Knud IV "den hellige", konge af Danmark

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Knud "den Hellige" Svendsen (Den Hellige), Konge af Danmark

Also Known As: "Canute IV", "Knut IV den Hellige", "Canute the Holy", "Knut the Saint"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Roskilde, Danmark
Death: Died in Skt. Albani Church, Odense
Cause of death: myrdet i Odense, Albani Church
Place of Burial: Skt. Albani Church, When Canonized his bones was placed in a shrine at the alter of Skt. Knuds Church
Immediate Family:

Son of Sweyn II Ulfson, King of Denmark (from Jelling house) and Several Unknown Mistresses Tordsdatter of Svend Estridsøn
Husband of Adela de Flandre
Father of Karl af Flandern, Greve af Flandern; Cecilie Blanka Knudsdatter af Danmark, Prinsesse and Ingegerd Knudsdatter af Danmark
Brother of Harald III "Hen" King of Denmark; Niels, King of Denmark; Eric the Good, king of Denmark; Oluf I "Hunger", King of Denmark; Knud Magnus Svendsøn af Danmark and 13 others
Half brother of Ingerid Svendsdatter of Denmark, Queen Consort of Norway and Ednoth Svensson

Occupation: Konge af Danmark 1080-1086, King of Denmark 1080-1086, Dansk kung 1080-1086, Kung, Knut !! den helige, Danmark, Konge af Danmark, King, King of Denmark from 1080 until 1086, Konge af Danmark.
Managed by: Anette Guldager Boye
Last Updated:

About Knud IV "den hellige", konge af Danmark

http://www.fyens.dk/odense/Knud-den-Hellige-doede-ung/artikel/950563 http://ing.dk/artikel/ct-scanning-af-knud-den-hellige-afslorer-nyt-om-kongemord-86289 http://www.denstoredanske.dk/Dansk_Biografisk_Leksikon/Kirke_og_tro/Pr%C3%A6st/%C3%86lnoth http://www.danishnet.com/history/king-canute-iv-murder/

https://archive.org/stream/knuddenhelliges00gertgoog/knuddenhelliges00gertgoog_djvu.txt http://historiskatlas.dk/Knud_den_Hellige_%288159%29 http://historiskatlas.dk/Drabet_p%C3%A5_Knud_den_Hellige_%287904%29 http://historienshus.dk/topmenu/topmenu%202/om%20odense/personer/knud%20den%20hellige

Predecessor: Harald III Hen Successor: Olaf I Hunger


Konge av Danmark 1080 - 1086


Knud II den Hellige, frillesøn af Svend Estridsøn.

Gift med dronning Edel (Adela), datter af greve Robert (»Friser«) af Flandern. Dronningen indgik efter Knuds død ægteskab med hertug Roger af Sicilien i 1092.

Knud II den Helliges regeringstid: Knud II var i Sverige, da Harald Hén døde. Ved meddelelsen om dødsfaldet vendte han imidlertid straks hjem og sikrede sig kongeværdigheden. Kongen holdt stærkt på kronens ret. Han rensede farvandene for sørøvere (bl.a. »Blod-Egil«) og holdt venderne stangen. Knud II forsøgte også (forgæves) at afskaffe slaveriet, der i øvrigt eksisterede i Danmark til ind i 1300-tallet. Han ønskede formentlig at sikre kirkens indtægtsforhold ved indførelse af tiendebetaling, hvad der dog ikke lykkedes. Folket foretrak at afregne kontant for kirkelige ydelser. Kongen planlagde et togt til England (1085) med sin svoger og svigerfar. Disse planer vakte dog mildt sagt ikke jubel hos de danske storbønder, der skulle stille med skibe og mandskab; men de mødte alligevel op med omkring 1000 vikingeskibe, som ankrede op i Limfjorden. Formentlig på grund af stridigheder ved den danske sydgrænse, måtte Knud opholde sig dér hele sommeren. Til sidst sendte flådens høvdinge Knuds bror, Oluf, til ham for at opfordre ham til at tage afsted. Kongen arresterede imidlertid Oluf, og flåden kom ikke afsted. Næste forår udviste Knud under et ophold i Vendsyssel en mindre heldig opførsel over for befolkningen. Han måtte flygte, men blev i Odense Domkirke indhentet og dræbt af de ophidsede bønder.

