Joseph Gardner, of Salem

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Joseph Gardner, of Salem

Birthplace: Massachusetts Bay Colony, USA
Death: December 19, 1675 (42-51)
of, Salem, Essex, Massachusetts (killed at the gr. Narraganset swamp fight in Philip's war)
Place of Burial: Narragansett, RI, United States
Immediate Family:

Son of Thomas Gardner, "Old Planter" and 1st wife of Thomas Gardner
Husband of Ann Bradstreet
Brother of Thomas Gardner, of Salem; George Gardner, of Salem; Richard Gardner, of Nantucket; Capt. John Gardner, of Nantucket; Samuel Gardner, of Salem and 3 others

Managed by: Linda Sue
Last Updated:

About Joseph Gardner, of Salem

  • 'Lillian May Stickney Gardner. Gardner history and genealogy.
  • Thomas Gardner, the first of the Salem stock, came over in 1624 from Dorsetshire, England, near which the name had flourished for more than three centuries, and settled, under the auspices of the Dorchester Company and Rev. John White, with thirteen others, at Gloucester, Cape Ann, upon the grant of Lord Sheffield to Robert Cushman and Edward Winslow, made in January of that year. Mr. Gardner was overseer of the plantation, John Tyler of the fisheries, Robert Conant soon after being appointed governor. Not realizing the success they anticipated in forming a colony, they removed, in 1626, to Naumkeag, or Salem, which continued the home of Mr. Gardner and his descendants down to this present Century. He died in 1635.
    • Thomas, his son, an eminent merchant, was born 1592, and died 1674. He held several town offices, and was a member of the general court in 1637. By his wives Margaret Frier and Damaries Shattuck he had: 1. Thomas, 2. George, 3. Richard, 4. John, 5. Samuel, '6. Joseph', 7. Sarah, wife of Benjamin Balch, 8. Miriam, wife of John Hill, 9. Ruth, wife of John Grafton. From these were many descendants. 'Joseph commanded the Salem company in King Philips's war, and commended for his courage by historians, was killed, with eight of his men and six other captains, in an attack on an Indian fort, in the great battle in the Narragansett swamp, December 19, 1675. His wife was daughter of Emanuel and sister of the celebrated Sir George Downing. His widow, about 1686, married Governor Bradstreet. It is probable that through this connection the noble house erected by the governor, of which an'
    • 'engraving is to be found in Felt's Salem, came into the Gardner family. ' Richard with three of his children removed to Nantucket, where more were born unto him. His eldest daughter, Sarah, became the wife of Eleazer Folger, brother of Dr. Franklin's mother.
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  • 'Soldiers in King Philip's war. Containing lists of the soldiers of Massachusetts Colony, who served in the Indian war of 1675-1677. With sketches of the principal officers, and copies of ancient documents and records relating to the war (1891)
  • The quota of Massachusetts was to be 527 men, Plymouth 158,
  • and Connecticut 325. Rhode Island was not "counted in," for reasons best known to our dear old Puritan fathers. Josiah Winslow, Esq., Governor of Plymouth Colony, was made Commander-in-chief of the army, and under him Major Samuel Appleton commanded the Massachusetts forces, consisting of six companies, viz.: Maj. Appleton's own, Capt. Mosely's, 'Capt. Joseph Gardner's', Capt. Nathaniel Davenport's, Capt. James Oliver's, and a troop under Capt. Thomas Prentice. Major Robert Treat commanded the Connecticut forces, five companies under Capts. Siely, Gallop, Mason, Wats; and Major William Bradford two Plymouth companies, his own and Capt. John Gorham's. The Massachusetts forces mustered on Dedham Plain, where, on Dec. 9, Gen. Winslow assumed command. There were then "465 fighting men," besides Capt. Prentice's troop. .....
  • The fortification was strong and bravely defended, but nothing could resist the intrepid assaults of our forces, and after heavy losses and several hours' fighting, the Indians were either driven out or killed, the immense fortress and its huts and stores destroyed (foolishly it seemed to some at that time) , and in the evening our weary troops were forced to march back through the snow, carrying their wounded, to head quarters, whence they had marched in the morning. The suffering was incredible ; and I believe that if the whole history of that 19th day of December, 1675, were known, no braver day would stand in our country's annals for heroic daring and suffering. Six of the captains were killed — Davenport, 'Gardner', Johnson and Lt. Upham (mortally wounded) of Massachusetts ; Capts. Gallop, Siely and Marshall of Connecticut. Further account of the Massachusetts officers is referred to future articles of the series.
  • 'JOSEPH GARDINER was the son of Thomas and Margaret Gardner of Salem. He married before August, 1656, Anne Downing, daughter of Emanuel Downing and niece of the first Gov. Winthrop.
