Khosrau I "the Just", Shah of Persia

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Khosrau I بن كسرى قباد الأول

Arabic: كسرى خسرو الأول أنوشيروان بن كسرى قباد الأول
Also Known As: "Chosroe", "Chosroes", "The Just", "Nashirwan Adel", "Nushirvan Adil", "Anushiravan"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Persia
Death: Died in Madaen, Bābil, Iraq
Place of Burial: Baghdād, Iraq
Immediate Family:

Son of Kavadh I, Shah of Persia and unnamed sister of Bav wife of Kavadh I
Husband of Qaqim-khaqan (Kayen) of the Turks, Princess of the Turks and <private> mother of Anosazad and wife of Khosrow I
Father of Hormazd IV, King of Persia; Jazdandadh -sassanid persia; Shah bistam -sassanid persia; Shah bindoy; Yazdandar Sasanian prince (son of Khosrow I) and 3 others
Brother of Kawus / Caoses Sasanian prince and governor of Tabaristan; Xerxes Sasanian prince and general; Zames and Nn
Half brother of Chosroes I Anushiruan; Kawus / Caoses Sasanian prince and governor of Tabaristan; Gam; bozorgan kaus -manzardewan; Phthasuarsan and 3 others

Occupation: 20th Sassanid King of Persia, koning van Perzië, كسرى الفرس
Managed by: LevShalem
Last Updated:

About Khosrau I "the Just", Shah of Persia

Khusro I (also known as Khosrau I or Khosrow I; Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل , Anushiravān-e-ādel or انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiravān-e-dādgar), was the favorite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531), twentieth Sassanid Emperor of Persia, and the most famous and celebrated of the Sassanid Emperors.

He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. During Khosro I's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sassanid Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Khosro II's (590–628) whose reign came to be considered the dark age in the history of the Sassanid Empire.

According to early historical sourse, Khosro I was Kavadh I's third son through a Hephthalite princess Newandukht, granddaughter of Hephthal III, commonly called Turandot. His mother endeavored to ascend him to throne, then expatriated his half-brother, Kavadh. After proclaimed as heir apparent, he appears to have had a major influence over his father and helped him in the worst situations during the later years of his rule. He was apparently also behind many of his father's decisions.

According to the Roman historian Procopius of Caesarea, Kavadh I tried to have his third son Khosro adopted by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Justin I in the mid-520s. This is the first time that Khosro is mentioned in the sources. After Romans and Persians had failed to reach an agreement about the adoption, a new war began in 526 which was to last until 532.

At the beginning of his reign Khosro I concluded an "Eternal Peace" with the Roman Emperor Justinian I (527–565) in 532, who wanted to have his hands free for the conquest of Africa and Sicily. But (according to Procopius) his successes against the Vandals and Goths caused Khosro I to begin the war again in 540.

He invaded Syria and sacked the great city of Antioch, deporting its people to Mesopotamia, where he built for them a new city near Ctesiphon under the name of "Khosro-Antioch" or "Chosro-Antioch". During the following years he secured the defection of Lazica and fought inconclusively in Mesopotamia.

In 545, an armistice was concluded, but in 547 the Lazi returned to their Roman allegiance and the Lazic War resumed, continuing until a truce was agreed in 557. At last, in 562, a peace was concluded for fifty years, in which the Persians left Lazica to the Romans, and promised not to persecute the Christians, if they did not attempt to make proselytes among the Zarathustrians; on the other hand, the Romans had to pay annual subsidies to Persia.

Although Khosro I had in the last years of his father extirpated the heretical and communistic Persian sect of the Mazdakites, he was a sincere adherent of Zoroastrian orthodoxy and even ordered that the religion's holy text, the Avesta be codified, but he was not fanatical or prone to persecution. He tolerated every Christian confession. When one of his sons had rebelled about 550 and was taken prisoner, he did not execute him; nor did he punish the Christians who had perhaps supported him.

After Justinian I had closed the Academy of Athens, one of the last seats of paganism in the Roman Empire, the last seven teachers of Neoplatonism emigrated to Persia in 531. But they soon found out that neither Khosro I nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Khosro I, in his treaty with Justinian I, stipulated that they should return unmolested.