Danmarks Adels Aarbog, Thiset, Hiort-Lorenzen, Bobé, Teisen., (Dansk Adelsforening), [1884 - 2005]., (DAA 1898:224).


Kung Knut II den helige av Danmark
Han var dansk konung och martyr, han gynnade på allt sätt kristendomen, kämpade för utrotandet av hedniska sedvänjor och skänkte stora jordegendomar till Lunds domkyrka. År 1085 förberedde han ett krigståg mot England, när emellertid ett uppror mot honom utbröt på Jylland, måste han med några hirdmän söka skydd i St.Albanus kyrka i Odense. Försänkt i bön vid altaret träffades han av ett spjut som en hedning kastade mot honom genom ett kyrkfönster år 1086. Dådet fullbordades med ett pilskott. I Sverige kallas han för "Bonde-Knut", han firas den 10 Juli och är Danmarks skyddshelgon.
Canute IV, later known as Canute the Holy or Canute the Saint (Danish: Knud IV den Hellige or Sankt Knud), (c. 1042 – July 10, 1086) was King of Denmark from 1080 until 1086. Canute was an ambitious king who sought to strengthen the Danish monarchy, devoutedly supported the Roman Catholic Church, and had designs for the English throne. Slain by rebels in 1086, he was the first Dane to be canonized. He was recognized by the Roman Catholic Church as patron saint of Denmark in 1101, under the name of San Canuto.

Life

Canute was born c. 1042, as one of the many illegitimate sons of Sweyn II Estridsson.[1] He is first noted as a member of Sweyn's 1069 raid of England,[2] and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Canute was one of the leaders of another raid against England in 1075. When returning from England in 1075, the Danish fleet stopped in the County of Flanders.[3] Because of its hostility towards William I of England, Flanders was a natural ally for the Danes. He also led successful campaigns to Sember and Ester, according to skald Kalv Maanesen.[2]

When Sweyn died, Canute's brother Harald III was elected king, and as Canute went into exile in Sweden,[2] he was possibly involved in the active opposition to Harald.[3] In 1080, Canute succeeded Harald to the throne of Denmark. On his accession, he married Adela, daughter of count Robert I of Flanders. She bore him one son, Carl, a name uncommon in Denmark, and the daughters Ingerid Knudsdatter and Cæcilia of Denmark,[2] who married Erik Jarl.

King of Denmark

Canute quickly proved himself to be a highly ambitious king as well as a devout one. He enhanced the power position of the church, and demanded austere observation of church holidays.[2] He gave large gifts to the churches in Dalby, Odense, Roskilde, and Viborg, and especially to Lund.[2] Ever a champion of the Church, he sought to enforce the collection of tithes.[1] His aggrandizement of the church served to create a powerful ally, who in turn supported Canute's power position.[2]

In May 1085, Canute wrote a letter of donation to Lund Cathedral which was under construction, granting it large tracts of lands in Scania, Zealand, and Amager.[5] He founded Lund Cathedral School at the same time.[2] Canute had gathered the land largely as pay for the pardon of lawless subjects. The clerics at Lund got extended perogatives of the land, being able to tax and fine the peasantry there. However, Knud kept his universal royal rights to pardon the lawless, fine subjects who failed to answer his leding call to war, and demand transportation for his retinue.[5]

His reign was marked by vigorous attempts to increase royal power in Denmark, by stifling the nobles and keeping them to the word of the law.[2] Canute issued edicts arrogating to himself the ownership of common land, the right to the goods from shipwrecks, and the right to inherit the possessions of foreigners and kinless folk. He also issued laws to protect freed thralls as well as foreign clerics and merchants.[1] These policies led to discontent among his subjects, who were unaccustomed to a king who claimed such powers and who interfered in their daily lives.[2]

Aborted attempt on England

But Canute's ambitions were not purely domestic. As the grandnephew of Canute the Great, who ruled England, Denmark and Norway until 1035, Canute considered the crown of England to be rightfully his. He therefore regarded William I of England as a usurper. In 1085, with the support of his father-in-law Count Robert and Olaf III of Norway, Canute planned an invasion of England and called his fleet in leding at the Limfjord.[2] The fleet never set sail, as Canute was preoccupied in Schleswig due to the potential threat of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, with whom both Denmark and Flanders were on unfriendly terms. Canute feared the invasion of Henry, whose enemy Rudolf of Rheinfelden had sought refuge in Denmark.[2]

The warriors of the fleet, mostly made up of peasants who needed to be home for the harvest season, got wary of waiting, and elected Canute's brother Olaf (the later Olaf I of Denmark) to argue their case. This raised the suspicion of Canute, who had Olaf arrested and sent to Flanders. The leding was eventually dispersed and the peasants tended to their harvests,[2] but Canute intended to reassemble within a year.

