John de Vere, III, 16th Earl of Oxford
|Birthplace:||Oxford, Oxfordshire, England|
|Death:||Died in Oxford, Oxfordshire, England|
|Place of Burial:||Castle Hedingham, Essex, England|
Son of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford and Elizabeth DeVere Countess of Oxford (Trussel)
|Occupation:||Great Chamberlain, 16th Earl of Oxford|
|Managed by:||Scott David Hibbard|
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John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford
John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford (1516 – 3 August 1562) was born to John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford and Elizabeth Trussel, daughter of Edward Trussel. He was styled Lord Bolebec 1526 to 1540 before he succeeded to his father's title.
While never of consequence in the Tudor court, the 16th Earl's support for Queen Mary was instrumental in her accession to the throne in 1553, though he was given no preferment by her. During her reign he was active as the principal magnate in Essex.
He married first Dorothy Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland in Holywell, Shoreditch, London on 3 July 1536, and second Margery Golding in Belchamp St Paul on 1 August 1548. Dorothy Neville (died c. 6 January 1548), His two marriages produced three children. With his first wife, Dorothy, he had Katherine de Vere, who married Edward Windsor, 3rd Baron Windsor. With Margery he had a son, Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, and a daughter, Mary de Vere. Margery died on 2 December 1568. After his death, he was buried in Castle Hedingham, Essex on 31 August 1562.
The Earl was known as a sportsman, and like several noblemen of his day, he retained a company of actors. The troupe, known as Oxford's Men, was retained by the Earl from 1547 until his death in 1562. His circle included the scholar and diplomat Sir Thomas Smith and his brothers-in-law, the poets Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey and Edmund Sheffield, 1st Baron Sheffield, and the translator Arthur Golding.
- John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford
- M, #11730, b. 1516, d. 3 August 1562
- Last Edited=4 Sep 2010
- Consanguinity Index=0.01%
- John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford was born in 1516 at Castle Hedingham, Essex, England.1 He was the son of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford and Elizabeth Trussel. He married, firstly, Lady Dorothy Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland and Lady Catherine Stafford, on 3 July 1536.2 He married, secondly, Margery Golding on 1 August 1548. He died on 3 August 1562.
- He gained the title of 16th Earl of Oxford. He held the office of Lord Great Chamberlain [England].
- Child of John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford and Lady Dorothy Neville
- Lady Katherine de Vere+3 d. 17 Jan 1599
- Children of John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford and Margery Golding
- Lady Mary de Vere+4 d. c 24 Jun 1624
- Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford+ b. 12 Apr 1550, d. 24 Jun 1604
- [S145] George Naylor, The Register's of Thorrington (n.n.: n.n., 1888). Hereinafter cited as Registers of Thorrington.
- [S8] BP1999 volume 1, page 15. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S8]
- [S22] Sir Bernard Burke, C.B. LL.D., A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire, new edition (1883; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1978), page 591. Hereinafter cited as Burkes Extinct Peerage.
- [S37] BP2003 volume 2, page 2348. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
- From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p1173.htm#i11730
- John De VERE (16° E. Oxford)
- Born: ABT 1516
- Acceded: 1540
- Died: 3 Aug 1562
- Buried: 31 Aug 1562, Castle Hedingham
- Notes: See his Biography.
- Father: John De VERE (15° E. Oxford)
- Mother: Elizabeth TRUSSELL
- Married 1: Dorothy NEVILLE (C. Oxford) 3 Jul 1536, Holywell, Shoreditch, London, England
- 1. Catherine De VERE (B. Windsor of Bradenham)
- Married 2: Margery GOLDING (C. Oxford) (b. 1525- d. 2 Dec 1568) (dau. of John Golding of Belchamp St. Paul and Elizabeth Towe) 1 Aug 1548, Belchamp St.Paul, Essex, England
- 2. Mary De VERE (B. Willoughby of Eresby)
- 3. Edward De VERE (17° E. Oxford)
- From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/VERE.htm#John De VERE (16° E. Oxford)
- First son and heir of John De Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford, born circa 1516; styled "Lord Bobelec" 1526 to 1540; was in attendance on the King in 1536, presumably at the time of the Pilgrimage of Grace and, as stated above, attended Henry VIII on the arrival of Anne of Cleves, 3 Jan 1539/40. He served in the Boulogne campaign in 1544 with a large following. One of the 12 chief mourners at the funerals of Henry VIII and Edward VI, and one of the 40 knights dubbed, in lieu of being made K.B., 20 Feb 1546/7, at the Coronation of Edward VI, when he did not claim to perform the office of Lord Great Chamberlain (see note). Joint Lord Lieutenant of Essex 1550-53, and sole Lieutenant 1558 until 29 Oct, and 1559. He was one of the 26 peers who signed the letters patent, 16 Jun 1553, settling the Crown on Lady Jane Grey, but before 19 Jul he declared for Queen Mary, by whom he was made P.C. He accompanied her in her Progress through London, 30 Sep 1553, as Great Chamberlain, and officiated as such, on what ground is unknown, at her Coronation, 30 Nov. He petitioned for and performed the office at the Coronation, 15 Jan 1558/9, of Queen Elizabeth, whom he entertained at Hedingham Castle from 14 till 19 Aug 1561. He married firstly, 3 Jul 1536, at Holywell in Shoreditch, Dorothy, daughter of Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland, by Catherine, second daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, in the same ceremony that her sister Margaret married Henry Manners, heir of the Earl of Rutland and her brother Henry married Anne Manners, also daughter of Rutland. Dorothy died apparently between 17 Dec 1545 and 27 Jun 1547.
