Ludwik I brzeski

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Ludwik I brzeski

Polish: książę Ludwik I brzeski, German: Herzog Ludwig I. von Liegnitz
Also Known As: "Ludwik Sprawiedliwy", " Roztropny", " Prawy"
Birthplace: Legnica, Schlesien, Böhmen, Deutschland(HRR)
Death: circa December 1398 (73-89)
Luban, Schlesien, Böhmen, Deutschland(HRR)
Place of Burial: Legnica, Schlesien, Böhmen, Deutschland(HRR)
Immediate Family:

Son of Duke Boleslaw III the Generous and Margaret of Bohemia, Duchess of Wroclaw
Husband of Agnes of Żagań, Duchess of Racibórz
Father of Margaret of Silesia-Brieg, Duchess Consort of Bavaria; Henry VII with a Scar; Katarzyna of Slesia-Brieg, Duchess; Wacław; Sagani Hedvig hercegnő and 1 other
Brother of Wenceslaus I of Legnica and Mikołaj

Occupation: Duke Louis I of Brzeg
Managed by: Paul Douglas Van Dillen
Last Updated:

About Ludwik I brzeski

Ludwik I brzeski (Sprawiedliwy, Roztropny, Prawy) – książę namysłowski (1338-1342) i legnicki (1342-1345 z bratem Wacławem I, 1345-1346 w wyniku podziału w Legnicy), w latach 1346-1348/1349 bez przydziału, od 1348/1349 w Lubinie, od 1358 na połowie Brzegu i Oławy, od 1359 w Chojnowie, w latach 1364-1373 regent w Legnicy, od 1368 całość księstwa brzesko-oławskiego, od 1373 w Kluczborku, w latach 1392-1395 w Niemczy. Wikipedia PL

Ludwik I the Fair

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ludwik I the Fair or Louis I the Fair also known as the Wise, the Right or of Brzeg (Brieg) (Polish: Ludwik I Sprawiedliwy or Roztropny or Prawy or brzeski; b. ca. 1321 - d. 6/23 December 1398), was a Duke of Legnica two times: first during 1342-1345 (with his brother) and secondly during 1345-1346 (alone), and Duke of Brzeg since 1358. Also, he was regent of Legnica during 1364-1373.

He was the second son of Bolesław III the Generous, Duke of Legnica-Brzeg by his first wife, Princess Margareta (Markéta) of Bohemia, daughter of King Wenceslaus II. Louis was the youngest son of the Ducal couple who survive adulthood. The third and last son, Nikolaus, born and died in 1322, shortly before their mother.


Like his older brother, from Louis I's early years was known little; his first formal appearing was in 1329 on occasion of the renewal of his father's homage to King John of Bohemia.

In the following years Louis spent much of his time in the Royal court of Prague. Was there where he probably learned about politics and government.

In 1342 Bolesław III's huge debts forced him to give the Duchy of Legnica to his sons Louis I and Wenceslaus I, and retired himself with his second wife Katharina Šubić to the Duchy of Brzeg-Oława (which also included Namysłów, returned to him by his eldest son Wenceslaus I). During the first three years, both brothers ruled jointly without major problems until Wenceslaus I, after years of childless marriage, lost all his hopes to had children, decided to give most of the Legnica territory to Louis.

The formal divisionary treaty took place on 9 August 1345 in Wroclaw and was personally signed by King John of Bohemia. Louis I received the richest part of the Duchy and the capital, Legnica.

However, the breakdown between the brothers took place only one year later. In 1346 Wenceslaus I -whose wife, after eight years of marriage finally expected their first child- tried to modify the treaty, under which Louis I gave up all his lands to Wenceslaus I (who apparently was dying), and in exchange, he was named his sole heir, even in the case of the birth of a son. As a temporary compensation, Louis I received 400 pieces of silver per year and the possession of the palace of Buczyna.

It soon became apparent the reality was totally different. The "ill" Wenceslaus doesn't any intentions to die. In addition, the situation was more complicated after the birth of the first of Wenceslaus's four sons, Rupert.

Now Wenceslaus I wanted to force his brother to renounce to his succession rights, and Louis I see how his brother reduced the payment of his rent. However, Louis's financial situation is not so bad as he was able to buy the city of Lubin to his father and moved there with his family.

Between 1349 and 1350 Louis took part in a pilgrimage to Rome. After the death of his father Bolesław III (21 April 1352) Louis I opted for a military solution to the conflicts with his brother. The war lasted for nearly six years (with interruptions thanks to the mediation attempts of Duke Konrad I of Oleśnica, of the Bishop of Wroclaw, Przecław von Pogarell and the Emperor Charles IV).

The final agreement concluded between the brothers was signed on 23 July 1359. The winner in the conflict was Louis I, who in addition to the confirmation of his government over Lubin, obtained from Wenceslas I the town of Chojnów, the half of Oława, the Duchy of Brzeg and a monetary compensation of 4,500 pieces of silver.

