Narses, Emperor of Sasanian Persia

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Narses (Nerseh) 7th Sasanian Shah

Persian: نرسی - پادشاه هفتم ساسانی 7th Sasanian Shah, Arabic: كسرى نرسي بن كسرى شابور الأول, Russian: Нарсес (Нарсех) Сасанид
别名字号 "Emperor of Sasanian Persia 293-302", "king in Armenia 273-293"
生日 (68)
出生地 Persia
逝世 约305 (64-72)
Persia
直接亲属

Shapur I, Emperor of Sasanian Persia之子
Sabuhrduxtag СасанидинаIfra Hormuz Hormuz Princess of Kabul, Queen的丈夫
Hormizd II, King of Persia之父
Bahram I, king of Persia; Hormizd - Raja Iran III (272–273), I "the Brave" of Persia; St. Mihran, III King of IberiaShapur Meshanshah Sassanian prince and governor of Maishan的兄弟

Occupation: koning van Perzië, Keiser
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About Narses, Emperor of Sasanian Persia

Occupation: King of Persia


Narseh (whose name is also sometimes written as Narses or Narseus) was the seventh Sassanid King of Persia (ruling 293–302). During the rule of his father, King Shapur I, Narseh had served as the Viceroy of Sistan, Baluchistan, and Sindh.

Narseh overthrew the increasingly unpopular Bahram III in 293 with the support of most of the nobility.

During Narses' time, Rome was ruled by Diocletian and it was with Diocletian and his son-in-law Galerius that Narses was engaged in eight years of constant warfare.

In 296, fed up with incursions made by the Armenian monarch Tiridates III, Narses invaded Armenia.Surprised by the sudden attack, Tiridates fled his kingdom. The Roman Emperor Diocletian dispatched his son-in-law Galerius with a large army to Tiridates's aid.

Galerius invaded Mesopotamia, which Narses had occupied hoping to check his advance. Three battles were fought subsequently, the first two of which were indecisive. In the third fought at Callinicum, Galerius suffered a complete defeat and was forced to retreat. Galerius crossed the Euphrates into Syria to join his father-in-law Diocletian at Antioch. On his arrival at Antioch, Galerius was rebuked by Diocletian who disgraced him for his shameful defeat at the hands of Narses. Vowing to take revenge, Galerius made preparations throughout the winter of 297 and invaded Armenia with 25,000 men.

Supported by the Armenians, Galerius surprised Narses in his camp and inflicted a crushing defeat on the latter forcing him to flee in haste. His wife, prisoners, his sisters and a number of his children were captured apart from his prodigious military chest. Eastern Mesopotamia was recovered by the Romans and Tiridates was reinstated as the monarch of Armenia.

Anxious to make peace with the Romans, Narses dispatched his envoy Aphraban to Galerius with the following message: "The whole human race knows that the Roman and Persian kingdoms resemble two great luminaries, and that, like a man's two eyes, they ought mutually to adorn and illustrate each other, and not in the extremity of their wrath to seek rather each other's destruction. So to act is not to act manfully, but is indicative rather of levity and weakness; for it is to suppose that our inferiors can never be of any service to us, and that therefore we had bettor get rid of them. Narses, moreover, ought not to be accounted a weaker prince than other Persian kings; thou hast indeed conquered him, but then thou surpassest all other monarchs; and thus Narses has of course been worsted by thee, though he is no whit inferior in merit to the best of his ancestors. The orders which my master has given me are to entrust all the rights of Persia to the clemency of Rome; and I therefore do not even bring with me any conditions of peace, since it is for the emperor to determine everything. I have only to pray, on my master's behalf, for the restoration of his wives and male children; if he receives them at your hands, he will be forever beholden to you, and will be better pleased than if he recovered them by force of arms. Even now my master cannot sufficiently thank you for the kind treatment which he hears you have vouchsafed them, in that you have offered them no insult, but have behaved towards them as though on the point of giving them back to their kith and kin. He sees herein that you bear in mind the changes of fortune and the instability of all human affairs."

But Galerius dismissed Aphraban without giving any definite answer, at the same time accusing the Persians of ill-treating Valerian. In the meantime, he consulted Diocletian at Nisibis who persuaded Galerius to offer terms of peace to the Persians.

