Historical records matching Major-General Sir Isaac Brock KB ("The Saviour of Canada")
About Major-General Sir Isaac Brock KB ("The Saviour of Canada")
From 1797 Commander of 49th Foot. From 1810 Commander of all forces in Upper Canada with civil administrative powers. 16 Aug 1812 captured Detroit. In 1809 adopted Hercules Ellis's orphan. Commanded Britsh Canadian and Indian forces at Battle of Queenston Heights 13 October 1812. Won the battle but killed!
Sir Isaac Brock KB
(6 October 1769 – 13 October 1812) was a British Army officer and administrator. Brock was assigned to Canada in 1802. Despite facing desertions and near-mutinies, he commanded his regiment in Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) successfully for many years. He was promoted to major general, and became responsible for defending Upper Canada against the United States. While many in Canada and Britain believed war could be averted, Brock began to ready the army and militia for what was to come. When the War of 1812 broke out, the populace was prepared, and quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit defeated American invasion efforts.
Brock's actions, particularly his success at Detroit, earned him a knighthood, membership in the Order of the Bath, accolades and the sobriquet "The Hero of Upper Canada". His name is often linked with that of the Native American leader Tecumseh, although the two men collaborated in person only for a few days. Brock died at the Battle of Queenston Heights, which was nevertheless a British victory.
Saint Peter Port, where Brock was bornBrock was born in St Peter Port on the Channel Island of Guernsey, the eighth son of a middle class family. He earned a reputation during his early education on Guernsey as an assiduous student, as well as an exceptional swimmer and boxer. At age ten, he was sent to school in Southampton but spent one year in Rotterdam learning French.
Despite his lack of an extensive formal education, Brock appreciated its importance. It seems that as an adult he often spent his leisure time sequestered in his room, reading books in an attempt to improve his education. He read many works on military tactics and science, but he also read ancient history and other, less immediately practical, topics. At the time of his death he was in possession of a modest library of books, including works by Shakespeare, Voltaire, and Samuel Johnson.
He kept a reputation as an "unusually tall, robust" man throughout his life, with an adult height of about 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m). Measurements taken from his uniform show that at his death he had a waist size of 47 inches (119 cm) and the inside brim of his hat measured 24 inches (61 cm) in circumference. Though noted as a handsome man who enjoyed the company of women, Brock never married.
Brock had a successful pre-war military career, and a quick rise through the ranks which many commented on at the time. Some credited luck, and others skill, in his rapid promotions, and it is fair to say that Brock had substantial portions of both on his way to prominence. The fact that his promotions occurred in a time of peace, and that Brock had no special political connections, adds to how remarkable a rise it was.
At the age of fifteen, Brock joined the 8th (The King's) Regiment of Foot on 8 March 1785 with the rank of ensign, and was likely given responsibility for the regimental colours. His elder brother, John, was already an officer in the same regiment. As was usual at the time, Brock's commission was purchased. On 16 January 1790 he bought the rank of lieutenant, and later that year he raised his own company of men. As a result, he was promoted to captain (of an independent company of foot) on 27 January 1791, and transferred to the 49th (Hertfordshire) Regiment of Foot on 15 June 1791.
His nephew and biographer (Ferdinand Brock Tupper) asserts that shortly after joining the regiment, a professional dueller forced a match on him. As the one being challenged, Brock had his choice of terms, and so he insisted that they fight with pistols. His friends were shocked, as Brock was a large target, and his opponent an expert shot. Brock, however, refused to change his mind. When the duellist arrived at the field, he asked Brock to decide how many paces they would take. Brock insisted that the duel would take place, not at the usual range, but at handkerchief distance (i.e., close range). The duellist declined and subsequently was forced to leave the regiment. This contributed to Brock's popularity and reputation among his fellow officers, as this duellist had a formidable reputation, and was reportedly regarded as a bully in the regiment. During his time with this regiment, Brock served in the Caribbean, where he fell ill with fever and nearly died, only recovering once he had returned to England in 1793.
Once back in Britain, he spent much of his time recruiting, and he was subsequently placed in charge of recruits on Jersey. He purchased his majority on 27 June 1795, and rejoined his regiment in 1796, when the rest of his men returned from the West Indies.
On 28 October 1797 Brock purchased the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and became acting commanding officer of the regiment, assuming substantive command on 22 March 1798 with the retirement of Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Keppel. The rank was apparently bought cheaply; his predecessor from whom he purchased the rank was advised to sell up and leave the army rather than face a court martial and probable dismissal. In 1799, the 49th was assigned to the Helder Expedition against the Batavian Republic (now known as the Netherlands), to be led by Sir Ralph Abercromby. During the troop landings, Brock saw his first combat, on 10 September 1799, under the command of then-Major-General John Moore. Given that the 49th was in poor shape when Brock took command, they saw little of the actual combat. Likely Moore was sparing them, and using more experienced troops to establish the beachhead. Finally, on 2 October, the 49th was actively involved in heavy combat, at the Battle of Alkmaar, where they acquitted themselves well, only sustaining thirty-three fatalities. This was remarkable given the circumstances of the fight. The 49th had been ordered to proceed up the beaches of Egmont-op-Zee, a steep climb through sand dunes and poor terrain. The situation was exacerbated by harassment from French sharpshooters, who had excellent cover. After about six hours of heavy fighting, the attack was stopped about a mile (1.6 km) short of their objective. After an hour of close combat, the French began to withdraw. Brock himself was injured in the fighting, when he was hit by a spent musket ball in the throat. A neck cloth prevented a possibly fatal injury. In his own words, "I got knocked down shortly after the enemy began to retreat, but never quitted [sic] the field, and returned to my duty in less than half an hour."
Scene from the Battle of CopenhagenIn 1801, while aboard the 74-gun HMS Ganges (commanded by Captain Thomas Fremantle, a personal friend of Brock's), Brock was present at the Battle of Copenhagen, where it was intended that his troops would lead an assault on the forts at Copenhagen. Although the outcome of the battle made such an assault unnecessary, Brock observed first-hand the tactical brilliance of Lord Nelson. After the battle, along with Fremantle, he was among those who celebrated the victory with Nelson. In 1802, Brock and the 49th Foot were ordered to Canada.
Transfer to Canada
Brock arrived in Canada, along with the rest of the 49th foot, and was initially assigned to Montreal. Almost immediately, in 1803 he was faced with one of the primary problems in Canada: desertion. Seven soldiers stole a boat and fled across the border into the United States. Despite having no jurisdiction on American soil, Brock sent a party across the border in pursuit, and the men were captured.
A short time later, Brock received a report from Fort George that some of the garrison were planning to imprison the officers and flee to the U.S. Immediately, he boarded the schooner that had brought the message and went on it to Fort George, which was under the command of then-Lieutenant-Colonel Roger Hale Sheaffe. A hastily-assembled honour guard formed to greet Brock's unexpected arrival. Alone on entering the fort, Brock ordered the sergeant of the guard to disarm and had him confined.
As it was the dinner hour, all the soldiers were in barracks. Brock ordered the drummers to call out the men, and sent the first officer on the scene, Lieutenant Williams, to bring him a soldier suspected of being one of the mutiny's ringleaders. Pinning the man with a sabre, Williams took him into custody. The other suspected mutineers were also captured.
Brock sent the twelve mutineers and the seven deserters to Quebec for court martial. The mutineers had planned to jail all the officers, save Sheaffe, who was to be killed, and then cross the Niagara River into the U.S. at Queenston. Seven soldiers were subsequently executed by firing squad. The mutineers testified that they were forced to such measures by the severity of Sheaffe, and how, had they continued under Brock's command, they would never have taken such action. Brock was evidently upset by the news that the conspirators had been shot. In a botched execution, the firing squad discharged their weapons at too long a distance so that the condemned men were not killed instantly.
Interestingly, Brock's younger brother, John Savery Brock was compelled to retire from the Royal Navy after his involvement in a mutinous incident; he induced "his brother midshipmen, of the fleet at Spithead, to sign a round robin against their being subjected to the practice of mast-heading" for which "he was recommended privately to retire from the service."
One of two illustrations of Isaac Brock included in the 1908 book "The Story of Isaac Brock" by Walter R. Nursey.After a period of leave in England over winter 1805–6, and promotion to colonel on 29 October 1805, Brock returned to Canada to find himself temporarily in command of the entire British army there. By 1806 the United States was becoming increasingly hostile to the British Empire, and relations between the two nations continued to deteriorate until war finally broke out in 1812. This hostility came from three sources: grievances at British violations of American sovereignty, restriction of American trade by Britain, and an American desire to gain territory by invading and annexing the poorly-defended British North American colonies. American grievances included the impressment of American sailors by the Royal Navy, the blockade of French ports and a belief that the British were inciting American Indians to attack U.S. settlements on the western frontier. War hawks in the U.S. called for an invasion of Canada to punish the British Empire and to lessen the threat to American interests represented by the Native Americans. At the same time, the American states were becoming crowded, and there was a growing attitude—later described by the phrase Manifest Destiny—that the United States was destined to control all of the North American continent. American hawks assumed that Canadian colonists would rise up and support the invading U.S. armies as liberators, and that, as Thomas Jefferson famously wrote, conquering Canada would be "a mere matter of marching". In response to this emerging threat, Brock moved quickly to bolster Canadian defences. He strengthened the fortifications of Quebec by building walls and an elevated battery. Despite having little formal education, Brock succeeded in creating a formidable defensive position largely due to his reading, which included several volumes on the science of running and setting up artillery. He also rearranged and strengthened the Provincial Marine (responsible for transport on the lakes and rivers), which led to the development of a naval force capable of holding the Great Lakes. This was to be pivotal during the war. Nevertheless, Brock's appropriation of civilian lands and labour for military use brought him into conflict with the civilian authorities led by Thomas Dunn.