  • ' He was a man of energy and ability, and held many positions of honor and importance in Salem. In May, 1672, he was appointed by the General Court of Massachusetts, lieutenant of the foot company under Capt. William Price of Salem (Mass. Colony Records, v. 517).
  • ..... 'The fall of Capt. Gardiner is thus related in Church's " Entertaining History " :
    • ' " Mr. Church spying Capt. Gardner of Salem amidst the Wigwams in the East end of the Fort, made towards him ; but on a sudden while they were looking each other in the face, Capt. Gardner settled down, Mr. Church stepped to him, and seeing the blood run down his cheek lifted up his cap and calling him by name, he looked up in his face but spake not a word, being mortally Shot through the head."
  • ' After the death of Capt. Gardiner, the command of his company fell upon his lieutenant, William Hathorn, .....
  • ' His widow, then aged about thirty-four, married June 6, 1676, Gov. Simon Bradstreet, whose age was about seventy-three. She died April 19, 1713, aged 79. Leaving no children, Capt. Gardiner's Narraganset claim fell to the oldest male heir of his eldest brother Thomas. This heir was Habakkuk Gardiner, son of the Captain's nephew Thomas, who in the list of claimants claims in the "right of his uncle, Capt. Joseph Gardiner."
  • Alternate Reference
  • SOLDIERS IN KING PHILIP'S WAR Index to Chapters 1 - 10
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  • 'Clarke's kindred genealogies. A genealogical history of certain descendants of Joseph Clarke, Dorchester, 1630; Denice Darling, Braintree, 1662; Edward Gray, Plymouth, 1643; and William Horne, Dover, 1659; and sketches of the Orne (Horne), Pynchon, and Downing families (1896)
  • "Downing, Benjamin, Hatfield 1679, took the o. of alleg. that yr. and m. the second yr. Sarah, d, perhaps eldest, of William Hunter ; may have been, but prob. not, s. of Emanuel. Dennis, Kittery 1650, in Nov. 1652 sw. alleg. to Mass., and was k. by the Ind. 4 July, 1697, unless the sufferer were s. of the first. Emanuel, Salem, from London, where he was a lawyer of the Inner Temple, inhab. of the parish of St. Michael, Cornhill Ward, came in 1638 with his wife Lucy, d. of Adam Winthrop, Esqr. of Groton, in co. Suff. where she was baptized 27 Jan. 1601, sis. of our first Gov. of Mass., m. 10 Apr. 1622. They were adm. of the ch. 4 Nov., 1638, and he was sw. a freeman Mar., 1639, rep. the same yr. 40, 1, 4 and 8 ; was propos. for an Assist, in 1641, but not chos. His ch. were George, b. prob. in 1623, or 4, and was perhaps, kept in sch. at home until his f. came ; Mary, who came May, 1633 with Gov., Coddington in the " Mary and Jane," and in Nov., of that yr. was adm. of the ch. in Boston ; James, wh. was brot. by his uncle, the Gov. in the Arbella 1630; Susan, wh. came at the same time with Mary ; 'Ann' ; Lucy ; and these foll. b. on our side of the ocean, John, bap. 1 Mar., 1640 ; and Dorcas, 7 Feb., 1641. He went home early in 1642, back next yr. and went again in 1644, on business, but came back next yr. The date of his d. is not found, nor that of his w. tho. we see proof of his req. to the Gen. Ct. Sept., 1653 for his 600 acres to be laid out, and of her liv. 4 Aug., 1656, when she gave to Capt. Joseph Gardner dowry on his m. with her d. and the same shows that her h. Emanuel was d. The s. James, I think, liv. at Ipswich ; Mary m. Anthony Stoddard of Boston ; 'Ann was w. of the intrepid Capt. Gardner, k. at the gr. Narraganset swamp fight in Philip's war, and after m. Gov. Bradstreet'. There was a John D. wh. d. at Boston, 29 April, 1694, but he was a merch. from Nevis, where was his fam. ......
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  • 'Captain Joseph Gardner1
  • M, #473610
  • Last Edited=8 Jul 2011
  • ' Captain Joseph Gardner married Anne Downing, daughter of Emanuel Downing and Lucy Winthrop, in August 1656.1
  • Citations
  • 1.[S5430] Ryan Englund, "re: Downing Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger LUNDY (101053), 3 July 2011. Hereinafter cited as "re: Downing Family."
  • _________
  • Simon Bradstreet (baptized March 18, 1603/4[1] – March 27, 1697) was a colonial magistrate, businessman, diplomat, and the last governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Arriving in Massachusetts on the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, Bradstreet was almost constantly involved in the politics of the colony but became its governor only in 1679. He served on diplomatic missions and as agent to the crown in London, and also served as a commissioner to the New England Confederation. He was politically comparatively moderate, arguing minority positions in favor of freedom of speech and for accommodation of the demands of King Charles II following his restoration to the throne.
  • Bradstreet was married to Anne, the daughter of Massachusetts co-founder Thomas Dudley and New England's first published poet. He was a businessman, investing in land and shipping interests. Due to his advanced age (he died at 93) Cotton Mather referred to him as the "Nestor of New England".[2] His descendants include the famous jurists Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and David Souter.
