About William Boyd
Son ? Cyrus Boyd, child of William and Sarah. Cyrus Boyd married Jane White on April 26, 1800, in Westland, Pennsylvania. They had 11 children in 19 years.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Otzinachson: A History of the West Branch Valley of the Susquehanna: 1st edition 1856 p. 446
Its ...lists widow Sarah Boyd as mother of William, John, and Thomas
Lt. William Boyd killed at Brandywine. If she also had son Cyrus and daughter Susannah, then she is my GGM _______________________________________________________________________________________ Lt. William Boyd died at Brandywine Sept 11, 1777
Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army During the War of ...
By Francis Bernard Heitman
The greater portion of the regiment was recruited upon the West Branch of the Susquehanna, and on the 18th of December it left Sunbury in boats for the battle fields of New Jersey. Being composed of good riflemen and scouts, it was detailed on picket and skirmish duty. It (with the Third, Ninth, and Sixth Pennsylvania) was in Brigadier General Thomas Conway's brigade. Its headquarters were at the five crossroads at Metuchen, between Quibbletown and Amboy. Its companies were engaged in the various skirmishes in that neighborhood: at Bound Brook, April 12, 1777; Piscataway, May 10th, where Joseph Lorentz and twenty-one others were made prisoners by the British, Wendell Lorentz making his escape by running in among a flock of sheep; at Short Hills, June 26th, and Bonamtown. In June Colonel Daniel Morgan's rifle command was formed, and a detachment from the Twelfth Pennsylvania, under the command of Captain Hawkins Boone, was placed in it..... In the battle of Brandywine, the Twelfth was engaged under Sullivan at Birmingham church, losing heavily. Major Crawford, Captain Brady, and other officers were wounded, Lieutenant William Boyd, of Brady's company, killed. At Germantown Conway's brigade led the attack on the left wing of the British, being in front of the troops that composed the right wing of the American army, and the Twelfth was in the hottest of the fight, losing heavily in men, Second Lieutenant John Carothers of the officers, killed. The Twelfth wintered with the rest of the army at Valley Forge, and at Monmouth the remnant of it was nearly destroyed, as testified to in many of the statements made by the privates,
another page: Lieutenant William Boyd, who was killed at the battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777;
The Twelfth Pennsylvania Regiment of the Continental Line, of which four companies were from Northumberland County and the others from Northampton County, was raised by authority of Congress, and among the last acts of the convention which had assembled in Philadelphia, to form a State Constitution, was the choice of its field officers, from its members, on September 28, 1776. William Cook, delegate from Northumberland, was made Colonel; Neigal Gray.... Lt: John Boyd, of Northumberland, promoted lieutenant in Third Pennsylvania June 18, 1778; Died February 13, 1832. Ensigns
Benjamin Lodge, Jr., October 16, 1776; promoted lieutenant Sixth Pennsylvania, October 11, 1777. Thomas Hamilton, October 16, 1776. William Ball Blackall, October 16, 1776; promoted lieutenant Third Pennsylvania 11th September, 1778; mustered out November 3, 1783. William Boyd, appointed October 16, 1776; killed at Brandywine, September, 11, 1777. esource: http://files.usgwarchives.net/pa/northumberland/military/12thpa01.txt _______________________________________________________________________________ Floyd G. Hoenstine BODLE, ABRAHAM Served as a Corporal with Captain John Boyd's Bedford ... A brother William Boyd, Second Lieutenant of Captain John Brady's Company 12th Regiment was killed in the Battle of Brandywine the 11th of September, 1777. esource: https://www.google.com/webhp?source=search_app#q=Lt.+William+Boyd+died+at+Brandywine _____________________________________________________________________________ August 13, 1776. The following gentlemen, being unanimously chosen by their respective townships to serve in the Committee for the county of Northumberland for the space of six months, met at the school house in the town of Northumberland, viz:- Augusta Township. - William Maclay, David McKinney, John Maclay. Turbut Township. - George McCandlish, William Shaw, Paul Geddis. Bald Eagle Township. - Robert Fleming, Thomas Kemplen, John Section.
Wyoming Township. - Samuel McClure, Peter Melick, John
Cliugman. Mahanoy Township. - Sebastian Brosius, George Reitz, Peter Almang. Mahoning Township. - Laughlin McCartney, Thomas Robinson, John Boyd.
Muncy Township. - Mordecai McKinney, James Giles, Andrew
Buffalo Township. - Martin Traester, William Speddy,
Philip Cole. Penn's Township. - Simeon Woodrow, Adam B. Mander, Paul Gemberling. Potter's Township. - [No return.] White Deer Township. - James McClenachan, Robert Fruit, William Gray.
The Committee proceeded to elect a chairman and clerk, when Mr. Robert Fruit was unanimously appointed chairman during the time of six months* and John Boyd, clerk. + + + rom Nicholas Pickard, of Wyoming, to John Pickard, of Penn's township, informing him of an approaching Indian invasion, next received attention: John Pickard took the oath of allegiance; Nicholas acknowledged himself a British emissary, and was sent to Philadelphia under guard. The Committee then adjourned to meet at Laughlin McCartney's in Northumberland on the 10th of June, but no record of its subsequent proceedings has been preserved. The local militia was organized in four battalions and officered as follows:-
First Battalion.- Colonel, Samuel Hunter; lieutenant colonel, William Cooke; majors: Casper Weitzel, John Lee. First Company.- Captain, Nicholas Miller; first lieutenant, Christopher Gettig; second lieutenant, Nehemith Breese; ensigns: Gustavus Ross, William Sims. Second Company.- Captain, Hugh White; first lieutenant, John Forster; second lieutenant, Andrew Gibson; ensign, Samuel Young. Third Company.- Captain, John McMahan; first lieutenant, John Murray; second lieutenant, William Fisher; ensign, William Bailey. Fourth Company.- Captain, Charles Gillespie; first lieutenant, Robert King; second lieutenant, Samuel Fulton; ensigns: William Boyd, John Woodside.
+ + +
Lieutenant John Boyd, who
was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania, rose to the rank of captain, retired from the regiment, January 1, 1781, and was for many years justice of the peace at Northumberland; Lieutenant William Boyd, who was killed at the battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777; esource: http://files.usgwarchives.net/pa/northumberland/areahistory/bell0005.txt _____________________________________________________________________________
1 William Boyd was the son of Sarah Boyd, a widow, who resided at Northumber- land, and a brother of Thomas, who shared in all the danj^ers and fatigues of the Canada campaign, (see Judge Henry's Memoirs of Arnold's Expedition,) and fell a sacrifice to Indian barbarity in Sullivan's expedition. Another brother, Captain Boyd, lived at Northumberland many years afterwards. See Meginuess, page 286, for his adventures. esource: http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/john-blair-linn/annals-of-buffalo-valley-pennsylvania-1755-1855-nni/page-13-annals-of-buffalo-valley-pennsylvania-1755-1855-nni.shtml _________________________________________________________________________________ William Boyd, born 1755 at Northumberland, Chester Co. His mother was of Heugonot descent. The children included Thomas, William, and John, and Mary. William died at Brandywine, was married. Notes and Queries: Chiefly Relating to Interior Pennsylvania, Volume 3
edited by William Henry Egle p. 249
__________________________________________________________________________________ Learn about upgrading this memorial... Birth: 1755 Death: Sep. 11, 1777 Chadds Ford Delaware County Pennsylvania, USA
Ensign 12th Pennsylvania 16th October 1776 2d lieutenant 20th May 1777 Killed at Brandyine 11th September 1777
Heitman Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army during the War of Independence .p.114
Burial: Brandywine Baptist Church Cemetery Chadds Ford Delaware County Pennsylvania, USA Plot: Possibly Buried here?
Edit Virtual Cemetery info [?]
Created by: P Fazzini Record added: Dec 13, 2010 Find A Grave Memorial# 62867693 findagrave.com
_______________________________________________________________________________ Saturday, October 3--Agreeable to orders of yesterday, the garrison of Fort Sullivan this day joined their respective commands and the fort was demolished. The stores and other baggage with the park of artillery were put on board the boats, and every other matter put in perfect readiness to move with the army on their route to Wyoming to-morrow morning at six oâclock. The young sachem with several Oneida Indians, relatives and friends of the unfortunate Indian Hanjost, who bravely fell with the party under command of the much lamented Lieutenant Boyd on the 13th ult., who faithfully acted as guide to the army, left us this day well pleased (after bestowing some presents on them) for their native place, the Oneida country. esource: http://www.joycetice.com/heverly/shesh2.htm __________________________________________________________________________________
Area History: Bell's History of Northumberland County, PA - THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD - Part I
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NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° °
THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. CHAPTER III. Part 1 Pages 99 - 123.
