Historical records matching Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Stanley Maude KCB, CMG, DSO
About Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Stanley Maude KCB, CMG, DSO
Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Stanley Maude KCB, CMG, DSO (24 June 1864 – 18 November 1917) was a British commander, most famous for his efforts in Mesopotamia during World War I and for conquering Baghdad in 1917.
Maude was born in Gibraltar into a military family; his father was Sir Frederick Francis Maude – a general who had been awarded the Victoria Cross in 1855 during the Crimean War, and who is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London.
Maude attended Eton College and then the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He graduated in 1883 and joined the Coldstream Guards in February 1884.
Maude first saw active service in Egypt from March to September 1885, where he was awarded the Egyptian Medal and the Khedive's Egyptian Star. He next saw service as a Major during the Second Boer War, where he served from January 1900 to March 1901; he won a DSO and the Queen's South Africa Medal. From 1901 to 1904, he served on the staff of the Governor-General of Canada, in which capacity he accompanied the Duke and Duchess of York on their Royal Tour of Canada in September and October, 1901. During this trip he joined the Duke of York and Lord Minto on a duck hunt at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. He returned to Britain to become second-in-command at the Coldstream Guards and then he joined the General Staff, was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in 1907 and Colonel in 1911.
World War I
In World War I, Maude first served in France. He was a staff officer with III Corps when, in October 1914, he was promoted to Brigadier-General and given command of the 14th Brigade. He was wounded in April 1915 and returned home to recover. He returned to France in May and, in June, he was promoted to Major-General and transferred to command the 33rd Division, then still in training.
In mid-August, however, Maude was instead given charge of the 13th Division in Suvla. The 13th suffered heavy casualties retreating from Suvla and landing and later evacuating from Helles before being shifted to Mesopotamia in March 1916. He was the last man evacuated from Suvla Bay.
Maude arrived to catch the end of the British failure at the Siege of Kut where he was promoted to Lieutenant-General, replacing General George Gorringe as commander of the newly dubbed Tigris Corps (III Indian Army Corps) in July 1916. Despite being instructed to do no more than hold the existing line, Maude set about to re-organising and re-supplying his mixed British and Indian forces. He was made commander of all Allied forces in Mesopotamia in late July 1916, replacing Sir Percy Lake.
Given reinforcements and more equipment, Maude directed his force in a steady series of victories. Advancing up the Tigris and winning the battles of Mohammed Abdul Hassan, Hai and Dahra in January 1917, recapturing Kut in February 1917, he took Baghdad on 11 March 1917. (He issued the Proclamation of Baghdad on 19 March.) From Baghdad, he launched the Samarrah Offensive and extended his operations to the Euphrates and Diyala rivers.
After a lull over the summer, by November his forces were engaged at Ramadi and Tikrit when he became ill from cholera (which some sources claim to have been caught from drinking unboiled milk) and abruptly died. Coincidentally, he died in the same house as German General von der Goltz a year earlier. General Marshall succeeded him.
Mount Maude, a peak in the Cascade Range, was named for Frederick Maude by Albert H. Sylvester. In 2003, the British military headquarters in Baghdad's Green Zone was named "Maude House".
Maude is buried in Baghdad (North Gate) War Cemetery. He is also noted on a memorial in Brompton Cemetery, London.
"Our armies do not come into your cities and lands as conquerors or enemies, but as liberators." — Baghdad, March, 1917
MAUDE, Sir FREDERICK STANLEY
- Rank: Lieutenant General
- Date of Death: 18/11/1917
- Age: 53
- Regiment/Service: General Staff Commander-in-Chief, Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, 1916. Late Coldstream Guards
- Awards: K C B, C M G, D S O, 5 times Mentioned in Despatches
- Grave Reference: Maude Tomb, centre of cemetery.
- Cemetery: BAGHDAD (NORTH GATE) WAR CEMETERY
- Additional Information: Son of Sir Frederick F. Maude, V.C., G.C.B., and of Lady Maude (daughter of Sir Cecil Bishopp, Bart.); husband of Lady Maude, of Hampton Court Palace. Educated at Eton and Sandhurst.
- Served in Soudan 1885;
- South Africa, 1899-1901;
- Military Secretary to Governor General of Canada, 1901-1904;
- Private Secretary to Secretary of State for War, 1905; D.A.A.Q.M.G., Plymouth, 1906-1908;
- General Staff, 2nd London Division, 1908-1909;
- Assistant Director, Territorial Force, War Office, 1909-1912;
- General Staff, 5th Division, 1912-1914;
- Brig. Gen. Commanding 14th Infantry Brigade, 1914,
- Maj. Gen. Commanding 13th Division, 1915;
- Lt. Gen. Commanding Tigris Corps, 1916.