- John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford, was a notorious womanizer. Approximately some years before her death, Dorothy Neville had separated herself from the 16th Earl on the grounds of "the vnkynde dealing of the Earl". Richard Enowes testifies that the Duke of Norfolk had attempted a reconciliation, but that Countess Dorothy "said she wold never goe home agayne amongst such a bad companye as were about the Earle of Oxforde at that tyme". This "bad companye" may have included evil male companions, but it also evidently included Joan Jockey, whom Earl John had bigamously married "about Corpus Christi tyde at Whit Colne Churche", that is, about 31 May 1546; when the countess received confirmation of the bigamous marriage, she took it "verey grevouslie". Indeed, after her departure from the Earl, "the lady Dorothy wrott to Mr Tyrrell then the same Earles Comptroller to knowe yf it were true, that the said Iohan were marryed to the same Earle".
- During some part of these same two years the Earl also kept a woman named Anne at Tilbury Hall near Tilbury-juxta-Clare. Rooke Green deposes (in 1585) that "about fortie yeares past he sawe a woman nere Tylbery Hall of whom it was then reported to this Examinant that the said Iohn Earle of Oxforde kept her". If we take the dating literally, this would have been Jan 1545, about the time of Dorothy's voluntary separation from Earl John. None of the examinants knew Anne's surname, but Knollys and Walforth agreed that she had been a servant to Mr Cratherode, evidently the tenant of Tilbury Hall, while several examinants agree that she subsequently married one Phillips.
- The examinants agreed that the Earl's relationships with both Joan and Anne were fully terminated prior to Dorothy's death and at the Earl's instigation: "all theise women were shaken of[f] by the same Earle of Oxforde by the aduise & workinge of his Counsell before the said lady Dorothie dyed". Presumably the Earl was in a position simply to abandon Anne, who eventually found refuge in her marriage to Phillips. By contrast, his separation from Joan Jockey, a more dangerous alliance because sanctified by a ceremony of marriage, however irregular, was forced by an act of horrific violence.
- One day, when the Earl had left Joan Jockey by herself, a gang consisting of at least five men approached her residence in Earl's Colne. This gang consisted of Sir Thomas Darcy, Lord Sheffield, John Smith, Richard Enowes, and another servant unnamed. The gang broke down Joan Jockey's door; then several of the gang pinned her down while John Smith "spoyled" or "disfigured" her: in the words of Enowes, "this examinantes fellowe Iohn Smyth cutt her nose". Presumably Smith either cut her nose clean off, or cut the skin at the base of the nostrils to give her a permanently grotesque appearance. Cutting off a woman’s nose was apparently a traditional punishment for a whore. Though Joan Jockey apparently survived the attack and outlived Dorothy, the Earl's ardor for Joan Jockey cooled and he "put her away". Walforthe thought that Joan Jockey was still alive in 1585, but none of the examinants could depose as to her current whereabouts.
- The mutilation of Joan Jockey was very much a family matter. The leaders of the gang, Sir Thomas Darcy and Lord Sheffield, were both brothers-in-law to the 16th Earl.
- After countess Dorothy's death, Sir Thomas Darcy urged a marriage between the 16th Earl and one of the daughters of the current lord Wentworth, that is, with one of his first cousins on his mother's side, and also a kinsman of the Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector for Edward VI. "When she [Dorothy Neville] had presumably been dead for some time; banns for a 2nd marriage had then already been proclaimed twice; neither this, nor another projected marriage with a daughter of Lord Wentworth, appears to have taken place" (Cal. S.P. Dom., 1547-80, p. 3; J.H. Round in the Ancestor, vol. iv, p. 24 et seq.).