Accordingly terms of peace were agreed upon in 298, and were ratified by a treaty concluded by Narses with the Romans. According to this treaty, (1) Five provinces beyond the Tigris were to be ceded to the Romans; one writer gives these provinces as Intilene, Sophene, Arzanene, Carduene, and Zabdicene; by another as Arzanene, Moxoene, Zabdicene, Rehimene, and Corduene. (2) The semi-independent kingdom of Armenia was to be extended up to the fortress of Zintha, in Media. (3) Persia was expected to relinquish all her rights over Iberia (a part of present-day Turkey, not present-day Spain and Portugal). (4) Formal dealings between Persia and Rome would henceforth be conducted at Nisibis.

Narses did not survive for long after the conclusion of this humiliating treaty. He abdicated in 301, in favor of his son, Hormizd, probably ashamed at the humiliation he had suffered. He spent the last years of his life in self-renunciation. It is not known for how long Narses survived his abdication. However, it is well-known that Narses was already dead by the time of Hormizd's death in 309 for the throne passed onto Hormizd's still-unborn son Shapur.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narseh for more information.


Narseh ୭୥୮୧୩

Great King of Armenia 272-299

King of Kings of Ērān and Anērān

Narseh (Middle Persian: ୭୥୮୧୩ Persian: : نرسه‎‎, Narsē, whose name is also sometimes written as Narses or Narseus) was the seventh Sasanian king of Ērānshahr (293–302). He was the son of Shapur I (240–270).[1]

During the rule of his father Shapur I, Narseh had served as the governor of Sakastan, Sindh and Turan. Prior to becoming King of Persia, he held the title Great King of Armenia.[2] Narseh overthrew the increasingly unpopular Bahram III in 293 with the support of most of the nobility. The circumstances of Narseh's rise to power are detailed in the Paikuli inscription. Narseh was known for his tolerance of other religions.[3]

Early life and accession Narseh is quoted in an inscription by his father Shapur I as the governor of Sindh, of Sakastan and Turan. Narseh was later appointed as governor of Armenia. Following the death of Bahram II in 293 CE, his son Bahram III was proclaimed king in Pars by a group of nobles led by Wahnam and supported by Adurfarrobay, governor of Mesan. However, Bahram III was considered a weak ruler by the other nobles, who decided to pledge allegiance to Narseh, the last remaining son of Shapur I, and someone who was perceived as being a stronger leader and one who would be able to bring glory to Persia.[4][5] Four months into Bahram III's reign, Narseh was summoned to Ctesiphon by the request of many members of the Persian nobility. According to the Paikuli inscription these nobles swore their total allegiance to him there and asked that he would take the throne. In a brief revolt, Wahnam was captured and executed and Bahram was removed from the throne. It is assumed Bahram III was also killed in the uprising though there is no documentation of this so his fate remains uncertain.[6][7]

Reign[edit] During Narseh's time, Rome was ruled by Diocletian and it was with Diocletian and his son-in-law Galerius that Narseh was engaged in eight years of constant warfare.

In 296, fed up with incursions made by the Armenian monarch Tiridates III, Narseh invaded Armenia. Surprised by the sudden attack, Tiridates fled his kingdom. The Roman Emperor Diocletian dispatched his son-in-law Galerius with a large army to Tiridates's aid.

Galerius invaded Mesopotamia, which Narseh had occupied hoping to check his advance. Three battles were fought subsequently, the first two of which were indecisive. In the third fought at Callinicum, Galerius suffered a complete defeat and was forced to retreat. Galerius crossed the Euphrates into Syria to join his father-in-law Diocletian at Antioch. On his arrival at Antioch, Galerius was rebuked by Diocletian who disgraced him for his shameful defeat at the hands of Narseh. Vowing to take revenge, Galerius made preparations throughout the winter of 297 and invaded Armenia with 25,000 men.

Supported by the Armenians, Galerius surprised Narseh in his camp at the Battle of Satala and inflicted a crushing defeat on the latter forcing him to flee in haste. His wife, prisoners, his sisters and a number of his children were captured apart from his prodigious military chest. Eastern Mesopotamia was recovered by the Romans and Tiridates was reinstated as the monarch of Armenia.