Khosro I introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. In Babylonia he built or restored the canals. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Romans, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign, chess was introduced from India and many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world. His famous minister Burzoe translated Indian Panchatantra from Sanskrit into middle Persian language of Pahlavi and named it Kelileh o Demneh. This Middle Persian version was a few centuries later translated by Iranian Muslims into Arabic and then found its way to Europe. The Arabic version was also used to render a New Persian version of the book.

Meanwhile in the east, the Hephthalites had been attacked by the Turks (Göktürks). About 560, King Khosro I united with them to destroy the Hephthalite Empire. In 567 he conquered Bactria, while he left the country north of the Oxus to the Turks. Many other rebellious tribes were subjected.

About 570 the Himyarite dynasts of Yemen, who had been subdued by the Ethiopians of Axum, applied to King Khosro I for help. Khosro sent a fleet with a small army under Vahriz, who expelled the Ethiopians. From that time till the conquests by Islam, Yemen was dependent on Persia, and a Persian governor resided here.

In 572, Armenia and Iberia rebelled against Persia with Roman support, beginning a new war in which Khosro I conquered the city of Dara on the Euphrates in 573, but after a largely unsuccessful incursion of Anatolia in 576 he was heavily defeated by the Romans in a battle near Melitene. He sued for peace in 579, but while negotiations with the Emperor Tiberius II (578–582) were still going on, Khosro I died and was succeeded by his son Hormizd IV (579–590).

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I for more information.


The Great King of Persia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I_of_Persia

Khosrau I (also called Xusro I, Khosnow I, Chusro I, Khusro I, Husraw I or Khosrow I, Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل , Anushiravān-e-ādel or انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiravān-e-dādgar) (Born c. 501, ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531), twentieth Sassanid Emperor (Great King) of Persia, and the most famous and celebrated of the Sassanid Emperors.

He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. During Khosrau I's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sassanid Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Khosrau II's (590–628) whose reign came to be considered the dark age in the history of the Sassanid Empire.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Conquests

3 Religious tolerance

4 Reforms

5 See also

6 Notes

7 References

8 External links

[edit]Early life

According to early historical sources[who?], Khosrau I was Kavadh I's third son through a hephthal princess Newandukht, granddaughter of Hephthal III, commonly called Turandot.[citation needed] His mother endeavored to ascend him to throne, then expatriated his half-brother, Kavoos, first son of Kavadh I, to Mazandaran.[citation needed] After proclaimed as heir apparent, he appears to have had a major influence over his father Kavadh I of Persia and helped him in the worst situations during the later years of his rule[1]. He was apparently also behind many of his father's decisions.[2]

According to the Roman Historian Procopius of Caesarea, Kavadh I tried to have his third son Khosrau adopted by the Eastern Roman emperor Justin I in the mid-520s.[citation needed] This is the first time that Khosrau is mentioned in the sources. After Romans and Persians had failed to reach an agreement about the adoption, a new war began in 526 which was to last until 532.[citation needed]

[edit]Conquests

At the beginning of his reign Khosrau I concluded an "Eternal Peace" with the Roman Emperor Justinian I (527–565) in 532, who wanted to have his hands free for the conquest of Africa and Sicily.[citation needed] But (according to Procopius) his successes against the Vandals and Goths caused Khosrau I to begin the war again in 540.[citation needed]

He invaded Syria and sacked the great city of Antioch, deporting its people to Mesopotamia, where he built for them a new city near Ctesiphon under the name of "Khosrau-Antioch" (Veh Antiok Xusro) or "Chosro-Antioch": the account of Procopius in his De bello Persico ii reads as[3]

“ Xusro I founded a city in Assyria, in a place that was a day’s march away from the city of Ctesiphon; he named it ‘Xusro's Antioch’ and settled all captives from Antioch there, for whom he even had a bath and a hippodrome built and whom he provided also with other comforts. For he brought along the charioteers and musicians from Antioch and other Romans. Moreover, at public expense he took more care in catering for these people from Antioch than was customary for captives, and (he did so) for their entire life, and gave orders to call them ‘the royal ones’ so that they would not be responsible to any magistrate but the king alone. When one of the other Romans had escaped and managed to seek refuge in Xusro's Antioch and when one of the inhabitants claimed that he was a relative, the owner was no longer allowed to remove this captive, not even if one of the highest ranking Persians happened to have enslaved the man. ”

During the following years he secured the defection of Lazica and fought inconclusively in Mesopotamia.[citation needed]

In 545, an armistice was concluded, but in 547 the Lazi returned to their Roman allegiance and the Lazic War resumed, continuing until a truce was agreed in 557. At last, in 562, a peace was concluded for fifty years, in which the Persians left Lazica to the Romans, and promised not to persecute the Christians, if they did not attempt to make proselytes among the Zarathustrians; on the other hand, the Romans had to pay annual subsidies to Persia.