Death

Before the fleet could reassemble, a peasant revolt broke out in Vendsyssel,[1] where Canute was staying, in early 1086. Canute first fled to Schleswig, and eventually to Odense. On July 10, 1086, Canute and his men took refuge inside the wooden St. Alban's Priory in Odense. The rebels stormed into the church and slew Canute, along with his brother Benedict and seventeen of their followers, before the altar.[1] According to chronicler Ælnoth of Canterbury, Canute died following a lance thrust in the flank.[6] He was succeeded by Olaf as Olaf I of Denmark.

Canonization


King Canute's grave at Odense Cathedral (photo: Jacob Truedson Demitz)Because of his martyrdom and advocacy of the Church, Canute quickly began to be considered a saint. Under the reign of Olaf, Denmark suffered from crop failure, which was seen as divine retribution for the sacrilege killing of Canute. Miracles were soon reported as taking place at his grave,[citation needed] and he was already sought canonized during the reign of Olaf.[1]

On April 19, 1101, persuaded by the envoys of Eric III of Denmark, Pope Paschal II confirmed the "cult of Canute" that had arisen, and King Canute IV was canonized as a saint under the name San Canuto.[5] He was the first Dane to be canonized.[1] His feast day is recognised by the Catholic Church as being on 19 January. However, in Sweden and Finland his feast day, St. Knut's Day, is celebrated on 13 January. This appears to be because he decreed that Christmas be celebrated for 20 days, and 13 January falls 20 days after Christmas Day.[citation needed]

In 1300, his remains and those of his brother Benedict were interred in Saint Canute's Cathedral, built to his honour, where his remains are on display.[1]

Legacy

The reign of Canute has been interpreted differently through the times; from a violent king who tyrannized his subjects, to a strict but fair ruler who devoutedly supported the Roman Catholic Church and fought for justice without regard to his own person.[3] He was never a thoroughly popular saint in Denmark, but his sainthood granted the Danish monarchy an aura of divine legitimacy.[1] The cause of the rebellion which killed Canute is unknown, but has been speculated as originating in fines issued to the peasants breaking the leding of 1085 as specified in the Chronicon Roskildense, or as a result of his vigorous tithe policy.[3]

The document of his donation to Lund Cathedral was the oldest comprehensive text from Denmark, and provided broad insights into Danish post-Viking Age society.[5] The donation might have had the aim of establishing the Danish Archdiocese of Lund according to Sweyn II Estridsson's wishes,[2] which was finally achieved in 1104. Canute's son Carl became Count of Flanders from 1119 to 1127, ruling as Charles the Good. Like his father, Charles was martyred in a church by rebels (in Bruges, 1127).[2] According to Niels Lund, Lecturer in Medieval History at the University of Copenhagen, Canute's abortive invasion of England "marked the end of the Viking Age." For it was the last time a Viking army was to assemble against Western Europe.[citation needed]

In 2008, an X-ray computed tomography was taken of Canute, which showed that he was right-handed and of a slender build. It also specified his cause of death as a thrust to the sacrum through the abdomen, negating Ælnoth's account. He had no injuries indicating he fought against multiple enemies, which can be seen as supporting an account saying he faced his death without a struggling.[6]


DO NOT MERGE!!! Existing Master Profile for his grandmother, Estrid, is attached to two fathers and I can't fix it! As a result, my blood relationship is broken to his father Svend II Estridsen, King of Denmark, and his 5 sons that were also kings of Denmark. In other words, the Geni display says I'm not related to these six kings, including this one, although I'm shown as related to Estrid and her father, Svend I "Forkbeard. "

In summary, DO NOT MERGE this profile! If things are fixed in the future, I'll delete this profile, and the profiles for the 6 kings descending from Estrid.

view all

Knud IV "den hellige", konge af Danmark's Timeline

1050
1050
Roskilde, Danmark

http://www.artursson.se/Engelska/0001/1041.htm

--------------------
Biografi
Kung av Danmark. Född 1043 i Danmark. Död 1086/07/10 i Odense. Begravd i S: t Knuds kyrka, Danmark. Knut är i Sverige 1080 Då dödsbudet når Honom, att Danmarks kung Harald Hen är död. Han skyndar hem och väljs på Isöre till ny dansk konung.
Den vid kungavalet 1074 ratade kungasonen Knut (den helige) företar Ett plundringståg mot England män vänder snart Hemåt.