CLOSE OF THE PROVINCIAL REGIME - THE COUNTY'S REPRESENTATION IN THE CONTINENTAL ARMY - COMPANIES OF CAPTAINS LOWDON, PARR, AND WELTZEL - TWELFTH PENNSYLVANIA REGIMENT - COMMITTEE OF SAFETY - MILITIA ORGANIZATION - INDIAN OUTRAGES - DEFENSIVE MEASURES INSTITUTED BY COLONEL HUNTER - "THE GREAT RUNAWAY" - COLONEL BRODHEAD TEMPORARILY STATIONED ON THE FRONTIER.
Although the early settlement of Northumberland county occurred during the period of tranquility following the close of the French and Indian war, the possibility of future hostilities was a constant incentive to military organization, while the circumstances of frontier life were eminently calculated to foster a spirit of independence; and thus her people, although deficient in the elements of wealth and comparatively few in numbers, were well prepared for the Revolutionary struggle. In all the movements preliminary to the organization of the State government they were represented. The first of these was the "Meeting of the Provincial Deputies," July 10th, 1774; it was called by a committee of correspondence at Philadelphia, the chairman of which, Thomas Willing, addressed a letter to William Maclay, William Plunket, and Samuel Hunter on the 25th of June, 1774, in compliance with which the different townships elected committee-men who met at Richard Malone's on the 11th of July and selected William Scull and Samuel Hunter to represent the county. The delegates to the Provincial Convention of January 23, 1775, were William Plunket and Casper Weitzel; to the Provincial Conference of June 15, 1776, William Cooke, Alexander Hunter, John Weitzel, Robert Martin, and Matthew Brown, and to the Constitutional Convention of July 1, 1776, William Cooke, James Potter, Robert Martin, Matthew Brown, Walter Clark, John Kelly, James Crawford, and John Weitzel. The latter were elected on the 5th of July at the house of George McCandlish near the mouth of Limestone run; Thomas Hewitt, William Shaw, and Joseph Green served as judges. The former justices of the county were superseded on the 3d of September by ordinance of the Constitutional Convention: the result of the first general election under its provisions were certified by John Brady, James McClenachan, John Gray, and Thomas Robinson, judges of the different districts, Novem- END OF PAGE 99 ber 7, 1776, and thus the provincial regime in Northumberland county terminated. During the progress of these developments the county was well represented at the front. A resolution was adopted by Congress, June 14, 1775, directing the formation of ten companies of expert riflemen, six in Pennsylvania, two in Maryland, and two in Virginia - to be employed as light infantry and be paid the following sums per month: a captain, twenty dollars; a lieutenant, thirteen and one third dollars; a sergeant, eight dollars; a corporal, seven and one third dollars; a drummer, seven and one third dollars, and a private, six and two thirds dollars - all "to find their own arms and clothes." One of these companies, Captain John Lowdon's, was recruited in Northumberland county. The roster was as follows:-
Captain, John Lowdon, June 25, 1775. First Lieutenant, James Parr, June 25, 1775. Second Lieutenants: James Wilson, June 25, 1775; William Wilson, from third lieutenant, January 4, 1776. Third Lieutenants: William Wilson, June 25,1775; John Dougherty, from sergeant, January 4, 1776. Sergeants: John Dougherty, David Hammond, Alexander McCormick, William McMurray, Cornelius Dougherty. Corporals: Thomas Henry, William Edwards, John White, James Carson, Charles Cochran. Drummer, Richard Grosvenor. Privates: William Adkins, Joseph All, John Benickler, Samuel Brady, William Briggs, George Butler, William Calhoun, Robert Carothers, James Carson, John Cassaday, Samuel Cealy, David Clements, Charles Cochran, Peter Condon, David Davis, John Dean, John Eicholtz, John Evans, Jacob Finkboner, Charles Ford, Philip Gintner, Thomas Giltson, John Hamilton [Hamberton], David Harris, Michael Hare, Thomas Hempington, Christopher Henning, William Humber, William Jamison, Samuel Johns, James Johnson, Lewis Jones, Thomas Kilday, Nicholas Kline, John Ladley, Samuel Landon, William Leek, Robert Lines, Jacob Lindy, Thomas Lobdon, Reuben Massaker, Moses Madock, John Malone, Charles Maloy, James McCleary, Cornelius McConnell, Martin McCoy [McAvery], Patrick McGonigal, Edward McMasters [Masterson], Alexander McMullan, William Morgan, William Murray, John Murphy, Timothy Murphy, John Neely, Daniel Oakes, John Oliver, Michael Parker, Thomas Peltson, Peter Pence, John Ray, Robert Ritchie, Bartholomew Roach, John Robinson, George Sands, George Saltzman, Henry Silverthorn, John Shawnee (an Indian), John Smith, James Speddy, Arad Sutton, James Sweney, John Ted, Robert Tuft, Philip Valentine, Peter Ward, John Ward, Charles West, Joseph Whiteneck, Aaron Wright, John Youse, Robert Young.* _______________________________________________________________________ *Pennsylvania Archives (Second Series) Vol. X. pp. 27-31.
END OF PAGE 100 This company formed part of the battalion of riflemen commanded by Colonel William Thompson, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania. The men rendezvoused at Northumberland, where, according to Fithian's journal, thirty of them arrived from Great Island on Wednesday, June 28, 1775. The journal of Aaron Wright, a private, states that they formally enlisted on the following day; on the morning of July 8th, in pursuance of marching orders received the previous day, they boarded boats on the Susquehanna river (this means of conveyance was probably used as far as Harris's Ferry); they reached Reading on the 13th of July, and there received knapsacks, blankets, etc. remaining until the 20th. On the 1st of August they were at Bethlehem, and thence pursued their march across northern New Jersey and southeastern New York, arriving at the North river, opposite New Windsor, Connecticut, August 20th. They marched through Litchfield on the 24th, crossed the Connecticut river near Hartford on the 26th, and arrived at Dudley, Massachusetts, August 30th. On the 31st they reached Weston, and thence passed through Framingham, Watertown, and Cambridge to Prospect Hill, Boston. The battalion became the Second regiment "of the Army of the United Colonies, commanded by his Excellency, General George Washington," and, on the 1st of January, 1776 the First regiment of the Continental Army. Two companies (those of Captains William Hendricks and Matthew Smith, the latter subsequently prothonotary of Northumberland county) were detailed for service in Arnold's expedition to Quebec in September, 1775; the remainder continued in camp at Prospect Hill, and performed guard and fatigue duty with the brigade to which they belonged. On the 24th of October Lieutenant Parr marched for Portsmouth with thirty men. Six of the regiment were stationed at Lechmere Point on the 9th of November, when, the tide having risen and separated it from the main land, a number of British regulars, under cover of their batteries on Bunker's, Copp's, and Breed's Hills, landed for the purpose of driving off cattle; the regiment was hastily ordered under arms, marched through the water to the Point, and divided into two parties, of which Captain Lowdon's company formed part of that on the right; a severe skirmish was anticipated, but before the enemy's position was reached the latter had withdrawn to their boats. For their courage and promptness on this occasion the regiment was publicly thanked by General Washington. On the 8th of March, 1776, Colonel Hand wrote: "I am stationed on Cobble's Hill with four companies of our regiment: two companies, Cluggage's and Chambers's, were ordered to Dorchester on Monday; Ross and Lowdon relieved them yesterday." On the 14th of March the regiment left Cambridge with five others under the command of General Sullivan; Hartford was reached on the 21st and New York on the 28th; it was shortly afterward detailed for duty on Long Island, and was so engaged at the expiration of the original term of enlistment, July 1, 1776. END OF PAGE 101 The First regiment (which thus became the First Pennsylvania regiment of the Continental Line) re-enlisted with practical unanimity, at first for the term of two years, but in October, 1776, the limit was extended to the close of the war. Lowdon, who became a member of Council, was succeeded as captain by James Parr; thirty-two of his company were enlisted out of the old battalion and fourteen from the flying camp. In August, 1776, it was composed of one captain, two lieutenants, four sergeants, four corporals, one drum and fife, and fifty-two privates. The roster was as follows:-
Captain, James Parr, promoted major, August 9, 1778. First Lieutenant, James Wilson, promoted captain, January 6, 1777. Second Lieutenant, William Wilson, promoted first lieutenant, September 25, 1776; captain, March 2, 1777. Ensign, John Dougherty, promoted third lieutenant, September 25, 1776. Sergeants: David Hammond, afterward promoted second lieutenant; Alexander McCormick, William McMurray, Cornelius Dougherty. Privates: David Allen, Michael Bacher, John Bradley, Daniel Callahan, Daniel Campbell, James Chapman, Peter Condon, James Connor, Mansfield Coons, James Curry, David Davis, Richard Deatevoise [Dubois], Cornelius Delling, Patrick Donahue, William Edwards, John Griffin, Patrick Griffin, William Haggerty, John Hammond, Philip Henry, Aquila Hinson, John Hutchinson, Lewis Jones, William Leech, Michael Loughrey, James Loughrey, James McCleary, Cornelius McConnell, Patrick McGonigal, Henry McCormick, Hugh McGaughey, John Malone, Charles Meloy, James Moore, William Moore, William Morgan, John Murphy, Timothy Murphy, Patrick Murray, John Noishen, George Norton, John Oliver, Thomas Paine, Thomas Peltson, Philip Peters, John Rankin, John Ray, William Ryan, George Saltman, Samuel Scott, William Scott, James Spigg, James Speddy, Thomas Stewart, Maurice Sullivan, Alexander Thompson, John Toner, George Warren, Jonathan Washburn, Matthew Wilson, Samuel Wilson, Joseph Whiteneck, John Youse.*
The company began its new term of enlistment in camp on the shores of Long Island. Some time in August the regiment, of which Edward Hand was colonel, took position at Delancey's Mills, and was in action in the battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776. On the night of the 29th it was posted "in a redoubt on the left and in the line on the right of the great road, below Brooklyn church" as part of Major General Mifflin's command, by which the retreat of the army was covered. Through some mistake on the part of an aid-de-camp Mifflin's command was prematurely withdrawn, a movement highly prejudicial to the safety of the retreating army; General Washington learned of it through Colonel Hand, and the rear guard returned to its former position in time to avert serious consequences. On the 16th of _____________________________________________________________________ *Pennsylvania Archives (Second Series), Vol. X. pp. 342-344. END OF PAGE 102 November, 1776, four men of Colonel Parr's company were taken prisoners at Fort Washington.