Meanwhile in the east, the Hephthalites had been attacked by the Turks (Göktürks). About 560, Khosrau I united with them to destroy the Hephthalite Empire. In 567 he conquered Bactria, while he left the country north of the Oxus to the Turks. Many other rebellious tribes were subjected. About 570 the Himyarite dynasts of Yemen, who had been subdued by the Ethiopians of Axum, applied to Khosrau I for help. The Emperor Khosrau sent a fleet with a small army under Vahriz, who expelled the Ethiopians. From that time till the conquests by Islam, Yemen was dependent on Persia, and a Persian governor resided here. In 572, Armenia and Iberia rebelled against Persia with Roman support, beginning a new war in which Khosrau I conquered the city of Dara on the Euphrates in 573, but after a largely unsuccessful incursion of Anatolia in 576 he was heavily defeated by the Romans in a battle near Melitene. He sued for peace in 579, but while negotiations with the Emperor Tiberius II (578–582) were still going on, Khosrau I died and was succeeded by his son Hormizd IV (579–590).

[edit]Religious tolerance

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2009)

Although Khosrau I had in the last years of his father extirpated the heretical and communistic Persian sect of the Mazdakites, Kavadh I,[citation needed] he was an adherent of Zoroastrian orthodoxy[citation needed] and even ordered that the religion's holy text, the Avesta be codified[citation needed], but he was not prone to persecution.[citation needed] He tolerated every Christian confession.[citation needed] When one of his sons had rebelled about 550 and was taken prisoner, he did not execute him; nor did he punish the Christians who had perhaps supported him.[citation needed]

After Justinian I had closed the Academy of Athens, one of the last seats of paganism in the Roman Empire, the last seven teachers of Neoplatonism emigrated to Persia in 531.[citation needed] But they soon found out that neither Khosrau I nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Khosrau I, in his treaty with Justinian I, stipulated that they should return unmolested.[citation needed]

[edit]Reforms

Khosrau I introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. In Babylonia he built or restored the canals. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Romans, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign, chess was introduced from India[citation needed] and many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world. His famous minister Burzoe translated Indian Panchatantra from Sanskrit into middle Persian language of Pahlavi and named it Kelileh o Demneh. This Middle Persian version was a few centuries later translated by Iranian Muslims into Arabic and then found its way to Europe. The Arabic version was also used to render a New Persian version of the book.

Khosrau I

Sassanid dynasty

Preceded by

Kavadh I Great King (Shah) of Persia

531 –579 Succeeded by

Hormizd IV



His reign signifies the promotion and possibly even the creation of the Silk Road between ancient China, India, and the western world.[39] Richard Frye makes the argument that Khosrau's rationale behind his numerous wars with the Byzantine empire as well as the eastern Hephthalites was to establish the Sassanian dominance on this trade route.[

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I


21st Sassanid King of Iran

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormizd_IV


20th Sassanid King of Iran

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I


Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kasra in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān "the immortal soul"; Persian: انوشيروان). Also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e-dādgar) was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors.

He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring arch rivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings.

His mother converted to Christianity :

[97] At that time General Belisarius was sent to Persia with an enormous force on the great feast of Passover/Easter. The Persian suggested that: "We should honor the feast day of the Jews and the Christians who are among us and refrain from fighting until the holy day has passed." However [the Byzantines] did not heed this request and began to battle on the great feast day of Easter itself. God's wrath fell upon the Byzantines who were defeated by the Persians, for many died in the river and many others were slain by the sword, and only a few returned home. After this victory, when Kawad died [A.D. 531], his son Khosrov [I, 531-579] ruled. His mother was tormented by demons and the mages and sorcerers were unable to heal her. She went to the hermit Moses [or, Simon], became Christian, was baptized and healed.