Anxious to make peace with the Romans, Narseh dispatched his envoy Aphraban to Galerius with the following message:

“ The whole human race knows that the Roman and Persian kingdoms resemble two great luminaries, and that, like a man's two eyes, they ought mutually to adorn and illustrate each other, and not in the extremity of their wrath to seek rather each other's destruction. So to act is not to act manfully, but is indicative rather of levity and weakness; for it is to suppose that our inferiors can never be of any service to us, and that therefore we had better get rid of them. Narseh, moreover, ought not to be accounted a weaker prince than other Persian kings; thou hast indeed conquered him, but then thou surpassest all other monarchs; and thus Narseh has of course been worsted by thee, though he is no whit inferior in merit to the best of his ancestors. The orders which my master has given me are to entrust all the rights of Persia to the clemency of Rome; and I therefore do not even bring with me any conditions of peace, since it is for the emperor to determine everything. I have only to pray, on my master's behalf, for the restoration of his wives and male children; if he receives them at your hands, he will be forever beholden to you, and will be better pleased than if he recovered them by force of arms. Even now my master cannot sufficiently thank you for the kind treatment which he hears you have vouchsafed them, in that you have offered them no insult, but have behaved towards them as though on the point of giving them back to their kith and kin. He sees herein that you bear in mind the changes of fortune and the instability of all human affairs. ” But Galerius dismissed Aphraban without giving any definite answer, at the same time accusing the Persians of ill-treating Valerian. In the meantime, he consulted Diocletian at Nisibis who persuaded Galerius to offer terms of peace to the Persians.

Accordingly terms of peace were agreed upon, and were ratified by a treaty concluded by Narseh with the Romans.

According to this treaty,

Five provinces beyond the Tigris were to be ceded to the Romans. One writer gives these provinces as Intilene, Sophene, Arzanene, Carduene, and Zabdicene; by another as Arzanene, Moxoene, Zabdicene, Rehimene, and Corduene. The semi-independent kingdom of Armenia was to be extended up to the fortress of Zintha, in Media. Persia was expected to relinquish all her rights over Iberia. Formal dealings between Persia and Rome would henceforth be conducted at Nisibis. Death[edit] Narseh did not survive for long after the conclusion of this humiliating treaty. He died in 302 and was succeeded by his son, Hormizd II.

About Narses, Emperor of Sasanian Persia (Persian)

ساسانیان : پادشاهی نرسی و قیام وی بر ضد حکومت دین سالاری

• نرسی عموی بهرام دوم و پسر شاپور یکم دومین شاهنشاه ساسانی بود. نرسی از ابتدا بهرام را غاصب تاج و تخت می‌نامید. ممکن است عنوان « بزرگ ارمنستان شاه » یا فرمانروایی و شاهی ارمنستان به نرسی داده شده تا سکوت اختیار کند و به ادعای تاج و تخت شاهنشاهی نپردازد. در سال ۲۸۲ میلادی امپراتور روم به ایران حمله کرد و تا پایتخت ایران تیسفون پیش رفت و در مسیر خویش شهرهای بسیاری را غارت کرد. تنها مرگ ناگهانی امپراتور که در برخی مأخذ در اثر صاعقه ذکر شده و به مثال یک معجزه می‌مانست، باعث شد که رومی‌ها پیروزی تازه بدست آمده را رها کرده و به کشورشان بازگردند. نرسی در این روزهای دشوار، به تدارک شورشی برای در دست گرفتن پادشاهی پرداخت. عده‌ای از بزرگان و درباریان هواخواه نرسی بودند که نام همهٔ آنها در کتیبه نرسی در پایکولی آمده است. در آن زمان شاه ارمنستان ( نرسی )در واقع فرماندهٔ کل نیروهای نظامی ایران بود و به همین علت کسانی که خواستار وجود شاهنشاهی نیرومند در رأس کشور بودند هواخواه نرسی شدند چون تنها حکومت مرکزی نیرومند می‌توانست استان‌های غربی را از هجوم لشکریان روم مصون دارد. نرسی هنوز به هنگامی که بهرام دوم زنده بود، به تدارک جهت تغییر حکومت پرداخت و برای تبلیغ اندیشه‌ی مشروح و قانونی جلوه دادن مسئله‌ی جانشینی شاهنشاه، در آغاز یک سری سکه‌ی طلا به دستور وی رایج گشت. در حالی که فرمان ضرب سکه تنها ویژه‌ی شاهنشاه بود. در سال ۲۸۴ میلادی بهرام دوم زندگی را بدرود گفت. کرتیر وهونم و دودمان کارن، شاهی را به فرزند او بهرام سوم واگذار کردند. شاهنشاه جوان باشکوه تمام بر تخت پادشاهی نشست. در این اوضاع و احوال، نرسی تصمیم به شورش علنی گرفت. سپاه نرسی به سوی تیسفون تاخت و فرماندار وهونم نیروی کافی برای جلوگیری از نفوذ سپاه نرسی در اختیار نداشت. نرسی پیغام فرستاد تا بزرگان شاهنشاهی او را به رسمیت بشناسند. گمان می‌رود بخاطر تصرف پایتخت جنگی در نگرفته باشد. نرسی همینکه به کاخ رسید خود را شاهنشاه خواند و بزرگان هواخواه سوگند وفاداری یاد کردند.