Colonel James Chambers (who succeeded General Hand in command of the First regiment) wrote as follows from "Mount Prospect camp," June 18, 1777: "We have a partisan regiment - Colonel Morgan commands - chosen marksmen from the whole army compose it. Captain Parr, Lieutenants Lyon and Brady, and fifty men from my regiment are among the number." Captain David Harris (subsequently prothonotary of Northumberland county) relates the following incident in a letter from "Cross Roads, about twenty miles from Philadelphia," August 13, 1777: "Captain Parr, with two subalterns and about fifty privates, are detached in Morgan's partisan corps. Captain Parr has killed three or four men himself this summer. His expressions at the death of one I shall ever remember. Major Miller had the command of a detachment, and had a skirmish at very close shot with a party of Highlanders. One of them being quite open, he motioned to Captain Parr to kill him, which he did in a trice, and, as he was falling, Parr said: 'I say, by God, sonny, I am in you.' I assure you Parr's bravery on every occasion does him great honor." Morgan's riflemen included many men from Northumberland county, drawn from the companies of Captain Parr, of the First Pennsylvania, and Captain Boone, of the Twelfth. They joined the northern army in August, 1777, and participated in the battles of Saratoga, September 19th and October 7th; it is worthy of record that General Fraser was shot by Timothy Murphy, of Parr's company, at the express direction of Colonel Morgan. In July, 1778, Captain Parr was placed in command of a detachment from Morgan's rifles and sent with the Fourth Pennsylvania to defend the frontiers of New York; they spent nearly a year in the Schoharie valley. His command united with the army of General Sullivan at Tioga on the 22d of August, 1779, and served in the expedition to the Genesee country. It is frequently mentioned in Colonel Hubley's journal. The march began on Thursday, August 26th; "Major Parr, with the riflemen, dispersed considerably in front of the whole, with orders to reconnoiter all mountains, defiles, and other suspicious places." The following reference is made to Murphy: "This Murphy is a noted marksman and a great soldier, he having killed and scalped that morning [September 13th], in the town they were at, an Indian, which makes the three and thirtieth man of the enemy he has killed, as is well known to his officers, this war." He was from Northumberland county.
William Wilson succeeded James Parr as captain when the latter was transferred to Morgan's command. Regarding the movements of the regiment in July and August, 1777, Colonel Chambers wrote: "We marched from Mount Prospect to Morristown, where we halted a few days..........We were then ordered to march to Pompton; here we halted one day....Next day, 13th July, we were ordered to move to a place called END OF PAGE 103 Sufferance, at the mouth of the Clove; here we halted to the 19th, when we proceeded through the Clove towards New Windsor. We moved upwards of twenty miles this day; here we halted till the 22d, then marched across the ridge to a place called Chester ........ We arrived the 29th at Howell's Ferry; here we halted till the 1st of August, then crossed the river, and continued our march through Germantown to Schuylkill Falls, where we halted to the 9th, then marched back to this place on our way to Coryell's." At the battle of Brandywine, September 11th, the regiment lost six or seven killed and as many wounded; it was principally engaged in withdrawing the artillery. The division of which it formed part at the battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778, was drawn in front of the artillery in a small hollow; the enemy's artillery occupied an eminence directly in front. "Of course we were in a right line of their fire," says Colonel Chambers, "both parties playing their cannon over our heads, and yet only killed two of our men and wounded four of my regiment with splinters of rails." This position was at the center of the American line, against which a determined charge was made by the flower of the British army under Colonel Monckton. He was killed, and the colors, which were near him, also went down. "Captain Wilson and his company, who were on the right of the First Pennsylvania, made a rush for the colors and the body of the Colonel. The Grenadiers fought desperately,"* but without avail. Captain Wilson secured his sword and the colors; he gave the former to General Wayne, who presented it to Lafayette, by whom it was returned to the Wilson family on the occasion of his visit to America in 1824. Captain Wilson was not mustered out until November 3, 1783, from which it is fair to presume that his company participated with the Pennsylvania Line in its subsequent campaigns until the close of the war. Captain Casper Weitzel's company of the Pennsylvania Rifle regiment, commanded by Colonel Samuel Miles, was the second formed in Northumberland county. The roster was as follows:-
Captain, Casper Weitzel, appointed, March 9, 1776. First Lieutenant, William Gray, appointed, March 15, 1776. Second Lieutenant, John Robb, appointed, March 17, 1776. Third Lieutenant, George Grant, appointed, March 19, 1776. Sergeant Major, John Gordon. Sergeants: Jacob Snider, Thomas Price, William Orr, Thomas Shanks. Drummer, John Everard. Privates: William Allison, John Arthur, John Aumiller, William Barr, Peter Brady, Stout Brinson, John Burke, Samuel Carson, William Carson, William Carson, Jr., Andrew Carter, Charles Carter, Robert Carothers, James Chisnall, William Clark, James Clayton, Jeffrey Connell, John Cribs, David Curry, Peter Davis, Edward Doran, David Durell, Stephen Durell, James _______________________________________________________________________ *Linn's Annals of Buffalo Valley, p.161. END OF PAGE 104 Elder, Christian Ewig, Henry Gass, Henry Gearhart, James Glover, John Hardy, William Harper, Thomas Hissom, Dennis Huggins, Elijah Hunt, James Irvine, Martin Kerstetter, Thomas Little, Joseph Madden, Charles McClean, William McCormick, John McDonald, Patrick McInnis, Patrick McManus, William McMath, Patrick McVey, Henry Miller, Robert Morehead, Richard Newman, Michael Nolan, Andrew Ralston, James Randolph, John Rice, John Sands, John Adam Shafer, Jacob Spiess, Samuel Staples, David Turner, James Watt, Robert Wilson, Christian Winters, Silas Wolcot.*
The Pennsylvania Rifle regiment was enlisted for the defense of the Province at the suggestion of the Committee of Safety. It rendezvoused at Marcus Hook, and was ordered to Philadelphia on the 2d of July, 1776; thence the First battalion (Lieutenant Colonel Broadhead's) proceeded by way of Bordentown to Amboy, New Jersey, where the entire regiment shortly afterward arrived. Colonel Miles was ordered to New York. On the 10th of August, he crossed to Long Island when the British began landing troops, and took position near Flatbush. On the morning of August 27th, finding his command in danger of being surrounded, he made a retrograde movement with the expectation of reaching the Jamaica road in advance of General Howe. In this he was disappointed; an effort was then made to break through the enemy's flank guards, but, finding it impossible to do this in a body, he directed the men to make their way as best they could and was taken prisoner with two thirds of his company. In a return of Captain Weitzel's company on the 1st of September the following are marked "missing since the battle: " William Gray, John Gordon, Thomas Price, William Allison, Peter Brady, Andrew Carter, Robert Carothers, Henry Gass, John Hardy, Dennis Huggins, Martin Kerstetter, Joseph Madden, William McCormick, Patrick McVey, Robert Moorehead, Andrew Ralston, John Rice, Jacob Spiess, and James Watt. Captain Weitzel gives the following particulars in a letter to his brother John, dated "Camp near Kingsbridge, sixteen miles above New York, September 6, 1776:" "My Lieutenant Gray, Sergeant Gordon, Sergeant Price, and sixteen privates are missing. I know of only one killed in my company. The poor fellow was wounded in the thigh and unable to walk; his name is Spiess; the damned savage Hessians and English light infantry ran their bayonets through him and two of Captain Albrights men, who were also badly wounded and murdered by them. I have this from one of my men, who was a prisoner and escaped to me, and imagine the rest are prisoners. James Watt is among them. I came off with whole bones, contrary to my expectations. I was in so much danger, that, by escaping that I think it was impossible for them to kill me." In consequence of the great losses sustained on this occasion the company was consolidated with others in the following October and thus lost its individuality. Captain Weitzel and Lieutenant Gray returned to Sunbury, where _____________________________________________________________________ *Pennsylvania Archives (Second Series), Vol. X. pp. 214-217. END OF PAGE 105 both died; Lieutenant Robb was promoted captain in the Thirteenth Pennsylvania, April 18, 1777; Lieutenant Grant was promoted captain in the Ninth Pennsylvania, May 3, 1777, and died on the North river, Connecticut, three miles above New Windsor, October 10, 1779. The Twelfth Pennsylvania regiment of the Continental Line* was raised in the counties of Northumberland and Northampton in pursuance of a resolution of Congress; the following field officers were appointed by the Constitutional Convention, September 28, 1776: William Cooke, delegate from Northumberland county, colonel; Neigal Gray, delegate from, Northampton county, lieutenant colonel, and James Crawford, delegate from Northumberland county, major. The following roster embraces only a small part of the regiment:-