In 1807, Brock was appointed brigadier general by Governor General Sir James Henry Craig, the new commander of Canadian forces. He was to take command of all forces in Upper Canada in 1810. During this time, Brock continued to ask for a posting in Europe. In June 1811, he was promoted to Major General, and in October of that year, Lieutenant Governor Francis Gore left for England. Brock was sent to Upper Canada as Senior Officer Commander of the Troops and Senior Member of the [Executive] Council, putting him fully in charge of both the military and civil authority. He was usually referred to as President of the Council or Administrator of Upper Canada (never as Lieutenant Governor). When permission to leave for Europe finally came in early 1812, Brock declined the offer, seeing it as his duty to defend Canada in war against the United States.
As Upper Canada's administrator, Brock made a series of changes designed to help Canada in the event of a war. He amended the militia act, allowing the use of all available volunteers, and he ordered enhanced training of these raw recruits, despite opposition from the provincial legislature. Furthermore, he continued strengthening and reinforcing defences. Also, Brock began seeking out First Nations leaders, such as the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, to see if they would ally with him against the Americans in the event of war. Although the conventional wisdom of the day was that Canada would fall quickly in the event of an invasion, Brock pursued these strategies to give the colony a fighting chance.
Meanwhile, back in England, Brock's brother William faced financial difficulties, as the bank in which he was a senior partner failed. Isaac's commissions had been purchased with a loan entered into the bank's books by his brother, and the Brocks now faced a demand for payment. Isaac could not meet the £3000 debt, but made over the whole of his salary to another brother, Irving, to be used as Irving saw fit, either to pay the debt or the family's other bills.
The War of 1812
Early war and the capture of Detroit
Main article: Siege of Detroit
Governor General Sir George Prevost, whose approach to the war conflicted with Brock'sThe United States declared war on Britain on 18 June 1812. Brock's preparations meant that Canada was not unprepared for the war; however, Brock felt that those preparations would not be enough to keep the colony secure. In Upper Canada, besides the militia, there was only one British infantry regiment, a detachment of veterans and a company of artillery. These had to be dispersed between several widely-separated posts. Brock did have one vital advantage in that the armed vessels of the Provincial Marine controlled the lakes, and allowed him to move his reserves rapidly between threatened points.
With war apparently imminent, Brock had continually kept the commanders of his posts informed of all developments. When news of the outbreak of war reached him, he sent a canoe party under the noted trader and voyager William McKay to the British outpost at St. Joseph Island on Lake Huron, with orders which allowed the commander (Captain Charles Roberts) to stand on the defensive or attack the nearby American outpost at Fort Mackinac at his discretion. Roberts immediately launched an attack on Fort Mackinac with a scratch force of regulars, fur traders and natives. On 17 July, the American garrison was taken by surprise (not being aware that war had been declared) and surrendered. This victory immediately encouraged many natives who had hitherto been neutral or undecided, to give their active support to the British.
Despite this complete success, Brock felt he needed to go further. He was hampered in these efforts by Governor General George Prevost, who had replaced Craig in late 1811. Prevost's orders from the government, and his own inclinations, were to place a strict emphasis on defence. Prevost kept the bulk of his forces in Lower Canada to protect Quebec, and opposed any attack into American territory. Brock also considered that he was handicapped by inertia and defeatism among the Legislature and other officials. He wrote to Prevost's Adjutant General,
My situation is most critical, not from anything the enemy can do, but from the disposition of the people – The Population, believe me is essentially bad – A full belief possesses them that this Province must inevitably succumb – This Prepossession is fatal to every exertion – Legislators, Magistrates, Militia Officers, all, have imbibed the idea, and are so sluggish and indifferent in all their respective offices that the artful and active scoundrel is allowed to parade the Country without interruption, and commit all imaginable mischief... What a change an additional regiment would make in this part of the Province! Most of the people have lost all confidence – I however speak loud and look big.
Brock's adversary at the Siege of Detroit, General William HullOn 12 July, an American army under William Hull had invaded Canada at Sandwich (later known as Windsor). The invasion was quickly halted, and Hull withdrew, but this gave Brock the excuse he needed to abandon Prevost's orders. Having finally obtained limited support from the Legislature for his measures to defend the Province, Brock prorogued the Assembly and set out on 6 August with a small body of regulars and some volunteers from the York Militia (the "York Volunteers") to reinforce the garrison at Amherstburg at the western end of Lake Erie, facing Hull's position at Detroit. Travelling mainly by water in bad weather, Brock reached Amherstburg on 13 August.
Here, Brock met Tecumseh, and was immediately impressed. Brock also read American dispatches captured from Hull's army, and quickly judged Hull to be timid and afraid of the natives in particular, and the American force to be demoralised and short of rations. Against the advice of the officers on the spot, Brock immediately prepared to launch an attack on Detroit. He later (3 September) wrote to his brothers,
Some say that nothing could be more desparate than the measure, but I answer that the state of the Province admitted of nothing but desparate remedies. I got possession of the letters my antagonist addressed to the Secretary at War, and also of the sentiments which hundreds of his army uttered to their friends. Confidence in the General was gone, and evident despondency prevailed throughout. I have succeeded beyond expectation. I crossed the river contrary to the opinion of Cols. Procter, St. George etc.; it is therefore no wonder that envy should attribute to good fortune what in justice to my own discernment, I must say, proceeded from a cool calculation of the pours and contres.
At this point, even with his American aboriginal allies, Brock was outnumbered approximately two to one. Brock thus decided to use a series of tricks to intimidate Hull. He dressed his militia contingent in worn-out uniforms discarded by his regulars, making it appear (at a distance) as if his force consisted entirely of British regular infantry. Brock then laid siege to Fort Detroit, from established artillery positions across the river in Sandwich, and through a carefully crafted series of marches, made it appear he had far more natives with him than he actually did. He had Tecumseh's forces cross in front of the fort several times (doubling back under cover), intimidating Hull with the show of a large, raucous, barely controlled group of natives. Finally, he sent Hull a letter demanding his surrender, in which he stated, in part, "It is far from my inclination to join in a war of extermination, but you must be aware that the numerous body of Indians who have attached themselves to my troops will be beyond my control the moment the contest commences." Brock then hammered the fort with cannon fire. On 16 August, the day after receiving Brock's letter, Hull surrendered. Hull, elderly and without recent military experience, was terrified that the civilian population of the fort, including his own daughter and grandson, would face torture at the hands of the natives.
The capture of Detroit and Hull's army wounded American morale, and eliminated the main American force in the area as a threat, while at the same time boosting morale among his own forces. It allowed Brock to take the American supplies at Detroit and use them for his own forces, particularly the ill-equipped militia. Had Brock lived longer, he would probably have been freed from financial worries, since under prize regulations a substantial part of the value of the captured military stores would accrue to him. Brock himself valued the captured ordnance supplies at £30,000. Finally, the victory secured the support of Tecumseh and the other chiefs in his confederation, who took it as both a sign of competence and a willingness to take action.
Tecumseh evidently trusted and respected Brock, reportedly saying, "This is a man" after meeting him for the first time. Although Brock's correspondence indicates a certain amount of paternal condescension for the natives, he seems to have regarded Tecumseh himself very highly, calling him "the Wellington of the Indians", and saying "a more sagacious or a more gallant warrior does not I believe exist". In enlisting the help of Tecumseh, Brock made a number of commitments to the Shawnee. He promised to negotiate no peace treaty without addressing the Shawnee's vision of an independent homeland. Although this was undoubtedly because Brock needed the help of Tecumseh, there is no evidence Brock negotiated in bad faith. Brock's personal integrity and respect for native peoples has been well documented, and suggest that if he had lived he would have kept his word to the Shawnee.
The capture of Detroit led to British domination over most of Michigan Territory. Brock had planned to continue his campaign into the U.S., but he was thwarted by the negotiation of an armistice by Prevost with American Major General Henry Dearborn. This stalled Brock's momentum, and gave the Americans time to regroup and prepare for an invasion of Canada. Unable to predict the point of invasion, Brock frantically worked to prepare defences throughout Upper Canada.
Death at Queenston Heights
Main article: Battle of Queenston Heights
"Push on, brave York volunteers!" shouts Brock, who is shown dying at the lower right of the picture.Meanwhile, American general Stephen Van Rensselaer III, a Federalist political appointee, in command of a sizable army near Lewiston, came under presidential pressure to invade. Although Van Rensselaer had severe doubts about the quality of his troops, he had no choice but to attack. Making matters worse, Van Rensselaer was an inexperienced militia general, and thus not trusted by the majority of regular army troops. In the early morning of 13 October 1812, he attempted to cross the Niagara River, leading to the Battle of Queenston Heights. Despite heavy fire from British artillery, the first wave of Americans (under Captain John E. Wool) managed to land, and then follow a fishermen's path up to the heights. From this point, they attacked and routed the British artillery. Brock himself had arrived from nearby Fort George and moved up to the artillery battery to gain a better view only minutes before Wool attacked. He, his aides and the gunners were forced to beat a hasty retreat, leading their horses down the steep slope.