بهرام سوم در واقع بر ایران پادشاهی نکرد. او حتی فرصت نیافت سکه‌ی تاجگذاری خود را رایج سازد. در کتیبه نرسی در پایکولی که نرسی آنرا به افتخار پیروزی خویش پدید آورد و با تصویر خویش مزین کرد از رویدادهای مزکور به زبانهای پارتی و فارسی یاد شده است. در تصویر تاجگذاری نرسی در نقش رستم مظهر قدرت شاهی، نه از سوی اهورامزدا بلکه از سوی آناهیتا به او واگذار شده است. در نقش و کتیبه اعلام شد که نفوذ غیر قابل تقسیم موبد موبدان در همه‌ی کارهای دولتی پایان یافته است. قیام نرسی به شورش نرسی، بر ضد حکومت دین سالاری حاکم، در عهد پادشاهی بهرام دوم گفته می‌شود. این قیام به قدرت کرتیر موبد و نظام دین سالاری او پایان داد و از آن پس تا مدتی سایه‌ی آتشگاه از فراز تاج و تخت دور شد. از آخرین روزهای زندگی کرتیر، اطلاع چندانی در دست نیست. نمی‌دانیم به هنگامی که نرسی شهریاری را در دست گرفت این رجل مشهور سالخورده‌ی مذهبی آخرین روزهای خود را چگونه بسر آورد. در روزگار ساسانیان نام این شخص از گزارش‌های رسمی و کتاب‌های دینی زدوده شد. شاهنشاه جدید نرسی، از نو به مانویان روی آورد ولی دیگر اجماع مانویان آن نیرو و شهرتی را که در روزگار شاپور یکم بدست آورده بود، نداشت. هدف نرسی در اجازه دادن به تبلیغ آموزش‌های مانی تنها دلجویی از مانویان نبود، او در نظر داشت با کم کردن نفوذ موبدان زرتشتی، خطر نفوذ دین سالاری را در سیاست دولت، از میان برد.