Colonel, William Cooke, September 28, 1776; rank, October 2, 1776; resigned, January 16, 1778. Lieutenant Colonel, Neigal Gray, September 28, 1776; rank, October 5, 1776; cashiered, June 2, 1778. Major, James Crawford, September 28, 1776; rank, October 8, 1776; resigned October 12, 1777. Captains: Peter Withington, October 1, 1776; Nicholas Miller, October 4, 1776; Hawkins Boone, October 4, 1776; John Brady, October 14, 1776; John Harris, October 14, 1776; Henry Makinley, October 16, 1776; Alexander Patterson, October 16, 1776; William Work, October 16, 1776; Stephen Chambers, from first lieutenant, 1777; John Reilly, from first lieutenant, May 20, 1777. First Lieutenants: Thomas Brandon, October 4, 1776; Hananiah Lincoln, October 4, 1776; Christopher Gettig, October 14, 1776; John Reilly, October 16, 1776; Stephen Chambers, October 16,1776; William McElhatton, October 16, 1776; John Henderson, October 16, 1776; William Sayres, October 16, 1776; John Boyd, from second lieutenant; Benjamin Lodge, from second lieutenant, October 11, 1777; Stewart Herbert, from second lieutenant, January 9, 1778. Second Lieutenants: Robert King, October 4, 1776; James Williamson, October 4, 1776; Edward McCabe, October 16, 1776; John Hays, October 16, 1776; Samuel Qum; October 16, 1776; John Boyd, October 16, 1776; William Bard, October 16, 1776; John Carothers, October 16, 1776; Benjamin Lodge, from ensign, October 16, 1776; Blackall William Ball, from ensign; William Boyd, from ensigns; Stewart Herbert, from ensign, May, 1777; Andrew Engle, from ensign; Robert Faulkher, from ensign; John Armstrong, from ensign, December 11, 1777. Ensigns: Benjamin Lodge, October 16, 1776; Thomas Hamilton, October 16, 1776; Blackall William Ball, October 16,1776; William Boyd, October 16, 1776; John Stone, October 16, 1776; Stewart Herbert, October 16,1776; _____________________________________________________________________ *Pennsylvania Archives (Second Series), vol. X. pp. 755-764. END OF PAGE 106 Andrew Engle, October 16,1776; Robert Faulkner, January, 5, 1777: John Seley, February 3, 1777; John Armstrong, from sergeant; John Cook, from private. Adjutant, Thomas Hanson, October 16, 1776. Paymasters: Robert Levers, November 13,1776; Thomas Dungan, April 29, 1777. Quartermasters: Wilton Atkinson, January 11, 1777; George Vaughan. Surgeons: Francis Allison, October 14, 1776; Andrew Led}ie, January 18, 1777. Surgeon's Mate, Aaron Woodruff. Sergeants: John Armstrong, Charles Fleming, Robert Kearns, Andrew Lorentz, Robert Lyon, Joseph Lorentz. Privates: George Aldridge, Samuel Auchmuty, William Bedworth, Henry Bentley, James Brown, John Campbell, John Cochran, William Connor, John Cook, William Coram, John Cusick, James Dougherty, David Doyle, James English, Patrick Flanagan, James Gallant, Hugh Gowans, William Haines, Barney Hasson, Nathaniel Hiland, Richard Hughes, Henry Lebo, John Lemmons, Matthew Little, Henry Lushbaugh, Samuel McClughan, Archibald McCowan, Joseph McHarg, Thomas McIlvaine, John McIlvaine, Angus McKeever, Daniel McMath, George Martin, James Newberry, Neal Peacock, Robert Polston, Richard Reynolds, Nicholas Rheam, John Rice, John Robinson, John Shreck, Joseph Silverthorn, John Teel, Robert Wilson, William Woodrow.
The active service of this regiment is thus summarized in the Pennsylvania Archives:-
The greater portion of the regiment was recruited upon the West Branch of the Susquehanna, and on the 18th of December it left Sunbury in boats for the battle fields of New Jersey. Being composed of good riflemen and scouts, it was detailed on picket and skirmish duty. It (with the Third, Ninth, and Sixth Pennsylvania) was in Brigadier General Thomas Conway's brigade. Its headquarters were at the five crossroads at Metuchen, between Quibbletown and Amboy. Its companies were engaged in the various skirmishes in that neighborhood: at Bound Brook, April 12, 1777; Piscataway, May 10th, where Joseph Lorentz and twenty-one others were made prisoners by the British, Wendell Lorentz making his escape by running in among a flock of sheep; at Short Hills, June 26th, and Bonamtown. In June Colonel Daniel Morgan's rifle command was formed, and a detachment from the Twelfth Pennsylvania, under the command of Captain Hawkins Boone, was placed in it..... In the battle of Brandywine, the Twelfth was engaged under Sullivan at Birmingham church, losing heavily. Major Crawford, Captain Brady, and other officers were wounded, Lieutenant William Boyd, of Brady's company, killed. At Germantown Conway's brigade led the attack on the left wing of the British, being in front of the troops that composed the right wing of the American army, and the Twelfth was in the hottest of the fight, losing heavily in men, Second Lieutenant John Carothers of the officers, killed. The Twelfth wintered with the rest of the army at Valley Forge, and at Monmouth the remnant of it was nearly destroyed, as testified to in many of the statements made by the privates, END OF PAGE 107 on file in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth. Meanwhile, April 2,1778, the General Assembly had appointed a committee to confer upon the best means of reducing three of the regiments, and it was ordered that the Twelfth be incorporated with the Third, which arrangement went into effect on the 1st of July, and Captains John Brady and Boone, Lieutenants Dougherty and Robert King were ordered home by General Washington to assist Colonel Hartley in protecting the West Branch valley. Among those who were taken prisoners at Piscataway was Joseph McHarg, of Chambers's company; how he was treated is shown by the following entry in the minutes of the court of Northumberland county, March 25, 1779:-
Came into court Joseph McHarg, who, being duly sworn upon the Holy Evangelists, deposeth and sayeth: that on the 10th day of May, A. D. 1777, he, with others belonging to the Twelfth regiment of Pennsylvania troops, was taken prisoner in a skirmish at Piscataway and carried to New York, where, through the excessive rigor with which he was treated during his confinement, and the decay of his health, he was induced to take an oath of allegiance to the king of Great Britain and also an oath that he (the deponent) would not bear arms against the said king during the present contest, in consequence of which oath deponent got liberty to work for a subsistence and was sent as a hand on board a vessel that carried General Howe's baggage to Philadelphia, from whence, by the assistance of a friend, he made his escape in disguise. It also appears to this court that deponent, by the failure of his sight and bodily infirmities, is rendered incapable of serving his country as a soldier. Among the officers in this regiment from Northumberland county were Colonel William Cooke, subsequently associate judge; Major James Crawford, who resigned, October 12, 1777, and died in 1817, having been justice of the peace in Wayne township, Clinton county, many years; Captain Nicholas Miller, who became supernumerary, July 1, 1778, and died in Northampton county; Captain Hawkins Boone, who fell near Fort Freeland, July 29, 1779; Captain John Brady, who was wounded at Brandywine, September 11, 1777, and killed at Muncy, April 11, 1779; Captain John Harris; Captain Stephen Chambers, one of the first resident attorneys of the county; Lieutenant Christopher Gettig, subsequently a justice at Sunbury; Lieutenant Thomas Brandon; Lieutenant John Boyd, who was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania, rose to the rank of captain, retired from the regiment, January 1, 1781, and was for many years justice of the peace at Northumberland; Lieutenant William Boyd, who was killed at the battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777; Lieutenant John Carothers, who was killed at the battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777; Lieutenant Robert King, who was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania, was with Colonel Hartley on the frontier in 1778, and resided in Lycoming county in 1840; Quartermasters Wilton Atkinson and George Vaughan; Dr. Francis Allison, surgeon, who was transferred to the general hospital, of which he was senior surgeon in 1781; Sergeant Joseph Lorentz, who was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania, and died in Northumberland county, January 80, 1824; Sergeant Andrew Lorentz, who was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania, discharged at Smith's Cove, New Jersey, and kept hotel at Sunbury in 1813; Sergeant Robert END OF PAGE 108 Page 109 contains a portrait of Reuben Fagely Page 110 is blank.
