Lavinia "Vinnie" Norcross Dickinson

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Lavinia "Vinnie" Norcross Dickinson

Birthdate: (66)
Birthplace: Amherst, Hampshire, Massachusetts, USA
Death: August 31, 1899 (66)
Amherst, Hampshire, Massachusetts, USA (enlarged heart)
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Edward Dickinson and Emily Dickinson (Norcross)
Sister of William Austin Dickinson and Emily Dickinson

Managed by: Noah Philip Ban
Last Updated:

About Lavinia "Vinnie" Norcross Dickinson

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Source for the following: downloaded 2010 from

Lavinia Norcross Dickinson (1833-1899) was the sister of poet Emily Dickinson.

“[Emily] had to think – she was the only one of us who had that to do. Father believed; and mother loved; and Austin had Amherst; and I had the family to take care of.”

- Lavinia Dickinson (Emily Dickinson's Home, pp. 413-414)

One of the most amazing persons in Emily Dickinson’s life was her sister Lavinia. Born two years after Emily, on February 28, 1833, the two were raised as if of an age. They began attending Amherst Academy together in the spring of 1841 at ages ten and eight, and shared a room and a bed into their twenties. Each, however, had her own circle of friends and very different personality. As Emily once told a friend, “if we had come up for the first time from two wells where we had hitherto been bred her astonishment would not be greater at some things I say” (Sewall, Lyman Letters, 70).

Vinnie grew to be the practical sister, who did the errands and managed the housekeeping. “I don’t see much of Vinnie – she’s mostly dusting stairs!” (L176) Emily once sighed. Clever and pretty, musical and an accomplished mimic, Vinnie had a sharp tongue and sometimes shaded the truth, nor was she a serious student. After eight years at Amherst Academy and two terms imbibing an “abbreviated course” at Ipswich Academy, she settled into an active social life in Amherst for several years. Her friendly flirtatiousness attracted the Amherst College students, but despite several proposals of marriage, including a long-term “understanding” with the Dickinsons’ friend Joseph Lyman, Vinnie, like her sister, remained unwed.

"Upon her, very early, depended the real solidarity of the family,” her niece Martha later wrote. “It was Lavinia who knew where everything was, from a lost quotation to a last year’s muffler. It was she who remembered to have the fruit picked for canning, or the seeds kept for next year’s planting, or the perfunctory letters written to the aunts" (Bianchi, Life and Letters, p. 13). Vinnie shared her mother and sister’s horticultural talents. Her passion for colorful, overflowing flower beds was exceeded only by an equally abundant love of cats, which followed her in procession about the Homestead.

Different as they were, the sisters were extremely close. While Austin was often exasperated by his youngest sister, the poet called her bond with Lavinia “early, earnest,indissoluble” (L827). Indeed, from young womanhood, Emily depended upon Vinnie’s physical presence when engaged in social activities or even going through the seasonal construction of new clothing, for Vinnie worked with the dressmaker and served as model for both of them. As she neared age thirty, the reclusive poet admitted, “Vinnie has been all, so long, I feel the oddest fright at parting with her for an hour, lest a storm arise, and I go unsheltered” (L200).

Vinnie’s pride in her brilliant sister was as strong as her devotion to protecting her. After their father’s death in 1874 and their mother’s stroke the following year, Vinnie and Emily, with the help of their maid Margaret Maher, cared for their invalid mother until her death in 1882. When Emily died in May 1886, Vinnie burned her sister's correspondence, as requested, but to her amazement discovered hundreds of poems about which Emily had given no instructions. Determined to share these with the world, Vinnie spent the next thirteen years successfully urging and cajoling others – Susan Dickinson, Mabel Loomis Todd, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, the publishers Roberts Brothers – to publish her sister’s poems and letters. Without what Emily called Vinnie’s “inciting voice” (L827), we would know little or nothing of Dickinson’s great lyric poetry.

Lavinia Dickinson died at age 66 of an “enlarged heart” on August 31, 1899. Her health and spirits suffered greatly the last two years from the strain of the lawsuit with Mabel Loomis and David Todd, the death of her nephew Ned, and recriminations that flew between the Homestead and The Evergreens.

Further Reading:

Bianchi, Martha Dickinson. The Life and Letters of Emily Dickinson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1924.

Bingham, Millicent Todd. Emily Dickinson’s Home. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1955.

Sewall, Richard B. The Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1974. 138-157.

Sewall, Richard B. The Lyman Letters: New Light on Emily Dickinson and Her Family. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1965.

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Austin had an affair with neighbor and Amherst faculty wife Mabel Loomis Todd, an affair conducted fairly openly in each of their homes, with only the most superficial attempts to hide what was going on.

Todd's daughter, Millicent, a child of eight or nine, witnessed Austin and her mother going into her parents' bedroom on numerous occasions, and was neglected while the two were behind closed doors, pacified with a pat on the head then left to fend for herself. Curiously, despite all this, Millicent defended her mother's activities years later. Lavinia, Emily's sister, allowed her brother and Mabel to meet in the Dickinson home.

Austin Dickinson held a leadership position at Amherst College.

Mabel Todd's husband David taught at the college, which made his position all the more problematic. To further his scientific research, David wanted to get an observatory built. David apparently never voiced an objection to his wife's affair with Austin Dickinson. David's relationship with his wife appears not to have been very happy, but it was not ended by by the affair.

Austin's wife, Susan Dickinson, was well aware what was going on and fumed. She held onto the marriage nevertheless, opting to avoid the scandal of divorce. Their relationship was highly compromised, but Austin always came home to her, even though Mabel Todd repeatedly begged Austin to marry her, but Susan never let go.

Amidst all this, Emily Dickinson continued to write her poetry, living the life of a reclusive artist. Apparently everyone in her little community adored Emily, her reputation never sullied. She was interested in a married man herself, and clearly told him of her attraction to him, though this relationship was apparently never consummated.

After Emily's death, Mabel Loomis Todd, a professional writer and speaker, became engaged with T. W. Higginson in editing the first compilation of Emily's poetry, which was published in 1890.

Through all the mayhem, it seems Susan Dickinson was most concerned with protecting the family's reputation, at least until Austin's death in 1895. Following that all hell broke loose when Emily's sister, Lavinia, got into a land battle with the Todds when she refused to comply with Austin's wish to leave the Todds a parcel of land between their two homes.

He hadn't actually written this directive into his will, but had discretely arranged with Lavinia to carry out this transaction after his death. Austin had deluded himself that Lavinia would comply. A nasty court battle ensued. The Dickinson family's good name was dragged through the mud, with Mabel Todd revealed as the adulteress she was.

Source: Lives Like Loaded Guns: Lyndall Gordon, "Emily Dickinson and Her Family's Feuds," 512 pages, Viking Adult, 2010, ISBN-10: 0670021938

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Lavinia "Vinnie" Norcross Dickinson's Timeline

February 28, 1833
Amherst, Hampshire, Massachusetts, USA
Age 16
Age 26
Age 36
Age 46
Amherst, Hampshire, Massachusetts, United States
August 31, 1899
Age 66
Amherst, Hampshire, Massachusetts, USA