ساسانیان : پادشاهی نرسی و قیام وی بر ضد حکومت دین سالاری

• نرسی عموی بهرام دوم و پسر شاپور یکم دومین شاهنشاه ساسانی بود. نرسی از ابتدا بهرام را غاصب تاج و تخت می‌نامید. ممکن است عنوان « بزرگ ارمنستان شاه » یا فرمانروایی و شاهی ارمنستان به نرسی داده شده تا سکوت اختیار کند و به ادعای تاج و تخت شاهنشاهی نپردازد. در سال ۲۸۲ میلادی امپراتور روم به ایران حمله کرد و تا پایتخت ایران تیسفون پیش رفت و در مسیر خویش شهرهای بسیاری را غارت کرد. تنها مرگ ناگهانی امپراتور که در برخی مأخذ در اثر صاعقه ذکر شده و به مثال یک معجزه می‌مانست، باعث شد که رومی‌ها پیروزی تازه بدست آمده را رها کرده و به کشورشان بازگردند. نرسی در این روزهای دشوار، به تدارک شورشی برای در دست گرفتن پادشاهی پرداخت. عده‌ای از بزرگان و درباریان هواخواه نرسی بودند که نام همهٔ آنها در کتیبه نرسی در پایکولی آمده است. در آن زمان شاه ارمنستان ( نرسی )در واقع فرماندهٔ کل نیروهای نظامی ایران بود و به همین علت کسانی که خواستار وجود شاهنشاهی نیرومند در رأس کشور بودند هواخواه نرسی شدند چون تنها حکومت مرکزی نیرومند می‌توانست استان‌های غربی را از هجوم لشکریان روم مصون دارد. نرسی هنوز به هنگامی که بهرام دوم زنده بود، به تدارک جهت تغییر حکومت پرداخت و برای تبلیغ اندیشه‌ی مشروح و قانونی جلوه دادن مسئله‌ی جانشینی شاهنشاه، در آغاز یک سری سکه‌ی طلا به دستور وی رایج گشت. در حالی که فرمان ضرب سکه تنها ویژه‌ی شاهنشاه بود. در سال ۲۸۴ میلادی بهرام دوم زندگی را بدرود گفت. کرتیر وهونم و دودمان کارن، شاهی را به فرزند او بهرام سوم واگذار کردند. شاهنشاه جوان باشکوه تمام بر تخت پادشاهی نشست. در این اوضاع و احوال، نرسی تصمیم به شورش علنی گرفت. سپاه نرسی به سوی تیسفون تاخت و فرماندار وهونم نیروی کافی برای جلوگیری از نفوذ سپاه نرسی در اختیار نداشت. نرسی پیغام فرستاد تا بزرگان شاهنشاهی او را به رسمیت بشناسند. گمان می‌رود بخاطر تصرف پایتخت جنگی در نگرفته باشد. نرسی همینکه به کاخ رسید خود را شاهنشاه خواند و بزرگان هواخواه سوگند وفاداری یاد کردند.

بهرام سوم در واقع بر ایران پادشاهی نکرد. او حتی فرصت نیافت سکه‌ی تاجگذاری خود را رایج سازد. در کتیبه نرسی در پایکولی که نرسی آنرا به افتخار پیروزی خویش پدید آورد و با تصویر خویش مزین کرد از رویدادهای مزکور به زبانهای پارتی و فارسی یاد شده است. در تصویر تاجگذاری نرسی در نقش رستم مظهر قدرت شاهی، نه از سوی اهورامزدا بلکه از سوی آناهیتا به او واگذار شده است. در نقش و کتیبه اعلام شد که نفوذ غیر قابل تقسیم موبد موبدان در همه‌ی کارهای دولتی پایان یافته است. قیام نرسی به شورش نرسی، بر ضد حکومت دین سالاری حاکم، در عهد پادشاهی بهرام دوم گفته می‌شود. این قیام به قدرت کرتیر موبد و نظام دین سالاری او پایان داد و از آن پس تا مدتی سایه‌ی آتشگاه از فراز تاج و تخت دور شد. از آخرین روزهای زندگی کرتیر، اطلاع چندانی در دست نیست. نمی‌دانیم به هنگامی که نرسی شهریاری را در دست گرفت این رجل مشهور سالخورده‌ی مذهبی آخرین روزهای خود را چگونه بسر آورد. در روزگار ساسانیان نام این شخص از گزارش‌های رسمی و کتاب‌های دینی زدوده شد. شاهنشاه جدید نرسی، از نو به مانویان روی آورد ولی دیگر اجماع مانویان آن نیرو و شهرتی را که در روزگار شاپور یکم بدست آورده بود، نداشت. هدف نرسی در اجازه دادن به تبلیغ آموزش‌های مانی تنها دلجویی از مانویان نبود، او در نظر داشت با کم کردن نفوذ موبدان زرتشتی، خطر نفوذ دین سالاری را در سیاست دولت، از میان برد.

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Narses, Emperor of Sasanian Persia的年谱

237
237年
Persia
280
280年
43岁
of Persia and Armenia
305
305年
68岁
Persia
????
Shah de Perse