Lyon, who was transferred to the Sixth Pennsylvania, rose to the rank of second lieutenant, and died in Northumberland county, August 19, 1823, aged seventy-seven, and Corporal Wendell Lorentz, who was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania, discharged, January 17, 1781, and died at Milton in 1821. Miller's, Boone's, Brady's, and Harris's companies were from Northumberland county. No rosters have been preserved, and that of the regiment contains the names of but a small number of its members. "The hundreds who fell in all the battles of the Revolution.......the wounded, who dragged their torn limbs home to die in their native valleys, are not here. The heaths of New Jersey, from Paramus to Freehold, by a line encircling Morristown and Bound Brook, were, in the summer of 1777, dotted with the graves of the Eighth and Twelfth Pennsylvania." Among the privates who returned to Northumberland county were Samuel Auchmuty, of Captain Chambers's company, who was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania, discharged, January 25, 1781, and resided in Lower Augusta township in 1835 at the age of eighty-two; John Campbell, who was wounded at Piscataway, discharged, and settled in Shamokin township; James English, of Captain Brady's company, who was transferred to the Third and then to the First Pennsylvania, discharged, August 13, 1783, and resided in Lycoming county in 1835 at the age of ninety-nine; Henry Lebo, subsequently hotel keeper at Sunbury and sheriff of Northumberland county; Hugh Gowen, who was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania and resided in Northumberland county in 1820 at the age of sixty-six; Matthew Little, who was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania and resided in Shamokin township in 1813; Henry Lushbaugh, of Harris's company, who resided in Lycoming county in 1835, aged eighty-four; Joseph McHarg, previously mentioned; Samuel McClughan, who was drafted into Morgan's rifles, wounded at Saratoga, and resided in Buffalo valley in 1786; George Martin, who was drafted into Morgan's rifles, wounded at Saratoga, resided in Buffalo valley in 1786, and died, March 10,1816; James Newberry, who died in Northumberland county, February 1, 1830, aged eighty-four, and Nicholas Rheam, who was transferred to the Third Pennsylvania, discharged in 1781, and died in Union county in 1829. While the county thus contributed an ample quota to the regular army at the outbreak of the Revolution, a local Committee of Safety* attended to the administration of internal affairs and the organization of the militia. The minutes of this Committee begin as follows: February 8, 1776. The following gentlemen, being previously nominated by the respective townships to serve in this Committee for the county of Northumberland for the space of six months, met at the house of Richard Malone, viz.:- ________________________________________________________________________ *The muster rolls and papers relating to the associators and militia of the county of Northumberland, including the minutes of the committee of Safety, are published in the Pennsylvania Archives (Second Series), Vol. XIV. pp. 313-367. END OF PAGE 111 Augusta Township. - John Weitzel, Alexander Hunter, Thomond Ball. Turbut Township. - Captain John Hambright, William McKnight, William Shaw. Bald Eagle Township.- William Dunn, Thomas Hewes, Alexander Hamilton.
Wyoming Township. - James McClure, Thomas Clayton, Peter
Melick. Mahanoy Township. - No return. Mahoning Township. - William Cooke, Benjamin Allison, Thomas Hewitt. Muncy Township. - Robert Robb, William Watson, John Buckalew. Buffalo Township. - Walter Clark (removed to White Deer),William Irwin, Joseph Green. Penn's Township. - No return. Potter's Township. - John Livingston, Maurice Davis, John Hall. White Deer Township. - Walter Clark, Matthew Brown, Marcus Hulings.
The Committee proceeded to elect a chairman and clerk, when Captain
John Hambright was unanimously appointed chairman during the continuance of this Committee and Thomond Ball, clerk.
A return of field officers elected at Northumberland on the 7th instant by the battalion for the lower division of the county was presented, and the officers were forthwith recommended for commissions. Action was also taken for the organization of the battalion for the upper division of the county. Messrs. Weitzel, Hunter, and Ball were appointed to prepare a memorial to the Assembly regarding the murder of two of the sheriff's posse at Wyoming. The Committee then adjourned to meet at Laughlin McCartney's in Northumberland on Monday, the 26th instant. Captain Hambright presided at all the meetings of this Committee of which the minutes have been preserved. On the 26th of February Messrs. Weitzel, Hunter, and Ball presented the draft of a petition to the Assembly, which was forthwith approved. Six captains in Colonel Hunter's battalion appeared and produced lists of their companies, whereupon a letter was transmitted to the provincial Committee of Safety (to which the county committees were subsidiary), recommending the respective officers for commissions; the Committee then adjourned until the 13th proximo, after authorizing the president and four members to receive and transmit any returns that might be received in the interim. The next meeting was held at the house of Frederick Stone in Northumberland, March 13th. Returns were received from seven companies of Colonel Plunket's battalion, the officers of which were recommended for commissions. A letter was transmitted to Colonel Hunter, who represented the county in the provincial Committee at that time, detailing at some length the objectionable proceedings of recruiting officers. At the next meeting, Monday, March 25th, it was resolved that no officer be allowed "to recruit men in this county except the officers who are or may be appointed therein." The grounds upon which this decisive action was based were thus set forth in a letter to the provincial Committee:-
Our zeal for the cause of American liberty has hitherto prevented our taking any steps to hinder the raising of men for its service; but, finding the evil increasing so fast upon us as almost to threaten the depopulation of the county, we can not help END OF PAGE 112 appealing to the wisdom and justice of your Committee to know, whether the quota of men that may be demanded from this county under their own officers is not as much as can reasonably be expected from it; whether, at a time when we are uncertain of peace with the Indians, well knowing that our enemies are tampering with them, and a claim is set up to the greatest part of this Province by a neighboring Colony who have their hostile abettors at our very breasts as well as their emissaries among us, is it prudent to drain an infant frontier county of its strength of men? and whether the safety of the interior parts of the Province would not be better secured by adding strength to the frontiers; whether our Honorable Assembly, by disposing of commissions to gentlemen in different counties to raise companies ....... did not intend that the respective captains should raise their companies where they [were] appointed, and not distress our county by taking from it all the men necessary for the business of agriculture as well as the defense of the same.
The minutes of the next meeting, so far as concerns the organization of the Committee, are as follows:-
August 13, 1776.
The following gentlemen, being unanimously chosen by their respective townships to serve in the Committee for the county of Northumberland for the space of six months, met at the school house in the town of Northumberland, viz:- Augusta Township. - William Maclay, David McKinney, John Maclay. Turbut Township. - George McCandlish, William Shaw, Paul Geddis. Bald Eagle Township. - Robert Fleming, Thomas Kemplen, John Section.
Wyoming Township. - Samuel McClure, Peter Melick, John
Cliugman. Mahanoy Township. - Sebastian Brosius, George Reitz, Peter Almang. Mahoning Township. - Laughlin McCartney, Thomas Robinson, John Boyd.
Muncy Township. - Mordecai McKinney, James Giles, Andrew
Buffalo Township. - Martin Traester, William Speddy,
Philip Cole. Penn's Township. - Simeon Woodrow, Adam B. Mander, Paul Gemberling. Potter's Township. - [No return.] White Deer Township. - James McClenachan, Robert Fruit, William Gray.