Fearing that the Americans, with the artillery out of the way, would move the rest of their troops across the river, Brock ordered an immediate attack on their position. True to his philosophy of never ordering men where he would not lead them, he personally led the charge on foot. The charge nearly succeeded, but was repelled. An obvious target with his commanding height and in his general's uniform, Brock was wounded in the hand and then shot and killed by American sharpshooters. Brock's last words have been reported as "Push on, brave York Volunteers" (in reference to a group of the militia Brock favoured) or "Push on, don't mind me" or Surgite! (Latin for "rise" or "push on"—now used as a motto by Brock University), and even "a request that his fall might not be noticed or prevent the advance of his brave troops, adding a wish, which could not be distinctly understood, that some token of remembrance should be transmitted to his sister." These accounts are considered unlikely, as it is also reported that Brock died almost immediately without speaking, and the hole in his uniform suggests that the bullet entered his heart.
General Roger Hale Sheaffe, who took command at Queenston after Brock's deathFollowing his death, John Macdonell became the senior officer present. Macdonell led another unsuccessful charge in which both he and, according to some accounts, Brock's own horse which Macdonell was riding were mortally wounded. During the charge, it is reported that the 49th used "Revenge the General" as a battle cry. In the afternoon, Sheaffe arrived on the battlefield with reinforcements and took command of the British forces. In sharp contrast to his predecessors' direct attacks, Sheaffe took a more cautious approach. This ultimately proved successful, leading to a total victory over the Americans.
After the battle, Sheaffe and his staff decided to entrust the funeral arrangements to Captain John Glegg, who had served with Brock for many years. On 16 October, a funeral procession for Brock and Colonel Macdonell went from Government House to Fort George, with soldiers from the British Army, the colonial militia, and Indian tribes on either side of the route. The caskets were then lowered into a freshly dug grave at the northeast corner of Fort George. The British then fired a twenty-one gun salute in three salvos, in a gesture of respect. Later that day, the American garrison at Fort Niagara respectfully fired a similar salute. Over five thousand people attended the funeral, a remarkable number given the population of Upper Canada at that time.
A small cairn at the foot of the Niagara Escarpment marks the spot where Brock fell. In 1824, Brock's and Macdonell's remains were moved into Brock's Monument, which overlooked the Queenston Heights. That original monument was bombed and heavily damaged in 1840 (reputedly by Irish-Canadian terrorist Benjamin Lett  although a subsequent Assize failed to confirm this). It was replaced by a larger structure 185 feet (56 m) high, built at public expense that still stands. Brock was finally buried inside the new Monument on 13 October 1853. An inscription reads: "Upper Canada has dedicated this monument to the memory of the late Major-General Isaac Brock, K.B. provisional lieutenant-governor and commander of the forces in the province whose remains are deposited in the vault beneath. Opposing the invading enemy he fell in action near these heights on 13 October 1812, in the forty-third year of his age. Revered and lamented by the people whom he governed and deplored by the sovereign to whose services his life had been devoted."
On British leadership
Posthumous portrait, c. 1883, by George Theodore Berthon.British military leadership, which had been decisive up to Brock's death, suffered a blow with his loss. His direct successor, Major-General Sheaffe, although successful in his approach at Queenston Heights, was never able to live up to Brock's reputation. He was criticised by many, including John Strachan, for his retreat at the Battle of York, and was shortly after recalled to England, where he continued a successful, if not brilliant, military career.
Brock's successor at Detroit, however, fared much worse. Colonel Henry Procter faced an attack from a resurrected American Army of the Northwest under future President William Henry Harrison. Harrison set out to retake Detroit, but a detachment of his army was defeated at Frenchtown on 22 January 1813. Procter, displaying poor judgement, left the prisoners in the custody of his native allies, who proceeded to execute an indeterminate number of them. Subsequent American victories allowed Harrison to attempt another invasion of Canada, which led to the Battle of the Thames on 5 October 1813. After a successful American charge, Procter's forces turned and fled, leaving Tecumseh and his American Indian troops to fight alone. They fought on, eventually being defeated. Perhaps of more importance to the British, at this battle Tecumseh died, and their alliance with the American Indians effectively ended.
As for Governor General Prevost, who often clashed with Brock, he remained in command of all British forces until after the Battle of Plattsburgh, in 1814. The battle was intended to be a joint naval/infantry attack, but Prevost did not commit his forces until after the naval battle had nearly ended. When he finally did attack, his forces proved unable to cross the Saranac River bridge, which was held by a small group of American regulars under the command of the recently promoted John E. Wool. Despite a heavy advantage in manpower, Prevost finally retreated upon hearing of the failure of the naval attack. For his failure at Plattsburgh, Prevost was recalled to England to face an inquiry, and a naval court martial determined that the blame for the loss at Plattsburgh primarily rested with Prevost. Prevost's health failed him, and he died in early 1816.
Bust of Isaac Brock at the Valiants Memorial in Ottawa Memorial Plaque in GuernseyCanadians regard Brock as one of their greatest military heroes. He was voted #28 on The Greatest Canadian television show, despite not actually being a Canadian.
Although many Canadians have come to view Brock as one of their own, Brock never really felt at home in Canada. On the whole he viewed the country as a backwater, and earnestly wished to return to Europe to fight against Napoleon. Furthermore, Brock mistrusted the Canadian colonists, many of whom he suspected of being American sympathizers, and he was reluctant to arm them indiscriminately to help defend the colonies, instead favouring the expansion of volunteer forces, as well as the employment of British regulars and Tecumseh's native fighters.
Since his death, several legends and myths about Brock have arisen. In 1908, the story of Brock's betrothal to Sophia Shaw, the daughter of General Æneas Shaw was first published. There is no supporting evidence for the claim and most biographers consider it apocryphal. Another legend, that of Brock's horse Alfred, was first published in 1859. The horse was supposedly shot and killed during the battle while being ridden by Macdonell, and it is commemorated in a monument erected in 1976 in Queenston near the cairn marking the spot where Brock fell. However, again there is little supporting evidence. The General's Horse "fully caparisoned, led by four Grooms" is listed as preceding the coffin at the General's interment at Fort George.
In 1816, a series of private half-penny tokens were issued by an unknown company which honoured Brock with the title "The Hero of Upper Canada". Private copper tokens became common in Canada due to initial distrust of "army bills", which were paper notes issued by Brock in response to a currency shortage caused by economic growth.
Brockville and Brock in Ontario, Brock in Saskatchewan, General Isaac Brock Parkway on Highway 405 and Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario are all named in tribute to Brock. Schools named in his honour include one in Winnipeg, and public schools in Toronto, Guelph, Hamilton, London and Windsor, Ontario. An Ontario Historical Plaque was erected by the province to commemorate Major-General Sir Isaac Brock's role in Ontario's heritage.
Although Brock's achievements were overshadowed by larger-scale fighting in Europe, his death was still widely noted, particularly in Guernsey. In London, he is remembered at a memorial in St Paul's Cathedral, paid for by £1575 voted by the House of Commons, which also granted pensions of £200 to each of his four surviving brothers. For his actions in the capture of Detroit, Brock was appointed a Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath (KB) on 10 October 1812, though he died at the Battle of Queenston Heights before news of his knighthood reached him. As a mark of esteem, the Prince Regent made special grant to allow the heraldic supporters that would have been incorporated into his coat of arms if he had lived to be incorporated into the arms of Brock's father's descendants, and on monuments raised in Brock's memory. A British naval vessel named in his honour, HMS Sir Isaac Brock, was destroyed while under construction at the Battle of York. The Regimental Depot of the 49th of foot, (later the Royal Berkshire Regt),was established at Reading and named Brock Barracks in his memory. It survives as a Territorial Army Centre.
Brock's childhood home on High Street, St Peter Port, Guernsey still stands, and is marked with a memorial plaque. A memorial, paid for by Canada, is fitted into the side of the Town Church, the parish church of St Peter Port. Brock University provides scholarships to Guernsey students who achieve sufficiently high grades. In 1969, the Guernsey Post Office issued postage stamps to commemorate his life and achievements.