  • Early life
  • Simon Bradstreet was baptized on March 18, 1603/4[1] in Horbling, Lincolnshire, the second of three sons of Simon and Margaret Bradstreet. His father was the rector of the parish church, and was descended from minor Irish nobility.[3] With his father a vocal Nonconformist, the young Simon acquired his Puritan religious views early in life.[4] At the age of 16, Bradstreet entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge. ......
  • Bradstreet took over Dudley's position when the latter moved temporarily to Boston in 1624. On Dudley's return several years later, Bradstreet then briefly served as a steward to the Dowager Countess of Warwick. In 1628 he married Dudley's daughter Anne, when she was 16.[10]
  • Family and legacy
  • Bradstreet was buried in the Charter Street Burying Ground in Salem.[53] Poetry by his first wife Anne was published in England in 1650, including verses containing expressions of enduring love for her husband.[54] Anne Bradstreet died in 1672; the couple had eight children, of whom seven survived infancy. In 1676 Bradstreet married 'Ann Gardner, the widow of Captain Joseph Gardner, son of Thomas Gardner of Salem.[53]' His many descendants include jurists Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and David Souter, U.S. President Herbert Hoover, and actor Humphrey Bogart.[55]
  • References
  • Anderson, Robert Charles (1995). The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England, 1620–1633. Boston, MA: New England Historic Genealogical Society. ISBN 9780880821209. OCLC 42469253.
  • Baker, C. Alice (1905). "The Adventures of Baptiste". History and Proceedings of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association (Deerfield, MA) (Volume 4). OCLC 3384857.
  • Barnes, Viola Florence (1960) [1923]. The Dominion of New England: A Study in British Colonial Policy. New York: Frederick Ungar. ISBN 9780804410656. OCLC 395292.
  • Bliss, Robert M (1993). Revolution and Empire: English Politics and the American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719042096. OCLC 29402272.
  • Bolton, Charles Knowles (1919). The Founders: Portraits of Persons Born Abroad Who Came to the Colonies in North America Before the Year 1701, Volume II. The Boston Athenaeum.
  • Bradstreet, Anne (1897). The Poems of Mrs. Anne Bradstreet (1612–1672): Together with her Prose Remains. unspecified: The Duodecimos. OCLC 1949305.
  • Breen, Louise A (2001). Transgressing the Bounds: Subversive Enterprises Among the Puritan Elite in Massachusetts, 1630–1692. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195138009. OCLC 213296589.
  • Campbell, Helen (2007). Anne Bradstreet and Her Times. Teddington, Middlesex, England: Echo Library. ISBN 9781406841732. OCLC 166356786.
  • Cokayne, George Edward (ed) (1898). Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant, Volume 8. London: G. Bell and Sons. OCLC 2052386.
  • Cutter, William Richard (2008). Genealogical and Personal Memoirs Relating to the Families of Boston and Eastern Massachusetts, Volume 1. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co. ISBN 9780806345499. OCLC 239407242.
  • Doyle, John Andrew (1887). English Colonies in America, Volume 3. New York: Henry Holt. OCLC 2453886.
  • Hall, Michael Garibaldi (1960). Edward Randolph and the American Colonies. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. OCLC 181784.
  • Jones, Augustine (1900). The Life and Work of Thomas Dudley, the Second Governor of Massachusetts. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin. OCLC 123194823.
  • Martin, Wendy (1984). An American Triptych: Anne Bradstreet, Emily Dickinson, Adrienne Rich. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807815731. OCLC 123170920.
  • Martin, John Frederick (1991). Profits in the Wilderness: Entrepreneurship and the Founding of New England Towns in the Seventeenth Century. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807820018. OCLC 231347624.
  • Mather, Cotton; Robbins, Thomas; Drake, Samuel Gardner (1853) [1702]. Magnalia Christi Americana. Hartford, CT: S. Andrus and Son. OCLC 3011211.
  • Moore, Jacob Bailey (1851). Lives of the Governors of New Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay. Boston: C. D. Strong. OCLC 11362972.
  • Steele, Ian K (March 1989). "Origins of Boston's Revolutionary Declaration of 18 April 1689". New England Quarterly (New England Quarterly, Inc.) (Volume 62, No. 1): pp. 75–81. JSTOR 366211.
  • Thompson, Roger (2009) [1994]. Mobility and Migration: East Anglian Founders of New England, 1629–1640. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 9781558497962. OCLC 368048001
  • External links
  • official Massachusetts Governor biography
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Category: Salem, Massachusetts


