Manfred III, marquess of Saluzzo

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Italian: Manfredo
Also Known As: "King Manfred of /Sicily/"
Birthdate: (34)
Birthplace: Saluzzo, Cuneo, Piemonte, Italy
Death: October 29, 1244 (34)
Saluzzo, Cuneo, Piemonte, Italy
Immediate Family:

Son of Boniface di Saluzzo and Maria di Torres
Husband of Beatrice of Savoy, Queen Consort of Sicily
Father of Alasia di Saluzzo, Countess of Lincoln and Tommaso I, IV marchese di Saluzzo

Occupation: 2nd Margave of Saluzzo, Marquis, de Saluzzo, Rey di Sicilia, ruler of Sicily, Rey de Sicilia, King of Sicily 1258-1266, Rei da Sicília, marquess of saluzzo
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Manfred III, marquess of Saluzzo

Manfred III (died 1244) was the third marquess of Saluzzo, from 1215 to his death. He was the son of Boniface of Saluzzo and Maria di Torres of Sassari (in Sardinia). Since his father died in 1212, he succeeded his grandfather Manfred II as marquess on the latter's death in 1215. His paternal grandmother Azalaïs or Adelasia of Montferrat was regent during his minority until 1218. During that period, his grandmother paid tribute to Count Thomas I of Savoy.

Manfred III of Saluzzo From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Manfred III (d. 1244) was the third marquess of Saluzzo, from 1215 to his death. He was the son of Boniface of Saluzzo and Maria di Torres of Sassari (in Sardinia). Since his father died in 1212, he succeeded his grandfather Manfred II as marquess on the latter's death in 1215. His paternal grandmother Azalaïs or Adelasia of Montferrat was regent during his minority until 1218. During that period, his grandmother paid tribute to Count Thomas I of Savoy.

Manfred fought the expansionistic policies of Thomas, as had his father, and he defended the borders of his march with care. He died in 1244 and was succeeded by his son Tommaso.

Manfred III (died 1244) was the third marquess of Saluzzo, from 1215 to his death. He was the son of Boniface of Saluzzo and Maria di Torres of Sassari (in Sardinia). Since his father died in 1212, he succeeded his grandfather Manfred II as marquess on the latter's death in 1215. His paternal grandmother Azalaïs or Adelasia of Montferrat was regent during his minority until 1218. During that period, his grandmother paid tribute to Count Thomas I of Savoy.
3rd Marquess of Saluzzo

Fought expansionistic policies of Thomas

A handsome, warrior-like nobleman, Manfred (c. 1232-66) is the illegitimate son of the emperor Frederick II, who is listed among the heretics in Inferno 10. Raised in the cosmopolitan Hohenstaufen court in Sicily, Manfred knew several languages (including Hebrew and Arabic) and was a poet and musician as well as a patron of arts and letters (e.g., the "Sicilian School" of poetry). Dante praises both him and Frederick as exemplary rulers for their noble, refined character (De vulgari eloquentia 1.12.4). Manfred also authored a document, "Manifesto to the Roman People" (May 24, 1265), that advances a political philosophy not unlike Dante's. Following the death of his father, and later his half-brother (Conrad IV), Manfred assumed power and had himself crowned King of Sicily in 1258. His political successes were perhaps not unrelated to the "horrible sins" to which he now alludes.

"Orribil furon li peccati miei" (3.121)

He was alleged by some to have murdered his father, half-brother, and two nephews, and to have tried to assassinate the heir to the throne (his nephew Conradin). Allied with the ghibelline cause (he helped defeat the guelphs at Montaperti in 1260), Manfred was certainly no friend of the papacy: he was twice excommunicated, first by Alexander IV in 1258 and then by Urban IV in 1261. So abhorrent was Manfred to popes of the period (they considered him a "Saracen" and "infidel") that they declared a crusade and sent an army under the command of Charles I of Anjou to defeat him. His troops vastly outnumbered, Manfred was betrayed by some of his own men and killed in battle at Benevento (southern Italy) on February 26, 1266. He now shows Dante his battle scars (an eye-brow split by a sword-stroke and a wound on his chest) and relates the fate of his poor body. An excommunicate, Manfred was refused burial in sacred ground and left on the battlefield, but, the legend goes, each enemy soldier as he passed by placed a stone on the grave. Later, according to Dante's version, the Archbishop of Cosenza, at the behest of Pope Clement IV, had Manfred's bones disinterred and cast outside the kingdom onto the banks of the river Verde (3.124-32). The excommunicates, Manfred informs Dante, must wait in Ante-Purgatory thirty times the length of their period of excommunication, unless the sentence is shortened by prayers of the living (3.136-41).