1.^ Ludwig Kosche (Summer 1985). "Contemporary portraits of Isaac Brock: An analysis". Archivaria 20: 22–66. http://journals.sfu.ca/archivar/index.php/archivaria/article/view/11176. 2.^ Tupper (1847) p.viii 3.^ a b c d e "Isaac Brock – Saviour of Canada". Historica Canadiana, 27 November 2006. Retrieved on 16 July 2008. 4.^ a b c d e f g h i j Stacey, C. P. (2000) Sir Isaac Brock". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved on 16 July 2008. 5.^ Tupper (1847) p.4–5 and 88 6.^ Wilson, W.R. (2004) "The Earthly Possessions of Sir Isaac Brock" Historical Narratives of Early Canada. Retrieved on 31 July 2008 7.^ Tupper (1847) p.4 8.^ a b c Malcomson, Robert (1 October 2004) "Picturing Isaac Brock:heroes attract legends like magnets attract iron. But what is really true about Isaac Brock, the saviour of Upper Canada?" The Beaver: Exploring Canada's History. Canada's National History Society. Retrieved on 25 July 2008. 9.^ a b Tupper (1847) p.6 10.^ London Gazette: no. 12627. p. 121. 5 March 1785. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 11.^ Traditionally, the regimental colours were placed in the care of the regiment's most junior officer, which in this case would be Brock. 12.^ London Gazette: no. 13166. pp. 25–26. 12 January 1790. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 13.^ a b c Sweetman (ODNB) 14.^ London Gazette: no. 13278. p. 63. 29 January 1791. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 15.^ a b Tupper (1847) p.5–6 16.^ London Gazette: no. 13790. pp. 659–660. 23 June 1795. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 17.^ London Gazette: no. 14059. pp. 1023–1024. 24 October 1797. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 18.^ Tupper (1847) p.8 19.^ Tupper (1847) p.18–20 20.^ a b c Tupper (1847) p.26–30 21.^ Tupper (1847) p.31–32 22.^ Tupper (1847) p.348–349 and Nursey, p.49 23.^ Tupper (1847) p.22 24.^ Walter R. Nursey (30 November 2006). The Story of Isaac Brock. Echo Library. ISBN 978-1-4068-3567-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=iSQFPXG_F_cC&pg=PA1. 25.^ London Gazette: no. 15856. p. 1341. 29 October 1805. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 26.^ Letter from Jefferson to Colonel William Duane, 4 August 1812 27.^ In British practice of the time brigadier general was not a permanent rank, but an appointment of colonels or lieutenant colonels for a specific purpose or period of time 28.^ Tupper (1847) p.108–109 29.^ Tupper (1847) p.110–113 30.^ Tupper (1847) p.224–225 31.^ Steppler, Glenn A. (2000) Charles Roberts". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved on 27 September 2008. 32.^ C.P.Stacey, The Defence of Upper Canada, 1812, quoted in Zaslow, p.13 33.^ Tupper (1847) p.241–242 34.^ Tupper (1847) p.244 and 253 35.^ C.P.Stacey, The Defence of Upper Canada, 1812, quoted in Zaslow, p.17 36.^ Tupper (1847) p.246 37.^ Tupper (1847) p.254 38.^ a b Tupper (1847) p.262 39.^ See letters from Brock to Lt.-Gen. Prevost, dated 2 December and 3, 1811, quoted in Tupper (1847) p.123–130 40.^ Gevinson, Alan. "Namesake of a Peacekeeper." Teachinghistory.org, accessed 8 October 2011. 41.^ Tupper (1847) p.253 42.^ See for example, letters from Brock to Colonel Procter, dated 17 September 1812, and Sir George Prevost, dated 18 September 1812, quoted in Tupper (1847) p.310–311 and 314–315 43.^ Tupper (1847) p.318–321, 347 44.^ Tupper (1847) p.331 footnote 45.^ Tupper (1847) p.331 46.^ Latimer, p.79 47.^ a b e.g. Nursey, p.161–162 48.^ Collins, Gilbert (2006) Guidebook to the Historic Sites of the War of 1812: 2nd Edition, Revised and Updated (Dundurn Press) ISBN 978-1-55002-626-9 p.116 49.^ Malcomson, A Very Brilliant Affair, p.216 50.^ Brock's Monument. Tourism Niagara. Retrieved on 7 November 2010 51.^ a b Commemorative Plaques & Markers. Niagara Parks. Retrieved on 1 August 2008 52.^ Whitfield, Carol M.; Turner, Wesley B. (2000) "Roger Hale Sheaffe". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved on 1 August 2008. 53.^ "The Battle of the River Raisin". riverraisinbattlefield.org. Retrieved on 16 July 2008. 54.^ Burroughs, Peter (2000) "George Prevost" Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved on 1 August 2008. 55.^ Fredriksen, John C. (2001). "Isaac Brock". America's Military Adversaries. ABC-CLIO. p. 72 56.^ The Greatest Canadian. CBC. Retrieved on 4 August 2008. 57.^ See letters from Brock to his brothers dated 5 September 1808 and 19 November 1808, quoted in Tupper (1847) p.72–74 58.^ See letters from Brock to his brothers dated 31 December 1809, and to the Right Honourable W. Windham, dated 12 February 1807, quoted in Tupper (1847) p.75 and 46 59.^ See letter from Brock to Viscount Castlereagh dated 25 July 1807, quoted in Tupper (1847) p.63 60.^ Nursey, p.79 and 136 61.^ Tupper (1847) p.341 62.^ Whelan, Martin (26 July 2001) "The Coin Collection: Hero of Upper Canada" Waterford County Museum. Retrieved on 4 August 2008. 63.^ Ontario Plaque 64.^ London Gazette: no. 16656. p. 2040. 6 October 1812. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 65.^ a b London Gazette: no. 16696. pp. 157–158. 19 January 1813. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
See also: List of books about the War of 1812 Benn, Carl (2003). The War of 1812. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-466-3. http://books.google.com/?id=Ml2pdfWRnMoC. Berton, Pierre (1980). The Invasion of Canada, Volume 1, 1812–1813. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-316-09216-9. Berton, Pierre (1991). The Capture of Detroit. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-1425-2. Berton, Pierre (1991). The Death of Isaac Brock. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-1426-0. Hitsman, J. MacKay; Donald E. Graves and Sir Christopher Prevost (2000). The Incredible War of 1812: A Military History. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio. ISBN 1-896941-13-3. Lamb, William K. (1962). The Hero of Upper Canada. Toronto: Rous and Mann. OCLC 4770927. Latimer, Jon (2007). 1812: War with America. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-02584-9. Malcomson, Robert (2003). A Very Brilliant Affair: The Battle of Queenston Heights, 1812. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio. ISBN 1-896941-33-8. Malcomson, Robert (1996). Burying General Brock: A History of Brock's Monuments. Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON: Friends of Fort George. ISBN 0-9699298-1-1. Nursey, Walter R. (1908). The Story of Isaac Brock. Toronto: William Briggs (published online by Project Gutenberg). http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/18025. Stacey, Charles Perry (2000). "Sir Isaac Brock". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=2288. Sweetman, John (2004). "Brock, Sir Isaac (1769–1812)" (subscription required for online access). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3468. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/3468. Retrieved 2008-07-17. Tupper, Ferdinand Brock (1845). The Life and Correspondence of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, K.B.. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co.. OCLC 2227295. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14428. Tupper, Ferdinand Brock (1847). The Life and Correspondence of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, K.B., Second edition, Considerably enlarged. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co.. http://books.google.com/?id=nA1y3iF0EjkC&dq=isaac+brock&printsec=frontcover. Turner, Wesley B. (1999). British generals in the War of 1812: High Command in the Canadas. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-1832-0. Zaslow, Morris (ed.) (1964). The Defended Border: Upper Canada and the War of 1812. Toronto: MacMillan. OCLC 480289. Published dispatches by Brock relating to the capture of Fort Detroit. London Gazette: no. 16653. pp. 2011–2014. 6 October 1812. Retrieved 2008-07-17.  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Isaac Brock
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Brock, Sir Isaac.
Historica.ca Article on Isaac Brock, Complete With References Information on Isaac Brock's family and genealogy The Friends of Fort George: Brock's Monument Brock University
Government offices Preceded by Francis Gore Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada 1811 to 1812 Succeeded by Roger Hale Sheaffe ]v ·t ·e Lieutenant Governors of Ontario
Post-Confederation (1867–present) Stisted • Howland • Crawford • D. A. Macdonald • J. B. Robinson • Campbell • Kirkpatrick • Gzowski • Mowat • Clark • Gibson • Hendrie • Clarke • Cockshutt • Ross • Mulock • H. A. Bruce • Matthews • Lawson • Breithaupt • MacKay • Rowe • W. R. Macdonald • McGibbon • Aird • Alexander • Jackman • Weston • Bartleman • Onley Province of Canada (1841–1866)* Clitherow • Jackson • Bagot • Metcalfe • Cathcart • J. Bruce • E. W. Head • Monck Upper Canada (1791–1841) Simcoe • Russell • Hunter • Grant • Gore • Brock • Sheaffe • de Rottenburg • Drummond • Murray • F. P. Robinson • Smith • Maitland • Colborne • Bond Head • Arthur • Thomson British Province of Quebec (1759–1791)* Amherst • Murray • Carleton • Haldimand • Carleton (2nd time)
- The Crown's representative from 1759 to 1791, and from 1841 to 1866 held the office and rank of Governor-General.
Isaac Brock - Saviour of Canada
The man who became known as the "Saviour of Canada" was born on 6 October 1769. Isaac Brock was the eighth son of John and Elizabeth (nee De Lisle) Brock. The Brock family lived in the town of St. Peter-Port on the English Channel Island of Guernsey. Noted for his gentle nature, young Isaac was nevertheless skilled in the martial sport of boxing, and was a good swimmer. Starting school on Guernsey, Isaac left home at ten years of age to complete his education at Southampton.
This schoolboy grew into a handsome man, with a broad forehead and grey-blue eyes. Pierre Berton notes that Brock's portraits tended to make him look slightly feminine, but that his physical bearing would have offset any such impression. In the fullness of manhood Isaac Brock stood about six foot three, a powerful presence with a large build to match his height. Throughout his life Brock was a popular, respected figure, though sometimes aloof. Although he enjoyed the company of women, and was rumoured to have a fiancee at the time of his death, Brock never married.