The Committee proceeded to elect a chairman and clerk, when Mr. Robert Fruit was unanimously appointed chairman during the time of six months* and John Boyd, clerk. At this meeting Andrew Culbertson, Mordecai McKinney, and James Giles were appointed to request Colonel Plunket to divide the ammunition apportioned to the six companies of his battalion that were formed above Muncy. It was stored at the house of Laughlin McCartney; an additional supply had been forwarded to Harris's Ferry, and arrangements were made for its further transportation. The next meeting was held at Northumberland, September 10th: complaint having been made that Aaron Levy and John Bullion had a quantity of salt which they refused to sell, the Committee directed William Sayres to take possession of it and sell it at fifteen shillings per bushel; William Parker and John Chattam were summoned upon a charge of unfriendliness to the cause of liberty, and, having confessed that they were British soldiers who had been taken as prisoners, they were ordered to Lancaster under escort. At a meeting on the 12th the ammunition in the hands _______________________________________________________________ *Paul Geddis succeeded Robert Fruit as chairman in the following December. END OF PAGE 113 of the Committee was examined; half a pound of powder and one pound of lead were apportioned to each associator, with an additional quantity for the battalions on the frontiers. William Maclay and Mordecai McKinney were appointed to go to Philadelphia for the salt allotted to the county; it appears, however, that Robert Fruit performed this service, as he wrote from Philadelphia on the 23d of November that he had received seventy-seven bushels from the Council of Safety and delivered it to Marcus Rulings for transportation. On the 12th of September the Committee addressed a memorial to the State Convention, expressing deep solicitude at the probability of Indian hostilities (the prospect of which had been learned from intercepted letters), and deploring their inability "to keep the single and disengaged men in the county" as they chose "rather, under pay, to have to do with a humane enemy, than, at their own expense, to encounter merciless savages." The Convention was asked to authorize the enlistment of men for the protection of the frontier or the expenditure of money in the erection of forts in which the inhabitants might take refuge. On the 14th of December the Committee met "by express from Captain John Brady upon sundry charges produced by said Brady against a certain Robert Robb." It was alleged that he had advised the acceptance of the terms of peace offered by Lord Howe, spoken disparagingly of the Continental Congress and the State Convention, dissuaded others from entering the militia, etc. Numerous depositions were taken, and on the 17th of December the Committee decided "That said Robert Robb shall either take his gun and march immediately with the militia of this county into actual service for the defense of the United States in order to wipe off the present evil suspicions" or else be committed to the care of Colonel James Murray to be sent to some proper place of confinement. From this decision he appealed to the Council of Safety, but was continued in the custody of Colonel Murray, who, "out of lenity to said Robb's family, saw fit to appoint the mansion house of the said Robb as a prison for him on a promise of his good behavior for the future." Three days later (December 20th) he "abused the lenity shown him..... by barbarously beating and much abusing a certain Peter Smith," and further contemned the constituted authorities by asserting that "he never thought to be tried by such men as some of the Committee; some of them had been tried for murder and some for horse-stealing," which was submitted in evidence at a meeting at the house of George McCandlish, January 14,1777. On the following day Captain William Murray was desired to bring the offender before the Committee, which he positively declined to do, although notified three times, and finally surrendered his commission; Simon Hemrod and Buchanan Smith were then appointed to conduct Robb to the Council of Safety.* _____________________________________________________ *Robert Robb was subsequently indicted by the grand jury of Northumberland county for misprision of treason, tried at November sessions, 1780, acquitted, and discharged upon payment of fees.
END OF PAGE 114 The last Committee of which the proceedings are extant organized on the 13th of February, 1777, as shown by the following transcript from the minutes:-
Northumberland, February 13, 1777.
The following gentlemen, being unanimously chosen by their respective townships to serve in the Committee of this county for the ensuing six months, met at the house of Laughlin McCartney in Northumberland and gave in the following returns of their election, viz.:- Augusta Township. - No return. Potter's Township. - John Livingston, John McMillan. Turbut Township. - Thomas Jordan, John Nelson, Josiah Espy. Buffalo Township. - John Overhand, Thomas Sutherland, George Overmeier. Bald Eagle Township. - John Fleming, James Hughes, John Walker. Mahanoy Township. - George Yeakle, Henry Zartman, Henry Krebs. Penn's Township. - Andrew Moore, David Miller, Jacob Hosterman. White Deer Township. - William Blyth, James McCormick, William Reed. Muncy Township. - John Coats, James Hampton, William Hammond. Mahoning Township. - No return. Wyoming Township. - James McClure, Peter Melick, John Clingman.
The Committee, according to order, proceeded to elect their chairman and clerk, when Thomas Jordan was unanimously chosen chairman and John Coats, clerk.
The second regular meeting of this Committee was held on the 11th of March at the house of George McCandlish. Allis Read, of Wyoming township entered complaint that a horse, strayed or stolen from him and replevined from John Drake, had been taken from his stable by Drake's widow; the case was referred to the local Committee for adjudication. The appeal of Jacob Links from the Committee of Buffalo township was then considered, and reserved for a future meeting. Captain Benjamin Weiser having complained of desertions from his company, it was ordered that a day of muster be assigned for the deserters to return, in default of which they should be placed under arrest. The Committee of Bald Eagle was authorized to prevent the purchase of grain by distillers and to compel its sale at the market price; report having been made "of a certain Henry Sterratt profaning the Sabbath in an unchristian and scandalous manner, causing his servants to maul rails, etc. on that day," the Bald Eagle Committee was "recommended to suppress such like practices to the utmost of their power." On the 15th of April, pursuant to adjournment, the Committee met at McCandlish's and issued a special summons for Jacob Driesbach as a witness in the case of Jacob Links, charged with misappropriation of funds intrusted to him for the purchase of salt in Philadelphia; he appeared on the 17th, and his testimony was such as to vindicate the accused. The case of William Read, who had declined to enter the militia, was then considered: he had been implicated in a riot in Ireland, he said, but was acquitted upon taking a solemn obligation never to bear arms against the British government, and based his refusal upon a conscientious regard for that declaration; after taking an oath of allegiance to the United States he was discharged. A letter END OF PAGE 115 from Nicholas Pickard, of Wyoming, to John Pickard, of Penn's township, informing him of an approaching Indian invasion, next received attention: John Pickard took the oath of allegiance; Nicholas acknowledged himself a British emissary, and was sent to Philadelphia under guard. The Committee then adjourned to meet at Laughlin McCartney's in Northumberland on the 10th of June, but no record of its subsequent proceedings has been preserved. The local militia was organized in four battalions and officered as follows:-
First Battalion.- Colonel, Samuel Hunter; lieutenant colonel, William Cooke; majors: Casper Weitzel, John Lee. First Company.- Captain, Nicholas Miller; first lieutenant, Christopher Gettig; second lieutenant, Nehemith Breese; ensigns: Gustavus Ross, William Sims. Second Company.- Captain, Hugh White; first lieutenant, John Forster; second lieutenant, Andrew Gibson; ensign, Samuel Young. Third Company.- Captain, John McMahan; first lieutenant, John Murray; second lieutenant, William Fisher; ensign, William Bailey. Fourth Company.- Captain, Charles Gillespie; first lieutenant, Robert King; second lieutenant, Samuel Fulton; ensigns: William Boyd, John Woodside. Fifth Company.- Captain, William Scull; first lieutenant, Jonathan Lodge; second lieutenant, George Calhoon; ensigns: William Sawyer, George Grant. Sixth Company.- Captain, William Clark; first lieutenant, John Teitson; second lieutenant, William McDonald; ensign, John Moll. Seventh Company.- Captain, John Simpson; first lieutenant, Robert Curry; second lieutenant, John Ewart; ensigns: Thomas Gaskins, David Mead. Eighth Company.- Captain, Robert Crawford; first lieutenant, James McClure; second lieutenant, George Espy; ensign, Joseph Salmon. The field officers and all the company officers except those of the Seventh and Eighth were returned on the 8th of February, 1776; the officers of the Seventh company were returned on the 25th of March and those of the Eighth on the 12th of June. Second Battalion.- Colonel, James Potter; lieutenant colonel, Robert Moodie; majors: John Kelly, John Brady. First Company.- Captain, Arthur Taggart; first lieutenant, Cornelius Atkinson; second lieutenant, James McClung; ensign, James Wilson. Second Company.- Captain, William Gray; first lieutenant, William Clark; second lieutenant, James Murdock; ensign, William Thompson. Third Company.- Transferred to the Third battalion, in which it became the Seventh. Fourth Company.- Captain, Samuel Dale; first lieutenant, William Bennet; second lieutenant, Hawkins Boone; ensign, Jesse Weeks. END OF PAGE 116 Fifth Company. -Captain Cookson Long; first lieutenant, William McElhatton; second lieutenant, Robert Fleming; ensign, Robert Fleming, Jr. Sixth Company. -Transferred to the Third battalion, in which it became the Second. Seventh Company. -Captain, James Murray; first lieutenant, William Murray; second lieutenant, Thomas Plunket; ensign, Andrew Robinson. Probably transferred to the Third battalion. Eighth Company. -Transferred to the Third battalion, in which it became the First. Ninth Company. -Captain, John McMillen; first lieutenant, John McConnell; second lieutenant, John McCormick; ensign, Charles Wilson. Tenth Company.