Manfred of Sicily From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Manfred (c. 1232 – February 26, 1266) was the King of Sicily from 1258 to 1266. He was an illegitimate son of the emperor Frederick II, but his mother, Bianca Lancia (or Lanzia), is reported by Matthew of Paris to have been married to the emperor while on her deathbed.


Frederick himself appears to have regarded Manfred as legitimate, and by his will named him as Prince of Taranto and appointed him as the representative in Italy of his half-brother, the German king, Conrad IV. Manfred, who initially bore his mother's surname, studied in Paris and Bologna and shared with his father a love of poetry and science. At Frederick's death, Manfred, although only about 18 years old, acted loyally and with vigour in the execution of his trust. The reign was in turmoil, mainly due to riots spurred by Pope Innocent IV. Manfred was able to subdue numerous rebel cities, with the exception of Naples. When his legitimate brother Conrad IV appeared in southern Italy in 1252, disembarking at Siponto, his authority was quickly and generally acknowledged. Naples fell in October 1253 into the hands of Conrad. The latter, in the meantime, had grown distrustful of Manfred, stripping him of all his fiefs and reducing his authority to the principality of Taranto. In May 1254 Conrad died of malaria. Manfred, after refusing to surrender Sicily to Innocent IV, accepted the regency on behalf of Conradin, the infant son of Conrad. However, the pope having been named tutor of Conradin, he excommunicated Manfred in July 1254. The regent decided to open negotiations with Innocent. By a treaty made in September 1254, Apulia passed under the authority of the pope, who was personally conducted by Manfred into his new possession. But Manfred’s suspicions being aroused by the demeanour of the papal retinue, and also annoyed by the occupation of Campania by papal troops, he fled to the Saracens at Lucera. Aided by Saracen allies, he defeated the papal army at Foggia on December 2, 1254, and soon established his authority over Sicily and the Sicilian possessions on the mainland. In that year Manfred supported the Ghibelline communes in Tuscany, in particular Siena, to which he provided a corps of German knights that was later instrumental in the defeat of Florence at the Battle of Montaperti. He thus reached the status of patron of the Ghibelline League. Also in that year Innocent died, succeeded by Alexander IV, who immediately excommunicated Manfred. In 1257, however, Manfred crushed the papal army and settled all the rebellions, imposing his firm rule of southern Italy and receiving the title of vicar by Conradin.


The following year, taking advantage of a rumour that Conradin was dead, he was crowned king of Sicily at Palermo on August 10. The falsehood of this report was soon manifest; but the new king, supported by the popular voice, declined to abdicate and pointed out to Conradin’s envoys the necessity for a strong native ruler. The pope, to whom the Saracen alliance was a serious offence, declared Manfred’s coronation void. Undeterred by the excommunication Manfred sought to obtain power in central and northern Italy, where the Ghibelline leader Ezzelino IV da Romano had disappeared. He named vicars in Tuscany, Spoleto, Marche, Romagna and Lombardy. After Montaperti he was recognized as protector of Tuscany by the citizens of Florence, who did homage to his representative, and he was chosen "Senator of the Romans" by a faction in the city. His power was also augmented by the marriage of his daughter Constance in 1262 to Peter III of Aragon. Terrified by these proceedings, the new Pope Urban IV excommunicated him. The pope first tried to sell the Kingdom of Sicily to Richard of Cornwall and his son, but in vain. In 1263 he was most successful with Charles, the Count of Anjou, a brother of the French King Louis IX, who accepted the investiture of the kingdom of Sicily at his hands. Hearing of the approach of Charles, Manfred issued a manifesto to the Romans, in which he not only defended his rule over Italy but even claimed the imperial crown. Charles' army, some 30,000 strong, entered Italy from the Col de Tende in late 1265. He soon reduced numerous Ghibelline strongholds in northern Italy and was crowned in Rome in January 1266, the pope being absent. On January 20 he set southwards and waded the Liri river, invading the Kingdom of Sicily. After some minor clashes, the rival armies met at the Battle of Benevento on February 26, 1266, and Manfred's army was defeated. The king himself, refusing to flee, rushed into the midst of his enemies and was killed. Over his body, which was buried on the battlefield, a huge heap of stones was placed, but afterwards with the consent of the pope the remains were unearthed, cast out of the papal territory, and interred on the bank of the Garigliano River, outside of the boundaries of Naples and the Papal States. Manfred was married twice. His first wife was Beatrice, daughter of Amadeus IV, count of Savoy, by whom he had a daughter, Constance, who became the wife of King Peter III of Aragon; his second wife, who died in prison in 1271, was Helena Angelina Doukaina, daughter of Michael II Komnenos Doukas. Manfred's son-in-law Peter III became also King Peter I of Sicily from 1282 after the Sicilian Vespers expelled the French from the island again. [edit]Character and legacy