Den norske kungen Olav Kyrre sänder 60 vikingaskepp Att ansluta sig till Knut II: s Stora englandsflotta i Limfjorden.

1085 planerar Knut II, mot stormännens Tycke, ett krigståg mot England och samlar en stor flotta i Limfjorden. Kungen uppehåller sig docka i Sønderjylland hela sommaren och flottan Kommer inte iväg. Till sist sanden Knuts bror Oluf till kungen för Att han ska ge Klartecken till avfärd. Oluf fängslas och sand som fånge till Flandern. Flottan upplöses.

1086 - Kung Knut II utfärdar orättvisa lagar och det blir Uppror. Kungen och hans bror Benedikt tar med hirden Skydd i S: t Albani kyrka i Odense män Mordas framför altaret. Knut begravs i kyrkan och blir år 1101 helgonförklarad av påven Urban II.

Efter Mordet på Kung Knut II i Danmark 1086, för Kungens bror Erik Ejegod Hans Två döttrar i säkerhet till Inge d.ä. i Sverige. Dessa blir snart bortgifta med de English stormännen Erik och Folke "Den Tjocke". Knut vår kung år 1080-1086. Han bedömms Olika i källorna; Ett parti prisar Honom som idealhärskare, Ett annat berättar Endast om hans övergrepp. Säkert är Att han med kraft hävdade kungamakten och skänkte stora jordegendommar till Lunds domkyrka. Stödd på kyrkan utfärdade han egna lagar och fack nya skatter och avgifter på bönderna. Han förberedde 1085 Ett krigståg till England. Knud påtvingade folket en ny skatt kallad "nefgjald", Vilket ledde till Att de jylländska bönderna gjorde Uppror och fördrev Honom därifrån. Knud Då flydde till Odense, med män upphanns av rasande bönder och Höggs Tillsammans 17 Hirdman av SINA ned framför altaret i S: t Albani kyrka, sa krigståget blev aldrig av. Hans nya skatter ledde Till ett omhändertagande av en stor Mängd Gårdar Vilka skänkte till prästerskapet i Lund, som Underlag för Domkapitlet. År 1085 Lade han Också Grunden till domkyrkan i Lund. En Hungersnød som följde uppfattades som Guds straff för Dråpet och Knut började betraktas som helgon. Politiska motiv bidrog till detta. Knut helgonförklarades 1101.

Källa: http://hem1.passagen.se/mjson/loman3.htm, http://hem.passagen.se/tuscany/p8e83b978.html

Gifte och barn
Adele av Flandern.
Gift

barn:
Karl den gud Knutsson av Flandern.
Ingegärd Knutsdotter av Danmark.
Cecilia Knutsdotter av Danmark.

1084
1084
Age 34
Odense, Danmark
1086
July 10, 1086
Age 36
Skt. Albani Church, Odense
1086
Age 36
Roskilde, Denmark

http://www.artursson.se/Engelska/0001/1039.htm
-------------
Biografi
Prinsessa av Danmark. Född 1085 i Danmark. Död i Bjälbo (E).

Gifte och barn
Folke "Den Tjocke" Ingevaldsson.
Gift 1161

barn;
Arnulf av Flandern.
Bengt Folkesson Snivels Jarl av Sverige.
Knut (Folkesson) av Flandern.

1086
Age 36
Danmark
1086
Age 36
Skt. Albani Church, When Canonized his bones was placed in a shrine at the alter of Skt. Knuds Church

Sankt Albani Kirke var oprindelige en trækirke, der lå øst for den nuværende Sankt Knuds Kirke i Odense. Umiddelbart efter kongedrabet på Knud den Hellige og hans bror Benedikt i 1086, blev kirken i 1095 afløst af en treskibet korskirke af frådsten med stor krypt under koret. Ved Knud den helliges kanonisering i 1101 blev kirken indviet til ham og skiftede navn til Sankt Knuds Kirke.

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Denmakr - aka St. Canute