- John Smith was a loyal servant of the 16th Earl, remaining with him until his death in 1562, and was remembered in his will.
- Richard Enowes testifies on his own behalf that he had been a servant to the 16th Earl, though he had apparently left his service by 1562.
- It seems almost certain that Joan Jockey was disfigured with the complicity of the 16th Earl. It is barely conceivable that the disfigurement was procured by Darcy and Sheffield to force their brother-in-law against his will to abandon his irregular marriage with a woman of no rank or position. As the attack was carried out by the Earl's own men and by two of his own brothers-in-law, however, it is hard to believe that it was not done on his orders. Perhaps he had tired of Joan Jockey, and conspired in her disfigurement as a way of forcing her out of his life and into seclusion. Earl John seems to have continued on a good footing with his relations, and retained both Enowes and Smith in his service.
- Dorothy Fosser or Foster (d. ABT 1556/7) came from Haverhill, Suffolk. She was the goddaughter of Dorothy Neville, countess of Oxford, and had served as both the Countess’s maid and as a lady in waiting to Catherine de Vere, the countess’s daughter. Dorothy became romantically involved with the Earl of Oxford and after his wife’s death in about Jan 1548, their relationship came to the attention of the Duke of Somerset. At 27 Jun 1548 a letter from Sir Thomas Darcy to (probably) William Cecil, the Duke of Somerset’s secretary, indicates that Oxford had already been questioned about his courtship of this “gentlewoman with whom he is in love” and that the banns for their marriage had been called two out of the required three times, but not before witnesses. Somerset apparently favored a marriage between Oxford and one of Lord Wentworth’s daughters. Darcy further reported that “Mrs. Dorothy” had left Castle Hedingham and was living in Sir Edward Green’s house, Stampford Hall. Less than a week later, however, Dorothy was at Haverhill, expecting to marry the Earl of Oxford in her parish church. Instead, on Thursday, 1 Aug, Oxford married another gentlewoman, Margery Golding, in the Goldings’ house in Belchamp St. Paul. She was daughter of John Golding, of Belchamp St. Paul (b. 1498 - d. 28 Nov 1547), by his 1st wife, Elizabeth (d. 27 Nov 1527), daughter of Thomas Towe (or Tough), and widow of Reynold Hamond, by whom she had one daughter, Catherine. Had Somerset remained Lord Protector, Oxford might have faced serious penalties for this irregular marriage. He did pay Dorothy £10 per annum for breach of contract. She later married one of Oxford’s clerks, John Anson (b. 1525 - d. AFT 1585). In 1556/7, they were living in Felsted, Essex.
- On 5 Oct 1559, Oxford conducts the prince of Sweden into London. The Diary of Henry Machyn says:
- '...[The] v day of October cam to [London by Ald]gatt the prynse of Sweythen, and [so to Leadenhall], and done Gracyous-strett corner in a howse stod [the lord] marques of Northamtun and my lord Ambros Dudley [and other gentlemen and] ladies; and my lord of Oxford browth (him) from Col[chester] and my lord Robert Dudley, the master of the quen('s) horse; and trumpettes bloyng in dyvers places; and thay had [a great] nombur of gentyllmen ryd with cheynes a-for them, and after them a ij C. oof yomen rydyng, and so rydyng over the bryge unto the bysshope of Wynchastur('s) plasse, for [it] was rychely hangyd with ruche cloth of arres, wrought with gold and sylver and sylke, and ther he remanyth...'
- He died 3, and was buried 31 Aug 1562, at Castle Hedingham. (see his will) He was never held accountable on any charges of bigamy during his lifetime.
- After her father’s death, Catherine de Vere tried to have his marriage to Margery Golding declared bigamous on the grounds that Oxford had been betrothed to Dorothy Fosser. The suit was unsuccessful.
- Margery Golding had been lady in waiting to the Queen from 1559 to 1561 and entertained Queen Elizabeth at Castle Hedingham, Essex in 1561. Shortly after her husband’s death, she married Sir Charles Tyrrel (d. 1570), one of the Queen’s gentleman pensioners and Margery’s reputed lover, 6th son of Sir Thomas Tyrell, of Heron, in E. Horndon, Essex, by Constance, daughter of John Blount, Lord Mountjoy. Apparently her son Edward never mentioned her in any of his surviving letters. Then again, after his father’s death, his wardship was sold and he probably did not see a great deal of her. She died 2 Dec 1568, at Earls Colne, and was buried there.