Contemporaries praise the noble and magnanimous character of Manfred, who was renowned for his physical beauty and intellectual attainments. Among the modern day descendants of King Manfred are; His Catholic Majesty King Juan Carlos I of Spain; His Royal Highness Infante Carlo, heir of Manfred to the thrones of Naples and Sicily (the Two Sicilies) and Duke of Calabria, and His Royal Highness Dom Duarte, heir to the throne of Portugal and Duke of Braganza, and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of Britain. Numerous prominent members of American society are also descended from King Manfred. Anne Radziwill and the late Antoni Radziwill, children of the sister-in-law of President John F. Kennedy, are both descendants of King Manfred through their father Prince Stanislaw Radziwill. Members of the Lamagna and Levey families including businessman and two-time Democratic congressional candidate Dal LaMagna. In the Divine Comedy, Dante meets Manfred outside the gates of Purgatory, where the spirit explains that, although he repented of his sins in articulo mortis, he must atone for his contumacy by waiting 30 years for each year he lived as an excommunicate, before being admitted to Purgatory proper. Manfred forms the subject of dramas by E.B.S. Raupach, O. Marbach and F.W. Roggee. Three letters written by Manfred are published by J. B. Carusius in Bibliotheca historica regni Siciliae (Palermo, 1732). Manfred's name was borrowed by the English author Horace Walpole for the main character of his short novel The Castle of Otranto (1764). Montague Summers, in his 1924 edition of this work, showed that some details of Manfred of Sicily's real history inspired the novelist. The name was re-borrowed by Lord Byron for his dramatic poem Manfred (1817). [edit]References

Momigliano, Eucardio (1963). Manfredi. Milan: Dell'Oglio. This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Wikipedia: Manfred (Sizilien) aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche Darstellung der Krönung Manfreds in der Nuova Cronica des Giovanni Villani, frühes 14. Jahrhundert.

Manfred (* 1231 bei Venosa; † 26. Februar 1266 bei Benevent) war ab 1250 Fürst von Tarent, Verweser in Reichsitalien und Sizilien und ab 1258 selbst König von Sizilien. Inhaltsverzeichnis [Anzeigen]

   * 1 Leben
         o 1.1 Verweserschaft
         o 1.2 Königsherrschaft
         o 1.3 Ehe und Nachkommen
   * 2 Der Vatermord
   * 3 Literatur
   * 4 Weblinks

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Er war Sohn von Kaiser Friedrich II. und der piemontesischen Adligen Bianca Lancia der Jüngeren, mit der sich der Kaiser noch auf deren Sterbebett trauen ließ, um Manfreds Geburt für legitim zu erklären. Manfred erhielt von seinem Vater das Fürstentum Tarent und die Verweserschaft in Reichsitalien und Sizilien während der Abwesenheit seines Halbbruders Konrad IV. Verweserschaft [Bearbeiten]

Das Verhältnis zwischen den Halbbrüdern war sehr gespannt. Deshalb, und weil die Lage in Deutschland für die letzten Staufer immer aussichtsloser wurde, zog Konrad 1251 selbst nach Italien, wo er 1254 starb. Manfred übernahm erneut die Verweserschaft in Italien, diesmal für Konrads unmündigen Sohn Konradin und bemühte sich um eine Versöhnung mit Innozenz IV., den er im Oktober 1254 selbst nach Neapel geleitete. Der Papst erkannte die staufische Erbfolge dennoch nicht an und belehnte noch im gleichen Jahr Edmund, den Sohn Heinrichs III. von England mit Sizilien. Manfred flüchtete zu den Sarazenen nach Lucera und eroberte mit deren Hilfe ganz Neapel und Sizilien (1257). Heinrich III. machte allerdings kaum Anstalten den Anspruch seines Sohnes auf Sizilien durchzusetzen. Manfred setzte in mehrfacher Hinsicht die Politik seines Vaters fort und wurde vor allem von den sizilianischen Adligen und den kaisertreuen Städten Mittel- und Norditaliens als dessen rechtmäßiger Nachfolger anerkannt. Königsherrschaft [Bearbeiten] Die Schlacht von Benevent 1266. Darstellung aus der Nuova Croncia des Giovanni Villani, frühes 14. Jahrhundert.