Like certain famous bachelors of the Victorian era, young Isaac Brock was destined for a military life. Four of his brothers served in the British forces, and Isaac followed this tradition when, in 1785, elder brother John purchased him a commission as an ensign in the 8th Foot.† In 1791, with the rank of captain, Brock transferred to the 49th Foot. By 1797 he was the senior lieutenant colonel of his regiment. In 1799 he was slightly wounded during an attack on the Dutch town of Egmont-op-Zee, and two years later was present during Admiral Lord Nelson's attack on Copenhagen. Brock's career seemed to take a downturn when, in 1802, the 49th was transferred to British North America (Canada).
While battle raged between the forces of Britain and Napoleonic France, Brock spent a peaceful but - for an ambitious military man - frustrating ten years in North America. A true man of action, Brock longed to be where the fighting was. Still, his stay in Canada did give the officer practical experience as an administrator, supplementing that gained during a stint with the 49th in Barbados and Jamaica. Promoted to full colonel in 1805, and to brigadier general in 1807, Brock had acted as commander-in-chief of British forces in Canada, though he continued to chafe at his backwater posting.
A family financial crisis in 1811 saw Brock, through no fault of his own, in debt to the tune of £3000. The following year he applied to Horse Guards (army headquarters) for a transfer out of Canada. Just as permission was granted news arrived that the United States, irritated by British restrictions on its maritime trade, and Royal Navy impressment of American seamen, had declared war. Brock felt duty-bound to remain in Canada where his services were now sorely needed.
By the time war erupted in June 1812 Brock had already done much to prepare Canada for the coming conflict. He persuaded his superiors to renovate and strengthen the neglected defences of Quebec City, considered one of the lynchpins of the province's defence. A major general by 1812, Brock was in charge of all military forces in Upper Canada - today's Ontario - and acted as the province's civil administrator in the absence of the Lieutenant Governor. Ever since America and Britain had almost gone to war in 1807 over the Chesapeake affair, Brock had tried to ready Upper Canada against the possibility of invasion, pleading with Governor General Sir George Prevost (1767-1816) for reinforcements.‡ Although Sir George's top priority was the defence of Lower Canada (Quebec), he managed to augment Brock's troop strength to some extent. This was important as Upper Canada was the setting for many of the War of 1812's land engagements.
Perhaps Brock's greatest contribution to Canadian defence in the weeks after the American declaration of war was the alliance he forged with the First Nations peoples. Although Brock's attitude towards the Natives was ambiguous, he realized that their support was key to bolstering Upper Canada's thinly-stretched force of redcoats and semi-trained militia. Without the support of their Native allies it is doubtful the Anglo-Canadians could have resisted the first American invasions. Although he enlisted the aid of a number of tribes, Brock's most important Native ally was the Shawnee leader Tecumseh (c. 1768-1813), who was promoting an aboriginal confederacy against the Americans. Brock must have impressed Tecumseh who, on meeting the general proclaimed, "this is a man." Tecumseh and many other Natives had no great love for the British, but aggressive westward expansion and a number of land swindles alienated them from the Americans.
Despite Prevost's warnings to be cautious, Brock believed the best way to defend Canada was to go on the offensive. Quite sensibly, Native warriors liked to ally themselves with whoever had the best chances of winning a conflict. A victory would not only bolster their resolve to stand by the British, but would reassure those who feared Canada might be lost to an American force; from 1812-14 the Americans launched eight invasions, only one of which accomplished much.
Brock soon had his first success. Acting on the general's orders, a small band of regular soldiers, Native warriors, and North West Company employees under a British officer spearheaded an attack on Fort Michilimackinac, on Mackinac Island at the northwestern end of Lake Huron. The American garrison was unaware that war had been declared and soon surrendered. Formerly a British outpost, Michilimackinac was strategically located - whoever controlled it could control the important western fur trade. As historian Carl Benn notes, the capture also kept open lines of communication with Natives tribes on the Mississippi, while encouraging tribes of the upper lakes to join the British cause.
News of the British success also reached Brigadier General William Hull (1753-1825), who was leading an American army east across the Detroit River into Upper Canada as part of a three-pronged, if badly co-ordinated, invasion. The loss of Mackinac led Hull to fear that local Natives would rise up against his forces, and might even attack American settlements. Hearing reports that Brock was advancing on his position, Hull withdrew his army from Canada into the safety of Fort Detroit.
Brock arrived on 13 August and, though his force was actually smaller than the American garrison, demanded Hull's surrender. Not a professional soldier, Hull was fearful of Brock's Native allies, led by Tecumseh. Brock played on these fears, indicating that if the Americans resisted he might not be able to control the Indian warriors should his forces take the fort. The implication was clear - fight and they could expect a massacre. To complete the picture, Brock had Tecumseh parade his warriors in full view of the garrison at Fort Detroit, moving so as to make their numbers seem greater. A deadly cannonade broke down the last of Hull's resolve, and he surrendered to Isaac Brock's forces on 16 August 1812.
With this second bloodless victory Brock took a large number of prisoners and badly-needed materiel. The success also made the Niagara Peninsula's western frontier secure for the moment, while persuading even more Native tribes to openly declare for the British. A massive embarrassment for the United States, the action at Detroit was received with joy in Canada and Britain. Isaac Brock earned a knighthood for Detroit, but never received the news - his next battle was his last.
In the Autumn of 1812 the Americans launched a new invasion west over the Niagara River from New York State. Hundreds of regular troops, militia and volunteers made the journey, coming under fire from defenders across the river at the village of Queenston. Although some militiamen refused to cross onto Canadian soil, and there was bad blood between some of the American commanders, the force managed to land successfully and fight their way onto Queenston Heights, a ridge dominating the settlement below.
From Fort George Brock heard the distant sound of gunfire, and galloped off on his horse Alfred to take command. Just after dawn, 13 October, an outnumbered Anglo-Canadian force charged up the heights to drive off the Americans. Brock said he would not ask men to go where he would not lead; he led from the front this morning, an easily identifiable figure, wearing a bright sash given to him by Tecumseh. An American sniper took aim, ending the general's life. It was left to his successor, major general Roger Hale Sheaffe (1763-1851) to win a lopsided victory that will forever be associated with Isaac Brock - Queenston Heights.
Brock became the first hero revered by both English and French Canadians. This was ironic in a way, since Brock never particularly cared for Canada. He also distrusted democracy, and was never convinced of the loyalty of the Canadian militias or the Native peoples. Even his famous dying words, "push on brave York Volunteers," were probably never spoken. In the end, though, Brock did matter to Canada. Apart from being a revered symbol of the nation, with an impressive monument where he died, Sir Isaac Brock's example in the opening weeks of the war mobilized the populations of Upper and Lower Canada. As the producers of Canada. A People's History note, Brock bought the colony precious time to organize its defences, while giving them heart that the American invaders could be beaten. It was an invaluable legacy.
†Until the late nineteenth century it was common for well to do British army and cavalry hopefuls, or those wanting to advance more quickly, to buy their officer commissions. Officer promotions in the navy, engineers and artillery were strictly by merit or seniority.
‡In June HMS Leopard had fired on and boarded the frigate USS Chesapeake to remove four alleged Royal Navy deserters. The attack was not authorized by the British government but still outraged American public opinion.
Nickname ........THE HERO OF UPPER CANADA
Place of birth St Peter Port, Guernsey 8th son...11th born
Place of death Queenston, Upper Canada
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1785–1812
Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars
War of 1812
Other work Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
ON THE DEATH OF MAJOR-GENERAL BROCK.
Low bending o'er the rugged bier
The soldier drops the mournful tear,
For life departed, valour driven,
Fresh from the field of death to heaven.
But time shall fondly trace the name
Of BROCK upon the scrolls of fame,
And those bright laurels, which should wave
Upon the brow of one so brave,
Shall flourish vernal o'er his grave.