- Note: "The statements in support of his claim were false; but it is clear that the Crown recognised (wrongly) that the office was vested in him by hereditary right. It was as John, Earl of Oxford, High Chamberlain of England, that he was summoned for the trial of Lord Wentworth for the surrender of Calais, 22 Apr 1559".
- Ch. Inq. p.m., Ser. II, 136/12; Par. Reg. in Essex Review, vol. ii, p. 260; Machyn's Diary (Camden Soc.), p. 290. His will (P.C.C., 22 Chayre), dated 28 Jul 1562, pr. 29 May 1563, directs burial in Colne church. His widow, in a letter to Sir William Cecil, 30 Apr 1563, signed M. Oxinford, excuses her delay in proving the will (Lansdowne MS. 6, f. 69). By his 1st wife he had a daughter Catherine, in connection with whose proposed marriage to Henry Seymour, son of the Protector Somerset, the later forced the Earl to convey to him a large part of his estates (Cal. Patent Rolls, Edw. VI, vol. i, p. 376; vol. iv, p. 376; Acts of P.C., 1547-50, p. 221). Remedy was afterwards provided by Act of 5-6 Edw. VI, cap. 35, marked as missing in the list in Statutes of the Realm. Morant (op. cit., vol. ii, p. 293) gives its substance. The said Catherine married Edward, Lord Windsor. By his second wife the Earl had a daughter Mary, who married Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby de Eresby, and a son, Edward, his heir.
- From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Bios/JohnVere(16EOxford).htm
- Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 58
- Vere, John de (1512?-1562) by Sidney Lee
- VERE, JOHN de, sixteenth Earl of Oxford (1512?–1562), born about 1512, was eldest son of John de Vere, fifteenth earl of Oxford (1490?–1540), by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward (or John) Trussell of Cublesdon, Staffordshire. His father (a cousin of John de Vere, fourteenth earl, often called ‘Little John of Campes,’ 1499?–1526), was esquire of the body to Henry VIII in 1510; was knighted by the king on 25 Feb. 1513 at the Battle of the Spurs; was created K.G. on 21 Oct. 1527; took a prominent part, as a friend of the king, in the measures against Wolsey and Catherine of Aragon; bore the crown at the coronation of Anne Boleyn, and acted as a commissioner at her trial. He was the first protestant earl of Oxford, and was popularly known as ‘the good earl.’ He died at his manor of Earls Colne on 21 March 1540, and was buried at Castle Hedingham on 12 April. An altar-tomb in black marble is adorned with effigies of himself and his countess in an attitude of prayer, surrounded by their four sons and four daughters. Of his younger sons, Aubrey was great-grandfather of Aubrey de Vere, twentieth earl [q. v.], while Geoffrey was father of Sir Francis Vere [q. v.] and of Sir Horace Vere [q. v.]
- John, the eldest son, received in 1541 livery of lands which descended to him through his mother. In 1544 he served with the expedition to Boulogne, holding the rank of captain in the rearguard of the king's army. As hereditary great chamberlain he was frequently at court, but played no prominent part in politics. He was knighted by Edward VI at his coronation, 20 Feb. 1547, and at the end of the reign, on 16 June 1553, signed the letters patent by which Lady Jane Grey was nominated the king's successor. But on 19 July, shortly after Edward VI's death, he declared for Queen Mary, and on 3 Sept. was admitted to her privy council. He bore the sword before Mary on her progress through London on 30 Sept. Subsequently the queen's faith in his loyalty was shaken. His zeal for catholicism was doubted, and in 1556 there were rumours that he was implicated in the plot of Sir Henry Dudley and Richard Uvedale [q. v.] Elizabeth, on her accession, showed him much favour, and in September 1559 he was appointed, with Lord Robert Dudley, to attend the king of Sweden's second son, John, duke of Friesland, when the duke came to England to offer Elizabeth marriage in behalf of his elder brother, Prince Eric. He met the duke on his landing at Harwich, and showed him ‘great sport’ in the valley of the Stour. From 14 to 19 Aug. 1561 he entertained Queen Elizabeth at his residence of Castle Hedingham. In Essex, where his estates lay, he held through life many posts of honour. He was appointed chief commissioner of array on 7 May 1545, joint lord lieutenant on 25 Sept. 1550 and 24 May 1553, joint lord justice and lieutenant on 4 May 1551 and 7 May 1552, justice of the peace on 18 Feb. 1554, and lord lieutenant on 17 Jan. 1557–8 and 1 May 1559. He was known in the county as a good landlord and a keen sportsman. He died on 3 Aug. 1562, and was buried in the church of Castle Hedingham.