{{Roll of Honor | image = Roll of Honor Template-15.jpg | category = Killed in Action, King Philip's War | description = KIA | war = King Philip's War }} Capt. Joseph Gardner was the son of Thomas and Margaret Gardner. It isbelieved that he was the youngest of their six sons. Since a birth record does not exist, his age can only be calculated from other records. The first mention of Joseph Gardner in the town records of Salem was in 1649 when he was ordered along with three of his brothers to survey certain lands. The next month, he was granted four acres of meadow on the North side of the Ipswich River. Since land was only granted to adults, we can assume that Joseph was born sometime around 1632. Also, we know that his wife, Ann Downing, was born in 1634.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute,1907; page 92</ref>

Joseph kept a tavern and was licensed to sell wine.

He was made a freeman on May 15, 1672.

Civic Duties

Joseph frequently served the town and county as a surveyor. Many of the lines between Salem and Topsfield and Salem and Reading were run by him. On May 15, 1672, Joseph met with Thomas Lathrop at Gloucester to examine papers in regard to the line between Gloucester and Manchester. These papers are on file at the court house.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674)and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907;page 92</ref> On Apr. 15, 1673, Lieut. Joseph Gardner was chosen, along with others,"for the settling... the ways in the north field." Later that year, he was "Appointed to Lay our Lands granted by ye town." In 1674, Maj. Hathorne, Henry Barholomew and Mr. Joseph Gardner were "Appoynted for to settle ye bounds between us & Marblehead."<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page 93</ref> During the years between 1652 and 1674, Joseph was appointed to serve as appraiser in estate settlements, on trial juries, and as attorney. His name frequently appears in court records as witness and overseer of wills. He was also chosen to be a selectman on Mar. 29, 1673.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, EssexInstitute, 1907; page 93</ref> On Apr. 15, 1673, he was allowed room for a pew next to Mr. John Higginson.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann,1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page 94</ref>