See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I (Sassanid, Persia). "Sejarah Melayu" mentions him as "raja mashrik dan maghrib" which means "lord of the east and west" and ".::.Raja Sulan, raja di negeri Amdan Negara; kata setengah riwayat, Raja Sulan itu daripada anak cucu Raja Nusyirwan Adil, anak Kobat Syahriar, raja masyrik dan maghrib; melainkan Allah subha nahu wa taala juga yang mengetahuinya Tetapi akan Raja Sulan itu raja besar sekali, segala raja-raja Hindi dan Sindi, sekalian dalam tangannya, dan segala raja-raja yang di bawah angin ini sekaliannya takluk kepada baginda itu.::" -or- from Malay Annals ".::.Raja Salan, the raja of Amdan Nayara, who, it is asserted by some, was the grandson of Raja Nashirwan Adel, the son of Raja Kobad Shah Shahriar, who was raja of the east and west. This Raja Sulan was the mightiest prince of the lands of Hind and Sind, and of all the rajas under the wind (i. e. towards the west, the wind being supposed to rise with the sun).::.". Photo from http://www.clevelandart.org/art/1959.330.b - Also called Nushirwan or Nushirvan the Just, or Chosroes Anushirawan, or Khosrau I Anushiravan - See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I

About Khosrau I "the Just", Shah of Persia (Persian)

انوشیروان

(تغییرمسیر از خسرو انوشیروان) خسرو انوشیروان Anoushiravan.jpg جای حکومت ایرانشهر دودمان ساسانیان تاجگذاری ۵۳۱ میلادی تیسفون لقب انوشیروان (انوشه‌روان به معنی روان جاوید، نامیرنده) دادگر زادروز ۵۰۱ میلادی پایان حکومت ۵۷۹ میلادی درگذشت ۵۷۹ میلادی تیسفون نام پدر قباد یکم شاهنشاه پیشین قباد یکم شاهنشاه پسین هرمز چهارم دین زرتشتی همسران کِیِن اُفِمیا فرزندان هرمز چهارم انوشزاد نوشزاد دستاورد های مهم تحکیم سلطنت، تجدید درجات اجتماعی، اصلاحات اقتصادی و مالیاتی، رشد چشمگیر علم و دانش به خصوص در دانشگاه گندی شاپور، افزایش چشمگیر قدرت نظامی ارتش ایران، ترجمه کتاب‌های گوناگون به زبان پهلوی از جمله کلیله و دمنه، رشد چشمگیر هنر و موسیقی[۱] جنگ ها جنگ با روم و فتح انطاکیه، خراجگزار شدن دولت روم به ساسانیان، جنگ با ترکان و هپتالیان و شکست دادن آنها وزیران سرشناس برزویه