Individual Record FamilySearch™ Ancestral File v4.19
Isaac BROCK (AFN: 14L9-632) Pedigree
Sex: M Family
Birth: 1769 , Guernsey, Channel Isles
Death: 1812 Canada
Father: Jean BROCK (AFN: 14L9-5X2) Family
Mother: Elizabeth DE LISLE (AFN: 14L9-RJN)
About Ancestral File
Ancestral File is a collection of genealogical information taken from Pedigree Charts and Family Group Records submitted to the Family History Department since 1978
A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY
Sir Isaac Brock
BROCK, Sir Isaac, soldier, born in the island of Guernsey, 6 October, 1769; killed at the battle of Queenstown, Canada, 13 October, 1812. He entered the British army as an ensign at the age of fifteen, purchased a lieutenancy in 1790, served in Jamaica and Barbadoes until 1793, rose by successive steps until he had reached the senior lieutenant colonelcy with less than thirteen years' total service, was with the expedition to North Holland in 1799, and took part in the battle of Copenhagen, also in the operations in the Baltic in 1801. In 1802 he embarked for Canada, and in the following year, single-handed, suppressed a dangerous conspiracy instigated by deserters, and caused the execution of the leaders. Obtaining leave of absence in 1805, he returned to England, but rejoined his regiment in 1806. In 1810 he was sent to Upper Canada to take command of the troops, and was also appointed lieutenant governor of the province. His first effort was to put the province in a condition to meet the impending conflict with the United States. On the declaration of hostilities, Brock advanced upon Detroit, to which General Hull had retired, and on 16 August, 1812, received the surrender of the entire army, with its entire cannon, arms, and stores, as well as the armed brig "John Adams." For this he was made a Knight of the Bath. After the capture of Detroit, an American force of 6,000 was gathered on the Niagara frontier, and, in the battle that followed, General Brock fell at the head of his troops, pierced by three balls. His last words were : "Never mind me ; push on the York volunteers." Brock died where he fell. After lying in state at Government House, his remains were interred in one of the bastions of Fort George. During his funeral the Americans fired minute guns "as a mark of respect to a brave enemy," forgetting that when Brock demanded the surrender of Detroit the year before, he had threatened to let loose his savage allies upon the inhabitants if he were compelled to take it by assault. He was in his forty-fourth year, and unmarried. He was six feet two inches in height, erect, and athletic. He had attained the rank of major general. The House of Commons voted £1,575 for a public monument, which was erected in St. Paul's. Pensions of £200 were awarded to each of the members of his family, consisting of four brothers, together .with a grant of 12,000 acres of land in Canada. A monument in the form of an Etruscan column, with a winding stair within, standing on a rustic pedestal, was erected on the heights of Queenstown at a cost of £3,000; and on 13 October, 1824, the twelfth anniversary of his fall, his remains were placed in the vault beneath. A fanatic blew up the monument on Good Friday, 1840. Its ruins were seen and described by Charles Dickens in his " American Notes." On 30 July, 1841, a Massachusetts-meeting of more than 8,000 persons, presided over by the lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, was held, and £5,000 voted for the immediate restoration of the monument. As restored, it stands on the original site, and is a tall column surmounted by a statue of the general. A small monument also marks the spot on the field of battle where he fell. A memorial church was erected in Queenstown by the York rifles, to whom his last order was given, and Brockville, with other names in Canada, perpetuates his memory.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
6 October 1769(1769-10-06) – 13 October 1812 (aged 43)
Portrait c.1809, possibly by William Berczy
Nickname The Hero of Upper Canada
Place of birth St Peter Port, Guernsey
Place of death Queenston, Upper Canada
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1785–1812
Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars
War of 1812
Other work Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
Major-General Sir Isaac Brock KB (6 October 1769 – 13 October 1812) was a British Army officer and administrator. Brock was assigned to Canada in 1802. Despite facing desertions and near-mutinies, he commanded his regiment in Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) successfully for many years. He was promoted to major general, and became responsible for defending Upper Canada against the United States. While many in Canada and Britain believed war could be averted, Brock began to ready the army and militia for what was to come. When the War of 1812 broke out, the populace was prepared, and quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit crippled American invasion efforts.
Brock's actions, particularly his success at Detroit, earned him a knighthood, membership in the Order of the Bath, accolades and the epithet "The Hero of Upper Canada". His name is often linked with that of the Native American leader Tecumseh, although the two men collaborated in person only for a few days. Brock died at the Battle of Queenston Heights, which was nevertheless a British victory.
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Sir Isaac Brock
The Guernseyman who is credited with saving Upper Canada in 1812 is commemorated in North America and the island.
Sir Isaac Brock. Courtesy Archives of Ontario
Born on 6 October 1769 Isaac Brock grew up in St Peter Port and was educated in the island until the age of ten when he was sent to a school in Southampton, his families' house at the bottom of Smith Street is marked with a plaque.
In March 1785 he followed his eldest brother John into military service when he got a commission as an ensign in the 8th Regiment of Foot and rose through the ranks to command the 49th Regiment of Foot before they were transferred to Canada in 1802.
Although he was promoted during his time in North America he would have preferred to be fighting Napoleon in Europe, but when war broke out with the American colonies in 1812 and Brock was standing in for the administrator of Upper Canada (Ontario), who was on leave in England, he took command of the military defence of the province.
Known for his good relations with the local tribesmen, who he made alliances with, one of his finest hours came when although outnumbered he forced the surrender of Detroit in August 1812. He died on 13 October 1812 leading his troops against an American invasion attempt at Queenston Heights, leaving a strong legacy among the Canadian people of the man who saved Upper Canada.
Brock's military career saw him become a lieutenant in 1790 and later that year obtain the rank of captain by raising a company of men which was a way for the government to quickly bolster the size of the standing army.
In 1791 he transferred to the 49th Foot and six years later was the senior lieutenant colonel, and therefore in command, of his regiment.
He was wounded, but not seriously, while fighting in Holland and was at Copenhagen in 1801 when Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson (later Admiral Lord Nelson) destroyed much of the Danish fleet, so it may seem his career took a turn for the worse when his regiment was sent to British North America (Canada).
This plaque is outside the Town Church
During the ten years between 1802 and 1812 while Europe was embroiled in war as Britain and her allies fought against Napoleonic France, Brock who was an ambitious military man spent a peaceful but frustrating time in North America.
Although during this time he did get a lot of hands-on experience as an administrator and several promotions, first to full colonel in 1805, then brigadier general in 1807 and major general in 1811 when he was also made provisional administrator of Upper Canada in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Francis Gore.
He was an effective military administrator, persuading his superiors to renovate and strengthen the neglected defences of Québec City, which was considered very important to the province's defence.
Early in 1812 Brock was given permission to return to England but with the unrest in the American colonies he believed that duty required him to stay in Canada where he was needed.
At the outset of the War of 1812 Brock's early actions in ordering the capture of Michilimackinac and leading the attack on Detroit raised the confidence of the British forces which were a mix of regular army, militia and natives.
The Battle of Queenston Heights was the largest clash of the war up to that point and a British victory as an attempt by the American militia to cross the Niagara River ended in much of their force being forced to surrender when cut off from the rest of the army.
This plaque sits above Boots in the High Street
Brock was killed while leading troops against an American battery, he had celebrated his 43rd birthday only one week before.
His body was interred at Fort George before later being moved to the summit of Queenston Heights and the Canadian people also paid for a plaque to him to be made which was put on the side of the Town Church in which he is described as "One of Canada's outstanding military heroes".
He never knew he had been given the order of a Knight of the Bath, which he had been awarded for his victory at Detroit, as the news did not reach Canada before his death.
His last words are recorded as "Push on brave York Volunteers" referring to one of the Canadian militia units.
As to his legacy his actual role may be less than he is given credit for, but what his work before the war and his military actions during the first few months did was brought the province time to organise its defences, motivated the populations of Upper and Lower Canada and let them know that the American invaders could be beaten which is an impressive legacy.
Sir Isaac Brock 1812
Article from:Colombo's All Time Great Canadian Quotations Author: John Robert Colombo | Copyright informationProvided by ProQuest LLC. (Hide copyright information)
Sir Isaac Brock 1812
"Push on, brave York Volunteers!"
Celebrated in story and song, the dying command of Sir Isaac Brock, commander of the British and militia forces in the War of 1812, is recalled to this day. Brock issued the command to the militia who had been brought to the Niagara Peninsula from York, Upper Canada (later, Toronto, Ont.), and pressed into the Battle of Queenston ...
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Of the military leaders who emerged from the brief and bitter conflict known as the War of 1812, few have been able to carve a reputation for themselves as bold, imaginative and inspiring leaders. Isaac Brock, however, personified these qualities in a military career that spanned three decades. Yet what is known about this man who was a nemesis to his enemies, a relative unknown to the country of his birth and a hero of mythical stature in the adoptive country in which he served?
Isaac Brock was born in 1769, the same memorable year which gave birth to Napoleon and Wellington. A native of Guernsey, in the Channel Islands, he was raised the eighth son in a well-to-do family. At an early age, Brock was already being singled out as an exceptional youth. Tall, robust and athletic, he was also described as having a kind and gentle temperament. At the age of fifteen, he entered the 8th Regiment as an ensign and gained valuable combat experience. He greatly distinguished himself at the battle of Egmont-op-Zee in 1799, where has was wounded fighting alongside Sir John Moore. Two years later, he was made second in command of the land forces in Nelson's attack on Copenhagen. It was during this time that he attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the 49th Regiment at the age of 28 and was largely responsible for transforming this unit from one of the worst to one of the best in the service.
With a lull in the fighting in Europe, Brock was shipped with his regiment to Canada in 1802. His numerous postings, from Montreal to York (Toronto) and from Fort George on the Niagara frontier to Quebec, allowed him to gain a good knowledge and appreciation of the colony and its inhabitants. Over the next ten years, Brock worked tirelessly, improving the colony's defences, establishing and training militia units for a possible war with the United States.
Since the end of the American Revolution, both countries harboured grievances which stemmed from issues of trade, commerce and westward expansion. Short of manpower, Britain resorted to the impressment of American sailors to serve aboard British warships. Following the Chesapeake incident of 1807, in which a British frigate battered an American ship into surrender to reclaim four alleged deserters, war between the two countries seemed imminent. At the time, Brock found himself in command of all British forces in Canada but was unable to call out the provincial militia as he had no muskets available. Assessing the colony's strategic situation, Issac Brock felt that the only tenable post was Quebec, and he remained skeptical that even that city could be held against a determined foe. Although he feared the worse, the diplomatic crisis soon passed and the war fever abated somewhat.
Over the next five years, Brock continued to build and repair fortifications while tensions between Britain and the United States remained strained, if not overtly hostile. One can readily imagine that, with his fellow officers fighting the French in Spain, Brock must have felt distressed to having been posted to such a remote and uneventful colony. Writing to his brother in 1811, he lamented that "You who have passed all your days in the bustle of London, can scarcely conceive the uninteresting and insipid life I am doomed to lead in this retirement." Little did he know of the leading role he would soon play in the drama that was to unfold.