Property Owned

Besides the four acres of meadow granted to him on the north side of the Ipswich River, Joseph must have owned other property as he sold 18 acres of meadow near the Ipswich River to John Putnam for 15 pounds onJul. 1, 1653.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem,Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page 94</ref> On Aug. 8, 1656, Lucie Downing, with the consent of her husband, Emanuel Downing gave property to him as his "dowry & marriage porcon with Ann, ye daughter of ye said Emanuell and Luce." This lot was ultimatelydivided into five parts; lots 1 and 3 were sold to his brother, Samuel; Lot 2 was sold on Mar. 28, 1659 to Richard Prince; Lot 4 was sold to William Browne on Aug. 3, 1664. Lot 5 was retained by Joseph and Annfor their own occupancy.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page 95</ref> On Aug. 17, 1674, Lieut. Joseph Gardner of Salem, "vintner" bought twoacres from William Browne, Jun. on the eastern side of the "common commonly called the training place" and near a piece of swamp land ownedby "ye sd Joseph Gardner." The following year, he bought 10 acres from Thomas West in "ye north field."<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some ofDescendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page 98</ref>

Military Service

On May 15, 1672, "it is ordered that Joseph Gardiner be leftennnant tothe foote company under the command of Walter Price, captaine, at Salem." In the town records for Aug. 18, 1673: "The Court, taking notice of the increase of the souldjers in Salem, judge it meet to order thatthe foote company there be by the selectmen of Salem divided into twocopanyes and their distint limits by them to be p'scribed and that Joseph Gardiner be captaine to the first foote company in Salem.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page99</ref> On Nov. 12, 1675, it was recorded "Capt. Joseph Gardiner, for the foote (and others) appointed to be captaines to be imployed in ye service"in various acts concerning the raising of troops for service in the Narragansett country. A list of Salem men impressed for this service, 31 total, is preserved in the Massachusetts archives at the State House with Joseph Gardner's autograph signature appended.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page 99</ref> For an account of this expedition, see Thomas Gardner, Planter; page 99.

The Death of Capt. Joseph Gardner

The expedition marched with other troops from Boston on the 8th. On the 15th, two men from Salem were killed and one more wounded by the Indians. Capt. Joseph Gardner, of Salem, and others, went out immediatelyand killed an Indian who had slain one of the Salem troops and had his cap on. (19th). The forces of Plymouth, Connecticut and Massachusetts attacked the Narragansetts in a Swamp. After a warmly connected battle of three hours, the English took the enemy's place and fired their wigwams. One thousand of the Indians perished. Eighty-five of the English were killed or died of their wounds and one hundred and forty-fiveothers were wounded. Among the killed were Capt. Gardner and six of his company, besides eleven more of them wounded. Major Church espying Capt. Gardner amidst the wigwams in the east end of the Fort made towards him, but on a sudden, while looking at each other, Capt. Gardner settled down. The Major stepped to him and seeing the blood run down his cheek, lifted up his cap and called him by name. He looked up but spoke not a word, being mortally wounded, shot through the head, and observing the wound the Major ordered care to be taken of him." Thus fellan inhabitant of Salem in the camp of his enemies. The loss of him and others of his townsmen in so bloody a contest must have occasioned here when related, general emotions of regret. By his patriotic devotedness, he honored both his town and country.<ref>Felt's Annals of Salem, 1st edition, p. 251-2</ref><ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page 99 and page 100</ref>

Note: May have been killed by friendly Colonial fire.

Family Life

Joseph Gardner married Ann Downing, daughter of Emanuel Downing, who was a lawyer in London until 1638. She was born about 1634 and educatedin London. After the death of her husband, she married Governor SimonBradstreet. Ann died on Apr. 19, 1713 at the age of 79 years.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page100</ref> Joseph and Ann Gardner had no children.<ref>Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907; page 101</ref>



See also:

  • Gardner, Frank Augustine. Thomas Gardner, Planter (Cape Ann, 1623-1626; Salem, 1626-1674) and Some of Descendants: Salem, Massachusetts, Essex Institute, 1907
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Joseph Gardner, of Salem's Timeline

Massachusetts Bay Colony, USA
December 19, 1675
Age 47
Salem, Essex, Massachusetts
Narragansett, RI, United States