In der Zwischenzeit war in Deutschland zwar der Gegenkönig Wilhelm von Holland gestorben, doch eine Rückeroberung der Herrschaft für die Staufer war vollkommen illusorisch geworden. Deshalb verzichtete Manfred auf die deutsche Königswürde, obwohl er sie nur stellvertretend für Konradin beansprucht hatte. Ebenfalls entgegen den Ansprüchen Konradins ließ er sich am 10. August 1258 in Palermo zum König von Sizilien krönen. Weil Manfred den Papst nicht als seinen Lehnsherrn anerkennen wollte, wurde er 1259 mit dem Bann, sein Königreich mit dem Interdikt belegt. Von neuem brach der Kampf aus, in dem Manfred bei Montaperti am 4. September 1260 über die Florentiner siegte und ganz Tuscien seiner Herrschaft unterwarf. Rom zu erobern gelang ihm jedoch nicht. Im Gegenzug belehnte Clemens IV. Karl I. von Anjou, den Bruder des französischen Königs Ludwig IX., mit Sizilien. Das französische Königshaus zeigte sich wesentlich williger, seinen Anspruch auf Sizilien durchzusetzen, als zuvor das englische: Im Januar 1266 brach ein französisches Heer von Rom aus zum Kreuzzug gegen Manfred auf. Am 26. Februar 1266 kam es zu der entscheidenden Schlacht bei Benevent, in der Manfred fiel. Da er unter dem Bann stand, wurde sein Leichnam nicht in geweihtem Boden, sondern im Felsental am Fluss Garigliano begraben. Damit endete die Stauferherrschaft in Süditalien. Ehe und Nachkommen [Bearbeiten]

Manfreds Witwe Helena, Tochter des Despoten Michael II. von Epirus, die er am 2. Juni 1259 in Trani geheiratet hatte, wurde auf der Flucht in ihre Heimat in Trani mit ihren fünf Kindern gefangen gesetzt und starb im Juli 1271, 29 Jahre alt, im Gefängnis; ihre Tochter Beatrix wurde erst nach 22jähriger Haft 1288 gegen Karls Sohn Karl II. ausgeliefert, welcher in aragonische Gefangenschaft geraten war. Ihre drei Söhne Heinrich, Friedrich und Anselino starben im Kerker. Auf die Ehe der ältesten Tochter Manfreds, Konstanze (* 1249, † 1302 in Barcelona), aus seiner ersten Ehe mit Beatrix von Savoyen († 10. Mai vor 1258), die er im Dezember 1247 oder Januar 1248 geschlossen hatte (der Ehevertrag stammt vom 21. April 1247), mit Peter III. von Aragonien (13. Juli 1262 in Montpellier) gründeten sich die späteren Ansprüche Aragoniens auf Sizilien und Neapel. Auch die übrigen überlebenden italienischen Staufer fanden in Barcelona Asyl. Durch die Sizilianische Vesper entriss Peter den Franzosen Sizilien. Manfred ermordet seinen Vater, Kaiser Friedrich II. Miniatur aus der Nuova Cronica des Giovanni Villani, frühes 14. Jahrhundert. Der Vatermord [Bearbeiten]

Der antistaufisch gesinnte florentinische Chronist Giovanni Villani setzte die Legende von der Ermordung Kaiser Friedrichs II. durch Manfred in die Welt. Demnach habe Manfred Ambitionen auf den Kaiserthron gehegt und auf die Nachricht von der Erkrankung seines Vaters befürchtet, dieser könne überraschend doch noch gesunden. So habe Manfred einen Kammerdiener seines Vaters bestochen und so Zugang in sein Gemach erhalten, wo er ihn mit einem Kopfkissen erstickte. Literatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Odilo Engels: Die Staufer, 8. Auflage, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-17-017997-7.
   * Steven Runciman: Die sizilianische Vesper. Eine Geschichte der Mittelmeerwelt im Ausgang des 13. Jahrhunderts. München 1959 (engl. 1958, mehrere Nachdrucke).

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

Markus Brantl: Regesten und Itinerar König Manfreds von Sizilien (langsame XML-Version, pdf-Version, 6 MB)

Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger Konradin König von Sizilien Armoiries Manfred de Sicile.svg 1258–1266 Karl I. Friedrich II. Fürst von Tarent 1250–1266

Manfredo da Sicília, Rei da Sicília, foi um filho ilegítimo do imperador Frederico II do Sacro Império Romano-Germânico e de Bianca Lancia, filha do conde Bonifacio Lancia. Manfredo foi regente do filho criança de Conrado, Conradino, e, depois de 1258, como Rei da Sicília, continuou (depois de tentativas iniciais de reconciliação) a luta de Frederico com o papa e foi igualmente colocado sob interdição papal.

Manfredo morreu na Batalha de Benevento (1266) travada contra Carlos de Anjou, irmão do rei da França, a quem o papa tinha entregue o Reino da Sicília.

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Manfred III, marquess of Saluzzo's Timeline

Saluzzo, Cuneo, Piemonte, Italy
Age 20
Saluzzo, Cuneo, Italy
October 29, 1244
Age 34
Saluzzo, Cuneo, Piemonte, Italy
Age 34
Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy
Age 34
Marquis of Saluzzo