Brock was 42 when war eventually broke out in June 1812. The situation in Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) at the time was scarcely better than five years previous. Of the 5,200 regulars in the colony, 1,200 were stationed with Brock in Upper Canada and of the 11,000 militia, Brock estimated that fewer than 4,000 could be trusted to fight. Even the population's loyalty to the British cause gave rise to serious concerns. Most of the province's inhabitants consisted of United Empire Loyalists and of "late Loyalists" who had just recently arrived from the United States. Many of these felt no great attachment to the British crown and a great number of them did not doubt an American victory. This prompted Brock to remark that "Most of the people have lost all confidence. I however speak loud and look big!"
Such words would soon translate into action when, on July 12, Brigadier-General William Hull crossed into Canada from Detroit with an army of 600 regulars and 1,600 militia. He occupied the town of Sandwich (Windsor) and stopped short of an advance on the British base at Amherstburg. With the defence of the province hanging in the balance, Brock set off from York with a small army of regulars and militia to confront the invaders.
At the same time, news reached Hull that the American post at Michilimackinac, at the mouth of Lake Michigan, had fallen to the British. Fearing for his rear and hearing that British reinforcements were on the way, Hull withdrew to the safety of his base at Fort Detroit on the American shore. When Brock arrived at Amherstburg, his forces numbered 300 regulars, 400 militiamen and over 800 native warriors who, through the urgings of the Indian Department, had thrown in their lot with the British.
It is here that Brock met with the famous Shawnee chief Tecumseh and instantly the two men formed a close bond. "Now here is a man!" Tecumseh is reported to have declared when he learned of Brock's intentions to carry the offensive. Despite their divergent backgrounds, the two men shared common characteristics. Both were instinctive, aggressive fighters and each earned the respect and trust of their men.
Meanwhile, Brock's immediate superior and the Governor of Canada, Sir George Prevost, had cautioned Brock not to risk battle and to remain on the defensive. Brock, however, believed that "the state of the province admitted of nothing but desperate measures" and, subsequently, he and Tecumseh crossed the Detroit River and laid siege to the fort on August 14. The next day, Brock impetuously demanded Hull's surrender and hinted that if it came to a fight, he would not be able to restrain the wrath of his native allies. Perhaps because he still outnumbered the British by a margin of nearly 2 to 1, Hull initially refused. Brock then proceeded to bombard the fort with the few cannon at his disposal. While he could not expect to capture the fort, Brock hoped to lure Hull out from his defence works to meet him in open battle, where he assumed Hull's militia would be no match for his own trained regulars. Hull, however, languished inside the fort for another day, unable to decide what course of action to take. With the natives whooping at his gates, with no reinforcements forthcoming, and with increasing discontentment by his subordinates over his own inaction, Hull finally sent his son under a flag of truce to ask for terms of surrender.
The surrender probably came as much as a surprise to Brock as it did to Hull's subordinates, some of whom threatened to mutiny. Yet three hours later, over 2,000 U.S. troops surrendered to the British and sought their protection from their native allies. The fall of Fort Detroit had a catalyzing effect in Upper Canada. Not only did it allow Brock to arm his militia with captured American weapons, but it also rallied support for the British cause and established Brock's reputation as a truly remarkable soldier and leader.
With the Detroit frontier stable, Brock raced back to Niagara to prepare for an imminent American attack across the river. Notwithstanding his earlier success, Brock was again given explicit instructions by Sir George Prevost to hold a strictly defensive position. Brock was thus compelled to scatter his troops along the entire length of the Niagara frontier, with the bulk of his forces stationed at Fort Erie and Chippawa where the Americans were expected to effect a crossing.
On the night of October 13, General Stephen Van Rensselaer crossed the Niagara River from Lewiston N.Y. with 3,000 troops to the small village of Queenston. The landing was initially opposed by a force of some 300 British, who prevented the Americans from capturing the town. Scaling a nearby path, the Americans soon gained control of the surrounding heights and succeeded in capturing a small redan battery with an 18-pounder cannon which commanded the area.
Awakened by the firing, Brock quickly dressed, mounted a horse and galloped from Fort George to the battle now unfolding. Upon his arrival, he rallied the British forces now assembled below the heights and led them up the hill to recapture the battery. Repulsed, he organized a second wave and again mounted an attack. Resplendent in his red uniform, cocked hat and gold lace, Brock was spotted by an American sharpshooter (some say it was a Kentucky rifleman) and shot in the chest.
It is at this point that Brock passes into legend. Later accounts would claim that Brock, now fatally wounded, would have urged the York volunteers to "push on" and take the battery. Contemporary accounts, however, suggest that Brock was instantly killed by the bullet which hit him. In the end, the British recaptured the heights, won the battle and took nearly 1,000 prisoners.
While it can be said, with some truth, that Brock should have never exposed himself to such danger, his precipitous charge at the head of his men was entirely in keeping with his character. As was seen at Fort Detroit and again at Queenston Heights, Brock was not a man to be dictated by prudence and caution. He may even have been lulled into a false sense of invulnerability, as are many men of reckless bravery.
Following the battle, Brock was interred temporarily in the northeast bastion of Fort George, alongside his aide-de-camp, Lieutenant-Colonel Macdonell, who had also been killed in the battle. Brock had been made a Knight of the Bath for his victory at Detroit but, regrettably, the news did not reach him before his death at Queenston Heights. For the duration of the war, other British commanders stepped to the fore and performed their duties reasonably well. None, however, displayed the instinctive penchant and aggressive spirit so ably demonstrated by Brock. While his lost was irreparable, his victories made it inconceivable to his successors to abandon Upper Canada.
Twelve years after his death, a 130 foot stone monument was erected in his honour on the heights near the spot where he had met his untimely end. His remains, as well as those of Macdonell, were reburied beneath the monument in an elaborate ceremony attended by many of his contemporaries. In 1840, the monument was destroyed by a massive blast of gunpowder, believed to have been ignited by an American sympathizer with the Upper Canada Rebellion. The monument was subsequently rebuilt in 1856, 52 feet taller than before. Today, the monument, which now straddles the longest undefended border in the world, remains one of the most imposing historical landmarks in Canada. Relics of Brock's career can be seen at the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa, where his bullet-pierced tunic is prominently on display.
While Brock was certainly an important military figure in Canada, some dispute the lavish attention and praise accorded to him. After all, it could be argued that, at Fort Detroit, he was simply pitted against a mediocre opponent. His victory, in this case, would have owed more to the ineptitude of the American commander than to any feat of strategic genius. Even the victory of Queenston Heights was not assured until well after he had been killed, although it is difficult to assess the effect that his death had on the morale of the British units present.
Yet if a country gauges its heroes by the way in which it remembers them, then it can truly be said that Sir Isaac Brock occupies a place of prominence in Canada, where a city, a university, countless streets, public buildings and parks have been named in his honour. Historians and military buffs alike wonder what Brock might have accomplished had he not been shot in the prime of his life, like General James Wolfe and Lord Horatio Nelson before him. In the end, his legacy will have been to inspire the inhabitants of a fledgling colony to have confidence in their leaders, confidence in themselves and confidence in their emerging sense of nationhood.
Copyright: Alain Gauthier 1997
SIBLINGS OF SIR ISAAC BROCK
History gives us antecedents and a place in time.
John Brock, was born on the 24th of January, 1729. He married Elizabeth de Lisle, daughter of the bailiff of Guernsey and the couple had fourteen children, four girls and ten boys. John, a mid-shipman died at Dinan, France at the age of forty-eight. In chronological order their children were:
1. Elizabeth born in 1756 died in youth.
2. Rebecca born in 1758 died in youth.
3. John was born in 1759. He joined the 8th Regiment of Foot (King's) as an ensign. Later he became a brevet lieutenant-colonel in the 81st Regiment. He was killed in a duel at Capetown, South Africa in 1801.
4. Ferdinand was born in 1760. He served in the 60th Regiment of Foot, the famous Royal American Regiment, which was raised in the colonies at the time of the conflict with France and served with distinction during the American Revolution. Ferdinand was killed by a Spaniard at age nineteen at the defence of Baton Rouge on the Mississippi River.
5. Peter Henry was born in 1761 and died an infant.
6. Daniel De Lisle was born on December 10th, 1762. In 1795 he was elected a jurat [* See Below] of the royal court. He went to London in connection with trade and other ancient privileges of the island. Afterwards he assumed the very influential position of lieutenant-bailiff or chief magistrate of Guernsey. He was responsible for building Elizabeth College which today is a very popular boys' school.
7. William was born in 1764. He was a merchant banker in London and with his brother, Irving, was engaged in trade with Russia, Sweden and Prussia on the Baltic Sea. William took a keen interest in Isaac's career and gave him money to purchase his various commissions. William intended the money as gifts, but unknown to William the cost of each purchase was entered on the company's financial records as loans. Some eight hundred ships insured for 40% of their value suffered various misadventures in the Baltic Sea including being lost at sea, taken by privateers and seized when they arrived in port. Napoleon said "England is a nation of shopkeepers," and he set up a blockade of Europe to prevent Britain from trading with European countries. Some of the above-mentioned shipping disasters resulted from Napoleon's blockade. In 1811 because of its various shipping misfortunes, William's company suffered a financial collapse and went into receivership which resulted in all outstanding loans being called in including the amounts William used to purchase Isaac's commissions. This demand for repayment of money they did not have plunged the Brock family into serious financial straits.