- Captain, David Hays; first lieutenant, Charles Clark; ensign, Thomas Gray. Eleventh Company. -Captain, Philip Davis; first lieutenant, James Espy; second lieutenant, John Nelson; ensign, Jacob Follmer. All the officers of this battalion were returned on the 24th of January, 1776. Third Battalion. -Colonel, William Plunket; lieutenant colonel, James Murray; majors: John Brady, Cookson Long. First Company. -Captain, Henry Antes; first lieutenant, Thomas Brandon; second lieutenant, Alexander Hamilton; ensigns: John Morrison, James Alexander. Second Company. -Captain, Samuel Wallis; first lieutenant, John Scudder; second lieutenant, Peter Jones; ensign, James Hampton. Third Company. -Captain, John Robb; first lieutenant, William Watson; second lieutenant, Robert Nelson; ensign, James White. Fourth Company. -Captain, William McElhatton; first lieutenant, Andrew Boggs; second lieutenant, Thomas Nelson; ensign, John McCormick. Fifth Company. -Captain, William Murray; first lieutenant, Richard Irwin; second lieutenant, Thomas Plunket; ensigns: Andrew Robinson, Benjamin Jordan. Sixth Company. -Captain, Simon Cole; first lieutenant, Thomas Kemplen; second lieutenant, James Brandon; ensigns: William King, James Hughes. Seventh Company. -Captain, David Berry; first lieutenant, William Hammond; second lieutenant, Joseph Bouser; ensign, Israel Pershel. All the officers of this battalion were returned on the 13th of March, 1776. Fourth Battalion. -Colonel, Philip Cole; lieutenant colonel, Thomas Sutherland; first major, Thomas Foster; second major, Casper Yost; adjutant, James McCoy; standard bearer, Dewalt Miller. First Company. -Captain, John Clark; first lieutenant, Henry Pontius; second lieutenant, James Moore; ensign, Patrick Watson. END OF PAGE 117 Second Company.-Captain, Michael Weaver. Third Company.-Captain, Jacob Links. Fourth Company.-Captain, William Weirick; first lieutenant, Jacob Sherred; second lieutenant, William Gill; ensign, Nathaniel Moon. Fifth Company.-Captain, George Wolf; first lieutenant, George Conrad; second lieutenant, Michael Wildgoose; ensign, John Hessler. Sixth Company. -Captain, George Overmeier; first lieutenant, James McKelvy; second lieutenant, Peter Weirick; ensign, Michael Snyder. The local militia was first engaged in active service in the winter of 1776-77. On the 5th of December the Supreme Executive Council appointed Robert Martin "paymaster to the Northumberland county militia, now going into service;" on the 8th of January he was superseded by Alexander Hunter, "paymaster to the militia of Northumberland county, enrolled to serve to the 10th of March next." One detachment marched to Reading under Colonel Cole, of the Fourth battalion, and another to Philadelphia under Lieutenant Colonel Murray, of the Third. Among the companies in Colonel Murray's command were Captains Benjamin Weiser's and John Lee's; the latter was composed of volunteers from the First battalion (Colonel Hunter's), who organized by electing the following officers: Captain, John Lee; first lieutenant, Hugh White; second lieutenant, Thomas Gaskins, and ensign, Gustavus Ross. They marched on the 24th of December, 1776, and arrived at Philadelphia prior to the 11th of January. Captain Weiser's company was at Philadelphia on the 30th of January. Colonel Murray joined the army in New Jersey. On the 21st of March, 1777, Samuel Hunter* was appointed county lieutenant; in this capacity he assumed the general direction of the militia, which was divided into classes for convenience of management. The first requisition of troops that he received was as follows:-
Philadelphia, June 14, 1777. Sir: By intelligence this moment received from Generals Sullivan
and Arnold we are informed that the enemy are rapidly advancing through the Jerseys and had arrived at Rocky run, within four miles of Princeton. We do therefore entreat you, by all the ties of virtue, honor, and love for your country, to call together immediately all the militia of your county you can possibly spare and hasten their march to this city with the utmost expedition. We are, in the greatest haste, Sir,
Your most humble servants, Thomas Mifflin, John Armstrong, James Potter.
____________________________________________________________________ *Colonel Hunter's official correspondence is published In the Pennsylvania Archives, as follows: 1776 - Vol. V. p.133; 1777 - Vol. V. pp. 370-37l, 377-378, 414, 610-611, 615, 717-718,737-738,762; Vol. VI. p.57; 1778-Vol. VI. pp. 175-176, 191-192,392, 478, 499-500, 536-537, 552-553, 563-565, 570-572, 573, 599,615,624, 631-632, 636-637, 771, 773; Vol. VII. pp. 116-118; 1779 - Vol. VII. pp. 267-268, 316-318, 346-347, 3755, 438, 455, 510~512, 546-547, 574, 589, 594, 615, 619-620, 680; Vol. VIII. pp. 29-30; 1780 Vol. VIII. pp. 88-90, 157, 166-168, 173, 189-190, 205-206, 369-370,393-394, 567-568, 601; 1781-Vol. VIII. p.717; 1782 Vol. IX. pp. 503-504, 528-529, 657-658. Original copies of many of Colonel Hunter's letters are now In the possession of captain John Buyers, of Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania. END OF PAGE 118 Colonel Hunter received this on the 17th instant, and preparations were at once made to march the first and second classes on the 23d or 24th. On the 16th Council directed that the first class only should be called out, which was accordingly done. An order countermanding the latter was issued on the 19th; it did not reach Colonel Hunter until the 29th, and before the militia could be stopped one company had proceeded more than sixty miles and two others about thirty. The next requisition was received by Colonel Hunter on the 10th of September, 1777, and in compliance therewith he at once ordered the first class of the militia to march. A requisition for the second class was issued on the 12th instant and for the third and fourth classes on the 23d of October. The latter reached Colonel Hunter on the 31st instant, but, owing to the difficulty of procuring arms and blankets, the classes designated did not march until November 11th. They were commanded by Colonel James Murray, whose regiment was attached to General James Potter's brigade and suffered some loss at the Guelph mills, near Philadelphia, December 11th. The following "Return of the Second battalion of Northumberland county militia, commanded by Colonel James Murray, May 1, 1778," on file in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, shows its numerical strength at that date:-
Capt. Lieut. Ens. Sgt. Total
Captain Thomas Gaskins's Company 1 2 1 4 53 61 Captain John Wilson's Company 1 2 1 4 52 60 Captain David Hays's Company 1 1 1 4 56 63 Captain Arthur Taggart's Company 1 2 1 4 58 66 Captain James McMahan's Company 1 2 1 4 49 57 Captain Robert Reynolds's Company 1 2 1 4 35 43 Captain John Chattam's Company 1 2 1 4 41 49 Captain John Clingman's Company 1 2 1 4 65 73
I do certify the above return to be just and true as delivered me by the above captains. SAMUEL HUNTER,
The fifth class was ordered out on the 5th of January, 1778; the requisition reached Colonel Hunter on the 13th, and on the following day he wrote the president of Council expressing his extreme reluctance to comply with its terms, as organized frontier defense had become imperatively necessary. The order was accordingly rescinded. The hostile attitude of the Indians became a source of grave apprehension about this time. In a letter dated July 29, 1776, John Harris stated, upon the authority of two men from Sunbury, that two Senecas had come to the END OF PAGE 119 Great Island in the West Branch three weeks previously; on the day after their arrival the Indians in that neighborhood cut down their corn and removed their families, evidently with the intention of joining the Canada tribes in alliance with the English. Although the danger of invasion was represented to the State authorities by the county Committee no defensive measures were taken until the autumn of 1777, when, a report having been circulated that two hundred Indians were on the West Branch forty miles above the Great Island, Colonel Cookson Long set out on the 6th of September with a party of men to ascertain whether their intentions were hostile or friendly. Colonel Hunter wrote on the 27th of October that more than five hundred people had collected at Lycoming, Antes's mill, and the mouth of Bald Eagle creek, in anticipation of an attack. Fifty men were stationed on the frontier at that time, under the command of Colonel John Kelly; after serving two months they were relieved by a detachment from Colonel Cookson Long's battalion, three classes of which were ordered out. On the 28th of March, 1778, Colonel Hunter wrote that the fifth class was on the frontier under Lieutenant Colonel Henry Antes; at that time two rifles and sixty musket constituted the public arms. In May he ordered the seventh class of Colonel John Kelly's battalion to relieve the sixth in Penn's valley, and the sixth and seventh classes of Colonel Cookson Long's battalion to scout along the frontiers. Great difficulty was experienced in procuring provisions; the price of bacon was four shillings six pence per pound and of flour three pounds ten shillings per hundred-weight. Not more than half the militia was armed; the powder was very inferior in quality, and no flints could be bought. A consignment of seventy guns, thirty-one rifles, sixty-nine muskets, and a quantity of powder, lead, and flints was ordered sent to Colonel Hunter by the Supreme Executive Council on the 18th of May. Notwithstanding these defensive measures, Indian outrages became alarmingly frequent. On the 14th of January, 1778, Colonel Hunter reported two men killed at Pine creek on the 23d ultimo; May 14th, one man killed at Bald Eagle on the 8th instant and another in Penn's valley; May 26th, three men killed at Bald Eagle on the 16th, three persons taken prisoners at Pine creek on the 18th and nine at Lycoming on the 20th, and sixteen Persons killed or taken prisoners at Loyalsock on the 24th. On the 17th of May Colonel Potter reported twenty persons killed on the North Branch. "The back inhabitants have all evacuated their habitations and assembled in different places," wrote Colonel Hunter on the 31st of May; "all above Muncy to Lycoming are come to Samuel Wallis's and the people of Muncy have gathered to Captain Brady's; all above Lycoming are at Antes's mill and the month of Bald Eagle creek; all the inhabitants of Penn's valley are gathered to one place in Potter's township; the inhabitants of White Deer township are assembled at three different places, and the back settlers of Buffalo are come down to the river; all from Muncy hill to Chillisquaque END OF PAGE 120 have assembled at three different places; Fishing creek and Mahoning settlements have all come to the river side." Eight persons were killed between Loyalsock and Lycoming on the 10th of June, and Indians were encountered below Muncy hill a week or two later. On the 3d of July occurred the massacre of Wyoming, the intelligence of which produced a general panic among the inhabitants of Northumberland county and precipitated the "Great Runaway." The flight of the settlers. on the West Branch was thus described by Robert Crownover, the well known scout:- I took my own family safely to Sunbury and came back in a keel-boat to secure my furniture. Just as I rounded a point above Derrstown, now Lewisburg, I met the whole convoy from all the forts above. Such a sight I never saw in my life. Boats, canoes, hog-troughs, rafts hastily made of dry sticks, every sort of floating article, had been put in requisition, and were crowded with women, children, and plunder. There were several hundred people in all. Whenever any obstruction occurred at any shoal or ripple, the women would leap out into the water and put their shoulders to the boat or raft and launch it again into deep water. The men of the settlement came down in single file on each side of the river to guard the women and children. The whole convoy arrived safely at Sunbury, leaving the entire range of farms along the West Branch to the ravages of the Indians. The state of affairs was graphically described by William Maclay* in a letter to Council, dated Paxtang, July 12,1778, of which the following is an extract:-