خسرو انوشیروان -مجموعه شخصی شهرام نگارشی خسرو یکم (زایش ۵۰۱، مرگ ۵۷۹ میلادی) فرزند قباد یکم،[۲] معروف به خسرو انوشیروان (کسری نوشیروان، انوشه روان) دادگر[۳]، بیست و دومین شاهنشاه ساسانی، از سال ۵۳۱ تا سال ۵۷۹ میلادی[۴] بود. واژه «کسری/ کسرا» که عربی‌شده «خسرو» است و عرب‌ها آن را به طور کلی برای شاهان ایران به کار می‌بردند، پس از اشغال ایران به‌وسیلهٔ مسلمانان، در خود ایران برای نام بردن از شاهانی که نام خسرو داشتند، ازجمله خسرو انوشیروان، به کاررفت. شروع شاهنشاهی خسرو اول آغاز درخشان‌ترین دورهٔ عصر ساسانیان بود. او مزدکیان را سرکوب کرد. اصلاحات اقتصادی و مالیاتی کارآمدی را انجام داد که باعث پر پول شدن خزانه شاه و به طور همزمان فراهم آمدن رضایت مردم شد. خسرو ارتش را سازمانی و قدرتی دوباره داد. او در طول دوره شاهنشاهی خود سه بار با امپراتوری بیزانس جنگ کرد، که بار اول با پیروزی‌های ایران که نقطه عطف آن فتح انطاکیه در سال ۵۴۰ میلادی بود، با قرارداد صلح موقت در سال ۵۴۵ میلادی پایان یافت. به زودی برای بار دوم بین دو قدرت بزرگ جهان در آن زمان جنگ درگرفت و با به نتیجه رسیدن مذاکرات صلح در سال ۵۶۱ میلادی با انعقاد قرارداد صلح پنجاه ساله و خراجگذار شدن روم به شاهنشاهی ایران، جنگ خاتمه یافت. پس از ختم جنگِ روم، خسرو در سال‌های ۵۶۱ تا ۵۵۸ میلادی، دولت هپتالیان را که در اثر حملهٔ یک قبیلهٔ ترک به سرداری سینجیبو متزلزل شده بود، برانداخت. رود جیحون مرز بین ایران و سرزمین خاقان ترک شناخته شد. این خاقان به زودی برای ایران دشمنی خطرناک‌تر از پادشاه هپتالیان گردید. بعضی قبایل ترک حتی در قفقاز نمودار شدند و خسرو برای اینکه از حملات آنان جلوگیری کند، بر استحکامات قلعه دربند افزود. در قسمت جنوب خسرو قدرت خود را بر یمن بسط داد. این مملکت آن زمان در دست حبشیان بود. وهریز، که یکی از سرداران خسرو بود، با اعراب همدست شد و در سال ۵۷۰ میلادی حبشی‌ها را شکست داد و از جانب شاهنشاه به حکومت یمن منسوب شد. در همین سال‌ها، سینجیبو به تحریک بیزانس به ایران حمله کرد، ولی استحکامات مرزی ایران جلوی پیشرفت او را گرفت. این رویداد و همچنین اغتشاشاتی که در ارمنستان به تحریک دولت روم درگرفت، باعث برافروختن آتش جنگی دوباره میان ایران و روم شد. یوستینیانوس امپراتور بیزانس که فکر می‌کرد خسرو دیگر پیر شده است و توانایی اداره جنگ را ندارد، با پشتیبانی ارمنیان مسیحی به ایران حمله کرد و شهر نصیبین را به محاصره درآورد؛ ولی خسرو موفق شد او را به سختی شکست دهد و با پیشروی در خاک بیزانس قلعه دارا را نیز به اشغال خود درآورد. در بین جنگ، تیبریوس امپراتور بیزانس شد و پس از چندی کش و قوس مذاکرات صلح بین دو قدرت آغاز شد، ولی خسرو در سال ۵۷۹ میلادی درگذشت و نتیجه صلح را ندید.[۵] در روایات شرقی خسرو اول نمونه دادگری و دادگستری است و مؤلفان عرب و ایرانی حکایات بسیار در وصف کوشش او برای حفظ عدالت نقل کرده‌اند.[۶] همچنین عهد بزرگ تمدن ادبی و فلسفی ایران با شاهنشاهی خسرو اول آغاز می‌شود.[۷] در زمان وی کتاب کلیله و دمنه از زبان سانسکریت به زبان پهلوی ساسانی ترجمه شد،[۸] آزادی مذهبی برای ادیان غیر زرتشتی، مانند مسیحیت و یهودیت وجود داشت. هفت تن از فیلسوفان یونان در نتیجه تعطیلی مدرسهٔ فلسفه آتن توسط امپراتور بیزانس و تعدیاتی که به حکما کردند، به تیسفون و دربار خسرو پناه آوردند. از قیودی که برای سایر مذاهب غیر مسیحی در کشور روم قائل شده بودند، می‌توان قیاس کرد که دربار ایران نسبت به آزادی مذهب دارای چه عقیده و مقام عالی بوده‌است. در این دوره بازی چترنگ یا شطرنج نیز از هند به ایران آورده شد.[۹] تیسفون پایتخت دولت شاهنشاهی ایران در عهد خسرو اول به منتهای وسعت خود رسید.[۱۰] دانشگاه پزشکی گندی شاپور در زمان خسرو از رونق خاصی برخوردار بود و مرکز علم پزشکی جهان به شمار می‌آمد. مسیحیان نستوری که در قرن پنجم میلادی از روم طرد شدند، به ایران پناهنده شدند و پزشکان حاذقی که در بین آنها بودند، در مدارس پزشکی ایران از جمله گندی شاپور مشغول به کار شدند.[۱۱]

https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D8%B4%DB%8C%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86

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Khosrau I "the Just", Shah of Persia's Timeline