8. Peter was born in 1765 and died young with no issue.
9. Elizabeth was born in 1767. She married John Elisha Tupper of Guernsey, and they had three sons and one daughter: (a) one of the sons, Ferdinand Brock Tupper, wrote The Life and Career of Major-General Isaac Brock in 1847. Ferdinand had no children.
(b) Henry Bingham Tupper inherited the portrait of Isaac Brock from his Uncle Irving. Henry married and had a son who also married and had a son who died while young.
(c) Henry Tupper was born in 1809. He married and had one daughter Henrietta Tupper.
10. Frederick born in 1768 married a Miss Levat. They had no children.
11. Isaac born October 6th, 1769; died October 13th, 1812.
Henrietta Tupper corresponded with Lady Pellat, wife of Sir Henry Pellat, owner of Casa Loma in Toronto. Lady Pellat's maiden name was Merritt. She was descended from Thomas Merritt an officer who fought at Queenston with Brock and Sheaffe and was a pallbearer at Brock's funeral. Lady Pellat took a great interest in Canadian history and at her request Henrietta Tupper sent Lady Pellat the official copy of the baptism certificate of Isaac Brock. Lady Pellat sent it to the Canadian Archives in Ottawa, to which she earlier donated the hair-downed trunk bearing the initials HIB, which Brock had left at the Merritt house in Niagara just before his death.
COPY OF BAPTISM CERTIFICATE
"Extrait du Registre des Batemes de la Paroisse de St. Pierre Port en l'isle de Guernsey
Isaac, Fils de Monsieur Jean Brock and de Dame Elizabeth de Lisle, sa femme.
Ne le 6 d' Octobre, 1769, baptize le 13 de dit mois e eu Pour Parraens, Daniel De Lisle e son grand-pere (qui etait indispose e ete represents Par Monsieur Pierre de Lisle, son fils) et Ferdinand Brock, Frere de l'enfant e pour Marraine Dame Rebecca de Lisle, sa grandmere.
Donne pour copie veritable par moi
Feb. 11, 1928 Signed Douglas F. Carey
Recteur St. Pierre Port"
"Copy from the Registry of Births for the Parish of St. Peter's Port, Isle of Guernsey
Isaac, son of Mr. John Brock and Elizabeth de Lisle, his wife.
Born the 6th of October, 1769, and baptized on the 13th of the same month. Daniel De Lisle, his grandfather (who was indisposed and represented by Mr. Pierre de Lisle, his son )and by Ferdinand Brock, brother of the infant for Marraine Dame Rebecca de Lisle, his grandmother.
Given by me as a true copy
Feb.11, 1928 Signed Douglas F. Carey
Rector St. Pierre Port"
Lady Pellat died shortly after receiving this birth certificate, and it is not known what became of the original. Miss Henrietta Tupper also corresponded with Upper Canada's Lieutenant-Governor Robinson and the following is a copy of one of her letters to him.
In Her Own Words
"Les Cotils January 18, 1882
Dear Colonel Robinson,
"My mother, Mrs. Henry Tupper, is far from well. We are glad to hear that a good painting has been made of the likeness of Brock, and that Canada and Chelsea will now possess portraits of him. I have inquired from Mrs. De Lisle (a niece of Sir Isaac Brock and the only survivor of the family who was alive at the time of his death) if she had any knowledge of the circumstances under which the likeness was obtained. From my cradle I was taught every interesting particular concerning my great uncle, and Detroit and Queenston have always been household words in our home."
In another letter, Miss Tupper enclosed Isaac Brock's genealogical pedigree and wrote:
In Her Own Words "It will show how completely the Brock family has died out, and that the only male descendant of Sir Isaac Brock's eldest sister, my grandmother, is the grandson of my uncle, Henry Bingham Tupper, a very intelligent and exceedingly delicate boy. The two pictures belonged respectively to my great uncles, Savery and Irving. That belonging to Savery is now in the possession of his daughter, Mrs. Huyshe. Irving's, who left no issue, was bequeathed to my Uncle Henry Tupper, whose widow lent it to you. You will see the Sir Isaac was a KB, an older title than KCB, is it not?"
12. Mary Brock was born in 1771. She married Thomas Potenger of Compton, Berkshire, England, a first cousin of Lady Bridgewater and had two daughters: Mary and Zelia.
13. Savery was born in 1772. He married Elizabeth De Jersey and had one son and three daughters: (a) Frederick died young; (b)Elizabeth & (c)Mary had no children; (d)Rosa Brock married General Huyshe but had no children.
Savery was a midshipman but was compelled to retire because of a breach of discipline. He had the audacity - and the courage - to oppose the cruel punishment of mast-heading which was then prevalent in the British navy. He signed a petition asking that it be discontinued and for this was he was required to resign from this post. Savery then joined the army and served with Isaac at the Battle of Egmont op Zee. He held the prestigious position of aide-de-camp to Sir John Moore and served with great gallantry, one one occasion having had a horse shot out from under him. Savery resembled Brock in both character and appearance and was Isaac's favourite brother.
14. Irving was born in 1775. He was a merchant banker with his brother William in London. He had literary tastes and wrote pamphlets of some importance. Isaac praised his "purity of language," commenting "I am all anxiety for your literary fame." Irving died without children.
Isaac Brock's closest relatives were to be found in the descendants of his four uncles and one aunt, one of whom, Captain James Brock, was in Canada. James became one of the executors of Isaac's will.
[*] Someone who inquires into a matter and gives a verdict according to the evidence.
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Copyright © 2004 W. R. Wilson
FROM THE BOOK..............................
Annals of some of the British Norman isles constituting the bailiwick of ... By John Jacob
The month of October was marked by an event of the most melancholy nature,—the death of General Brock, who fell a victim
to the intrepidity and daring of his character The loss of
their leader, however, cast a gloom over every English brow, and an advantage thus purchased was deemed at too high a price. General Brock was beloved by the soldiery, particularly the 49th, of which he had long been lieutenant-colonel, and the indignation of their grief for his loss cost the Americans many a life on that day, that had otherwise been spared. At Amherstburg, the account of his death was received with heartfelt concern, and not a man was there of those he had lately led to victory who failed to pay that tribute to his memory, which the gallantry and magnanimity of this glorious chief were so every way calculated to awaken in the breast of the soldier."—'A Canadian Campaign,' by a British Officer, in the New Monthly Magazine for December, 1826, and February, 1827.
" Immediately opposite the town of Prescott, on the shore of the United States, is the town of Ogdensburg; and twelve miles higher up, on the Canadian shore, stands the delightful village of Brockville, so called in honor of the late lamented Sir Isaac Brock. This enchanting little spot unites in its situation every beauty of nature. In front of it flows the river St. Lawrence, interspersed with numerous islands, variously formed and thickly wooded; behind it is an assemblage of small hills, rising one above another in 'gay theatric pride;' and on each side are a number of well cleared farms, in an advanced state of cultivation. Every thing combines to render it pre-eminently beautiful. The dwellings are built of wood, and tastefully painted; and the court house, in an elevated situation at the back of the village, seems, from its superior size, to be the guardian of the villagers,—an idea of my fancy, which I did not seek to confirm by entering within its doors. Brockville contains four hundred and fifty souls. It has a parsonage house, but no church has hitherto been erected."—Five Years in Canada, by E. A. Talbot.
Note.—Brockville was originally named Elizabeth Town in compliment to the general's mother, and the township or county, in which the village is situated, is still culled Elizabeth.—Ed.
No. 15. Extract from a Description of St. Paul's Cathedral. "In the western ambulatory of the south transept is a tabular monument to the memory of Sir Isaac Brock, by the same artist (Westmacott).
"A military monument, on which are placed the sword and helmet of the deceased; a votive record, supposed to have been raised by his companions to their honored commander.
" His corpse reclines in the arms of a British soldier, whilst an Indian pays the tribute of regret his bravery and humanity elicited.
ERECTED AT THE PUBLIC EXPENSE
TO THE MEMORY OF
SIR ISAAC BROCK,
WHO GLORIOUSLY FELL
ON THE 13th OF OCTOBER,
DIRECT WEBSITE LINK TO THE BOOK---------------
THE LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE OF
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B.
INTERSPERSED WITH NOTICES OF
THE CELEBRATED INDIAN CHIEF, TECUMSEH;
BRIEF MEMOIRS OF DANIEL DE LISLE BROCK, ESQ.;
LIEUTENANT E.W. TUPPER, R.N.,
AND COLONEL W. DE VIC TUPPER,
"What booteth it to have been rich alive?
What to be great? What to be glorious?
If after death no token doth survive
Of former being in this mortal house,
But sleeps in dust, dead and inglorious!"
SPENCER'S "Ruins of Time."
EDITED BY HIS NEPHEW,
FERDINAND BROCK TUPPER, ESQ.
LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL & Co.
GUERNSEY: H. REDSTONE.1845.
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Major-General Sir Isaac Brock KB ("The Saviour of Canada")'s Timeline
October 6, 1769
October 13, 1812
Niagara-on-the-Lake, Niagara Regional Municipality, ON, Canada
killed at the battle of Queenstown, Canada, 13 October, 1812.
His body was interred at Fort George before later being moved to the summit of Queenston Heights, Canada