I left Sunbury and almost my whole property on Wednesday last [July 5th} I will not trouble you with a recital of the inconveniences I suffered while I brought my family by water to this place. I never in my life saw such scenes of distress. The river and the roads leading down it were covered with men, women, and children, flying for their lives, many without any property at all, and none who had not left the greatest part behind; in short, Northumberland county is broken up. Colonel Hunter only remained, using his utmost endeavors to rally some of the inhabitants and make a stand, however short, against the enemy. I left him with very few - I can not speak with certainty as to numbers - but am confident when I left him he had not one hundred men on whom he could depend. Wyoming is totally abandoned; scarce a single family remained between that place and Sunbury when I came away. The panic and spirit of flight have reached even to this place; many have moved even out of this township, and almost every one is thinking of some place of greater security. You will scarce be able to give me credit when I inform you that if the same body which defeated Colonel Butler at Wyoming should follow up the blow, they may without difficulty penetrate to Carlisle.... For God's sake, for the sake of the country, let Colonel Hunter be re-enforced at Sunbury; send him but a single company if you can not do more. Mrs. Hunter came down with me; as he is now disincumbered of his family, I am convinced he will do everything that can be expected from a brave and determined man. I must mention to you with freedom an opinion that has prevailed and done great hurt on the frontiers, viz., that no men or relief would be offered them. The miserable example of the Wyoming people, who have come down absolutely naked among us, has operated strongly, and the cry has been, "Let us move while we may, and let us carry _____________________________________________________________________ *William Maclay's Correspondence relating to affairs in Northumberland county is published in the Pennsylvania Archives, as follows: 1778 - Vol. VI. pp. 634-635; 1779 - Vol. VII. pp. 357, 586-587, 593,597-598, 623-624; 1780 - Vol. VIII. PP. 156, 172-173. END OF PAGE 121 some of our effects along With us." It was to no purpose that Colonel Hunter issued orders for assembling the militia, and the whole county broke loose. At ten o'clock on the 12th of July Colonel Matthew Smith* wrote as follows from Paxtang: "I am this moment arrived at Mr. Harris's ferry, and just now behold the greatest scenes of distress I ever saw. The numerous poor ran away from their habitations and left their all.... Northumberland county is evacuated." "This day," wrote Peter De Haven from Hummelstown July 12th, "there were twenty or thirty families passed through this town, some from Buffalo valley and some from Sunbury and some families from this side of Peter's mountain. Wyoming is taken, and most of our people have left Sunbury and are coming down; these people inform us that there are two hundred wagons on the road." On the 14th of July Colonel Bertram Galbraith, lieutenant of Lancaster county, informed the vice-president of Council that "On Sunday morning last the banks of the Susquehanna from Middletown up to the Blue mountain were entirely clad with the inhabitants of Northumberland county who had moved off, as well as many in the river in boats, canoes, rafts, etc." Captain Abraham Scott, who had been up at Garver's mill for his sister, the wife of Colonel Hunter, also informed him that the inhabitants of Wiconisco valley were preparing for flight.* On the 9th of July Colonel Hunter addressed a letter to the officers of the Berks county militia; there was then every reason to anticipate that Sunbury and Northumberland would be the frontier in less than twenty-four hours, but a few of the inhabitants had determined to make a stand and re-enforcements were urgently solicited. On the 12th he sent a communication to Council, in which the following passages occur:- The calamities so long dreaded, and which you have been more than once informed must fall upon this county if not assisted by Continental troops or the militia of the neighboring counties, now appear with all the horrors attendant on an Indian War; at this date the towns of Sunbury and Northumberland are the frontiers, where a few virtuous inhabitants and fugitives seem determined to stand, though doubtful whether tomorrow's sun will rise on them freemen, captives, or in eternity. Yet, relying on that Being who never forsakes the virtuous, and the timely assistance of the government which they have with zeal and vigor endeavored to support, they say they will remain as long as they can without incurring the censure of suicide. The carnage at Wyoming, the devastations and murders upon the West Branch of Susquehanna, on Bald Eagle creek, and, in short, throughout the whole county to within a few miles of these towns (the recital of which must be shocking), I suppose must before now have reached your ears. If not, you may figure yourselves men, women, and children, butchered and scalped, many of them after being promised quarter, and some scalped alive, of which we have miserable instances amongst us; people in crowds driven from their farms and habitations, many of whom have not money enough to purchase _______________________________________________________________________ *Colonel Smith's correspondence relating to affairs in Northumberland county is published in the Pennsylvania Archives, as follows: 1778 Vol. VI. pp. 632-633; 1779 Vol. VII. pp. 608, 609-611, 614; Vol. VIII p. 23; 1780 Vol. VIII pp. 249, 417-419,513, 691-692. *The letters quoted are published in Vol. VI. of the Pennsylvania Archives Colonel Smith's, p. 632; De Haven's, p. 633; Galbralth's, p.642. END OF PAGE 122 one day's provisions for their families, which must and already has obliged many of them to plunder and lay waste the farms as they pass along. These calamities must, if not speedily remedied by a reinforcement of men from below, inevitably ruin the frontier and incumber the interior counties with such numbers of indigent fugitives unable to support themselves as will like locusts devour all before them. If we are assisted to stand and save our crops, we will have enough for ourselves and to spare; you need be under no apprehension of any troops you send here suffering for want of provisions if they come in time, before the few who yet remain are obliged to give way; with men it will be necessary to send arms and ammunition, as we are ill provided with them. Gentlemen, you must all know that this county cannot be strong in men after the numbers it has furnished to serve the United States. Their applications to its for men were always complied with to the utmost of our abilities and with the greatest alacrity; should our supplications now be rejected I think the survivors of us, if any, may safely say that virtue is not rewarded. The defense of the frontier having been considered by Congress and the State authorities, it was decided that the detachment of Colonel Hartley's regiment then at Philadelphia should march to Sunbury; three hundred militia from Northumberland county, four hundred from Lancaster, and one hundred fifty from Berks were also ordered to that point, July 14, 1778. Colonel Daniel Brodhead's regiment, then on the march to Pittsburgh, had been directed to take position at Standing Stone (Huntingdon), but when General Lachlan McIntosh, who commanded in that department, heard of the state of affairs on the northern frontier, he ordered it to proceed up the Susquehanna, a movement that received the hearty approval of the Board of War and Supreme Executive Council. On the 24th of July Colonel Brodhead wrote* that, having arrived at Sunbury too late to be of service to the inhabitants there, he had determined to fix upon two principal posts and maintain a line of scouts between them; accordingly, a major, two captains, one subaltern, and eighty men were stationed at Brier creek on the North Branch and one hundred twenty men under his personal command at Muncy, while a captain and twenty-five men were detached to General James Potter's in Penn's valley. General Potter reported that the arrival of this force had done much to restore confidence; the "Runaway" had entailed a loss of forty thousand pounds, but the people were returning to reap their harvests and further waste would thus be prevented. He expressed his intention of directing the movements of the militia; this had been agreed upon by Generals Armstrong and McIntosh with the acquiescence of Colonel Brodhead, as General John Lacey, whom Council had designated for that service, was not regarded as eligible. It appears, however, that the militia which first arrived at Sunbury was commanded by General John P. De Haas, who had offered on the 13th of July to lend a body of volunteers against the Indians; Council accepted his services, and in the organization of defensive measures he rendered valuable assistance. _______________________________________________________________________ *Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. VI. pp. 660-661. END OF PAGE 123