- He was twice married. His first wife, whom he married on 3 July 1536, was Lady Dorothy, second daughter of Ralph Neville, fourth earl of Westmorland. His second wife, whom he married after 27 June 1547, was Margaret, daughterof John Golding of Belchamp St. Paul, near Hedingham, and sister of Arthur Golding [q. v.], the translator of Ovid; she married a second husband, Christopher (or Charles) Tyrell, and, dying on 2 Dec. 1568 at Earls Colne, was buried there. By his first wife Oxford had an only child, Katharine, who married Edward, lord Windsor; and by his second wife he had two children, Edward de Vere, seventeenth earl of Oxford [q. v.], and a daughter, Mary, who married Peregrine Bertie, lord Willoughby de Eresby.
- [Markham's Fighting Veres, pp. 8–9, 22; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 199; Doyle's Baronage; Camden's Annals, ed. 1688, p. 62; Froude's Hist.; Queen Jane and Queen Mary (Camden Soc.), pp. 28, 99, 159.]
- From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Vere,_John_de_(1512%3F-1562)_(DNB00)
- John de Vere
- Birth: 1516
- Death: Aug. 3, 1562
- Family links:
- John de Vere (1482 - 1540)
- Elizabeth Trussell de Vere (1496 - 1527)
- Dorothy Neville de Vere (____ - 1548)*
- Edward de Vere (1550 - 1604)*
- John de Vere (1516 - 1562)
- Frances Vere Howard (1517 - 1577)*
- Note: Buried Aug. 31, 1562
- Burial: St Nicholas Churchyard, Castle Hedingham, Braintree District, Essex, England
- Find A Grave Memorial# 123933906
- From: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=123933906
- Sir John Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford, Sheriff of Essex & Hertfordshire, Great Chamberlain of England1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
- M, #39472, b. circa 1482, d. 21 March 1540
- Father John Vere, Esq.1,2,10,11 b. c 1452, d. b 15 Mar 1488
- Mother Alice Colbroke1,2,10,11 b. c 1462, d. a 1492
- Sir John Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford, Sheriff of Essex & Hertfordshire, Great Chamberlain of England was born circa 1482 at of Roseworthy in Gwinear, Bejowan in St. Columb Minor, & Tregenna in St. Ewe, Cornwall, England; Age 44 in 1526.1,2,8 He married Elizabeth Trussell, daughter of Edward Trussell, Gent. and Margaret Donne, between 29 April 1507 and 4 July 1509; They had 4 sons (John, 16th Earl of Oxford; Aubrey; Francis; & Geoffrey) and 3 daughters (Frances, wife of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, & of Thomas Stainings; Elizabeth, wife of Sir Thomas Darcy; & Anne, wife of Sir Edmund, 1st Lord Sheffield).12,13,2,14,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 Sir John Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford, Sheriff of Essex & Hertfordshire, Great Chamberlain of England died on 21 March 1540 at Wakes Colne Manor, Colne, Essex, England; He married (1) Christian Foderingey, daughter of Thomas Foderingey and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of William Doreward. No issue.1,2,3,8 He was buried on 12 April 1540 at Castle Hedingham, Essex, England.12,13
- Family Elizabeth Trussell b. c 1497, d. b Jul 1527
- Elizabeth de Vere+15 b. c 1508
- Frances Vere+16,13 b. c 1517, d. 30 Jun 1577
- Anne Vere+17,3,5,7,8 b. c 1520
- [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. X, p. 245-247.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 370.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 327-328.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 370.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 18-19.
- [S6] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry: 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 360.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 279.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 185.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 544.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 327.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 184.
- [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. X, p. 247.
- [S11583] The Wallop Family and Their Ancestry, by Vernon James Watney, p., 795.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 720.
- [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. IV, p. 78.
- [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. IX, p. 621.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 648.
- From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p1314.htm#i39472
John de Vere, III, 16th Earl of Oxford's Timeline
Oxford, Oxfordshire, England
Shoreditch, Middlesex, , England
April 12, 1550
Castle Hedingham, Essex, England
August 3, 1562
Oxford, Oxfordshire, England
August 31, 1562
Castle Hedingham, Essex, England