For his part, Louis promised to pay half of his late father's debts and formally renounced to all claim over the Duchy of Legnica.

Wenceslaus I died on 2 June 1364 leaving four underage sons. Louis I took the regency on behalf of his nephews until 1373 (initially he shared the regency with his sister-in-law, Anna of Teschen, until 1367). From the beginning of his regency, he made significant efforts to save the Legnica treasure and to eliminate the specter of the bankruptcy. His talent in the government affairs originated that Louis I continued actively involved in the rule of Legnica by the request of eldest nephew Rupert I, who follow most of his advises.

Thanks to the great improve of the Legnica finances, Louis I was able to retaken the half of the Duchy of Brzeg-Oława lost by his late brother (in 1368) and also acquired the towns of Kluczbork, Buczyna, Wołczyn (in 1373) and Niemcza (years 1392-1395).

In order to maintain his sole authority over his lands, despite the attainment of majority of his eldest son Henry VII, Louis I didn't give him a separated state, and only named him co-regent -but without any real power- in 1360 or 1361. Henry VII received his own district only in 1395 (at the age of 52 years!): Niemcza, purchased by his father three years before.

Louis I participated actively in the foreign politics. On 21 May 1379, with his brother Wenceslaus I, renewal their homage to King Wenceslaus IV. In exchange, the King promised the succession of the whole Duchy of Legnica-Brzeg between only the descendants of Bolesław III the Generous since them, saved this line of the House of Piast to further intromisions of their relatives. A second renewal of homage took place on 6 January 1383, but this time Louis I had to renounced to any claims over the Duchies whose current holders were relatives of the Bohemian King: Wroclaw, Schweidnitz and Jawor.

On 12 June 1397 Louis took part in the Congress of Łubnicach, which were present, among others, King Władysław II Jagiełło and Przemyslaus I Noszak, Duke of Cieszyn.

The dynastic politics of Louis I had also a good result. He managed to orchestrated the marriages of his oldest daughter Margareta (Małgorzata) with Albert I of Bavaria, son of Emperor Louis IV and his only son Henry VII (then a long-time widower) with Margareta of Masovia, widow of Casimir IV, Duke of Pomerania; also he arranged the marriage of his nephew Rupert I with Hedwig of Żagań, widow of King Casimir III the Great. Louis I expected that with these marriages have additional arguments to fight for the Polish throne after the death of King Casimir III. Very quickly became clear that the prospects for the throne of Krakow were very distant. Finally, in 1396 he made an alliance with the new ruler of Poland, Władysław II Jagiełło against Władysław Opolczyk.

The reputation of the Duke of Brzeg was so great that Louis I has been repeatedly appointed by Charles IV and Wenceslaus IV as a mediator in disputes (as in 1365 between the Bishop Przecław von Pogarell and Duke Konrad I of Oleśnica, in 1367 between the sons of Duke Nikolaus II of Troppau for the division of the Duchy or in 1373 between the Duke Konrad II of Oleśnica and Przemyslaus I Noszak for the Duchy of Bytom).

Louis I, during his long governments have been known as a founder of a number of laic and religious buildings (such as castles in Lubin and Brzeg with their respective Chapels and the Kolegiata Chapter in Brzeg). At this time was also made the "Kodeks lubiąski", who illustrated the life of his great-great-great-grandmother St. Hedwig of Andechs, whose cult he promoted throughout all his reign.

Louis I died between 6 and 23 December 1398 and was buried in the Kolegiata of St. Hedwig in Brzeg.

[edit]Marriage and Issue

Around 1341, Louis married with Agnes (b. ca. 1321 - d. 7 July 1362), daughter of Henry IV, Duke of Głogów-Żagań and widow of Leszek, Duke of Racibórz. They had six children:

Margareta (b. 1342/43 - d. 18/22 February 1386), married aft. 19 July 1353 to Albert I, Duke of Bavaria.

Henry VIII with a Scar (b. 1343/45 - d. 11 July 1399).

Katharina (b. ca. 1344 - d. 10 April 1404/4 October 1405?), Abbess of Trebnitz (1372).

Hedwig (b. 1346 - d. 30 January 1385), married ca 1366 to John II, Duke of Auschwitz (Oświęcim).

Wenceslaus (b. ca. 1350 - d. aft. 15 September 1358).

A daughter (b. bef. July 1351 - d. young).


Complete Genealogy of the House of Piast: Silesia



This article was translated from his version on Polish Wikipedia.

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Ludwik I brzeski's Timeline

Legnica, Schlesien, Böhmen, Deutschland(HRR)
Age 19
Brieg, Schlesien, Deutschland(HRR)
Age 27
Silesia, Poland
Age 28
Silesia, Poland
Age 29
Of, Brzeg, Opole, Poland
Age 32
Of, Brzeg, Opole, Poland
December 1398
Age 81
Luban, Schlesien, Böhmen, Deutschland(HRR)
January 6, 1399
Age 81
Legnica, Schlesien, Böhmen, Deutschland(HRR)