or any other place of the world, unto my sonne John GARRARD and my loving and deare wife Rose whome I appoynt joynt executors....Unto my daughter Mary 30,000 pounds of tobacco...foure seates of land: all the land in Mr White's Neck lying on the right hand of the path that leades from Mattapany bridge downe the next unto my sonne in law BLAXTONE'S or Jno: SHANKES now in my owne occupation, one other parcell of land called St. Katheren's Island in the occupation of Jno. DENNIS , 300 acres more in Broad Neck lying betwene one Mr. COLE and Mr. SALLES , likewise in my owne occupation, 100 acres more, Westwood Lodge , now in the possession of Samll. DODSON , being in the County and Province of Maryland, after she doth arrive at the adge of one and twenty yeares or day of marriadge...Unto my eldest sonne Justinian one moety of that mannor of St. Clement's , and the other moety to my loving and deare wife Rose during hir naturall life... Unto my yongest sonne [John] moeity of those lands called Bassford Manor and the other to my deare wife Rose during her naturall life...Unto my yongest sonne John one moity of that land in Virginia called Garrard's Reserve at Lower Machotock in Westmoreland County and the other halfe to my dear and loving wife Rose during her naturall life ... Unto my grandchild Garrard PAYTON one young Negro about a year or two of adge within one yeare after my decease. Unto my daughter Mary her choyce of all the Negro girles borne in my custody (the intent and meaning is that she take only one out of all), also one horse and one mare. Unto each of three sonnes and five daughters that shall survive me twenty shillings sterling to buy each a mourning ring in remembrance of me, and also soe much to my sonnes in law ,daughters in law and grandchildren . I have given two mares marked G T for the use of Garrard TUCKER ...Unto my Negro boy baptized and named Thos . 1,000 pounds of tobacco for his learning and education... Unto my eldest sonne Justinian my whole right to any land in the Kingdome of England...
Wit: Jno WAUGH, Isaack ALLERTON, J. LEE , Jno. COOPER.
19 9ber 1673. Proved by Mr. Jno WAUGH ,Majr. Isaack ALLERTON and Cap: Jno: LEE .
(Dorman, J. F. Westmoreland County, Virginia Deeds, Patents, Etc. 1665-1677. Part Two . 1973, Washington, D. C., pp. 67-68)
1672/3 February 5. St. Mary's Co., MD, Thomas GERRARD of Mathotick River, formerly of St. Clement's Manor, St. Mary's County. To Daughter Mary, 4 seats of land in St. Mary's Co., St. Katharine's Manor, Westwood Lodge ; to eldest son Justinian part of St. Clement's Manor , and any land in England; to wife Rose, one-half of St. Clement's Manor , one-half of Bastfoord Manor , one-half of Gerrard's Reserve , Virginia; to young son John, one-half of Bastfoord Manor , one-half of Gerrard's Reserve , Virginia; to other 3 sons and 5 daughters, sons-in-law, daus-in-law, grandchild, viz. Gerrard PATEN and Gerrard TUCKER at 18 years of age.. and to John WAUGHE , personalty. Test: John WAUGH ,Isaac ALLERTON, John LEE . Testator desires to be buried by deceased wife Susanna; 15, Dec 1673. (Maryland Calendar of Wills, Vol. I)
John WAUGH was the Protestant Parson WAUGH of Overwharton Parish, Stafford County, Virginia, who led a failed insurrection against the Virginia government in 1689, a spin-off of Maryland's Glorious Revolution, called " Parson Waugh's Tumult ". The insurrection was under the guise of an Indian uprising led by the Catholic colonists at Aquia Creek against the Protestants. He was a contemporary of Rev. Col. John COODE, and the last will & testament of Thomas Gerard leaves little doubt that COODE and WAUGH knew and influenced each other.
Rose GERARD, step mother-in-law of Rev. John COODE, remarried after Thomas GERARD's death to John NEWTON of Westmoreland County (testate 1697). Their son, Gerard Newton married Rebecca BLACKISTONE, his first cousin, daughter of Nehemiah and Elizabeth Gerard Blackistone. Rose Tucker Gerard NEWTON left a will in Westmoreland County in 1713, leaving land in Virginia and Maryland inherited from Thomas Gerard to her son Thomas Newton.
Nehemiah BLACKISTONE and Kenelm CHESELDYNE were brothers-in-law of John COODE and all were sons-in-law of Dr. Thomas GERARD.
On 27 July 1689, the Protestant Associators, about 250 strong, led by Capt. John COODE, captured the capital, St. Mary's, by storming the Assembly House, with some loyalists resisting, namely Col. William DIGGS.
…Thus matters stood untill towards the latter part of July 1689 at which time the people of Virginia did often threaten us and were ready (in great numbers) to come over into Maryland to reduce us alleadging wee were Rebells for not Proclaimeing their Majesties in the mean time news being brought to some of the aforesaid Protestants that the Deputy Governors were fortifying the Court house at St Maries and Matapany garrison and raiseing men to keep the same; they sent over to the Magistrates in Virginia desireing them to restrain the proceedings and designes aforesaid of their people. And there upon about two hundred and fifty Protestants tho very badly provided with Armes and Ammunition marched down to the City of St Maries to know the truth of the aforesaid Report and to desire the Deputy Governors to call an Assembly which had been for a long time prorogued against the desires of all honest men. That speedy course might be taken for the satisfaction of both Protestants and Papists untill orders from England. But when they arrived there they found the said Court house full of armed men made a garrison ready to oppose them. Whereupon they sent into the said Fort the Protestant Declaration demanding to have King William and Queen Mary to be proclaimed and submitted To which they refuseing to do the said Protestants marched up resolutely to the said Garrison and haveing gained the Doores and Windows and being ready to enter Those within did surrender takeing with them their private armes and leaveing the publick armes to the Protestants and then they marched to Matapany Fort about eight miles distant where about four hundred men were in Garrison and demanded surrender of the same to the use of King William and Queen Mary the which they refused for sometime to do. But finding the number of the Protestants to encrease and resolveing to attacke the same They surrendered upon Articles… John COODE