Oleg Mikhaïl Sviatoslavich

Чернигов, Черниговское Княжество

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Oleg Mikhaïl Sviatoslavich

Russian: Князь Черниговский Олег Святославич, из рода Рюриковичей, Lithuanian: kun Olgis Mykolas
Also Known As: "в крещении Михаил"
Birthdate: (57)
Birthplace: Чернигов, Черниговское Княжество
Death: August 1, 1115 (57)
Киев, Киевское Княжество
Immediate Family:

Son of Sviatoslav Jaroslavič and Cecilia von Dithmarschen
Husband of Theophano Musalonissa and NN Gorislavich
Father of Vsevolod II Olegovič; (Maria) ks. Rurykowicz; Олег Ольгович; ? Ольговна; Igor II Olgovich Grand Prince of Kiev and 3 others
Brother of Wyszesława of Kiev; David Svyatoslavich / Prince of Chernigov; Yaroslav Sviatoslavich; Roman Sviatoslavich and Gleb Sviatoslavich

Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Oleg Mikhaïl Sviatoslavich






Oleg Svyatoslavich (c. 1052 - August 1115) was a Rurikid prince whose equivocal adventures ignited political unrest in Kievan Rus' in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. Oleg was a younger son of Sviatoslav II Yaroslavich / Prince of Chernigov (1027 - 1076) by his first wife, Killikiya.

Historian Martin Dimnik notes a "high probability" that Oleg succeeded his brother, Gleb Svyatoslavich, as Prince of Tmutarakan after their father appointed Gleb as Prince of Novgorod in about 1068. Oleg's father and uncle, Vesevolod Yaroslavich, made an alliance against their elder brother, Iziaslav I Yaroslavich / Grand Prince of Kiev, and dethroned him on 22 March 1073. According to Dimnik, Oleg received the Principality of Vladimir from his father, who had "succeeded" Iziaslav as Grand Prince of Kiev. During the course of these regime changes Oleg and his cousin Vladimir Monomakh, son of Prince Vesevolod I, became close friends. Together, the cousins commanded the Rus' allies sent to assist King Boleslav II of Poland against Bohemian insurgents in 1076.

Sviatoslav Yaroslavich died in Kiev of 27 December 1077 and was succeeded as Grand Prince of Kiev by his brother, Vsevolod. The new grand prince seemed to have confirmed Oleg's rule in Vladimir, as no source references a conflict between them. However, the dethroned Prince Iziaslav (Vsevolod's brother and Oleg's uncle) soon returned with Polish reinforcements. Prince Iziaslav and Prince Vsevolod thence negotiated a settlement in which Vsevolod abdicated as Grand Prince of Kiev but received jurisdiction over Chernigov, the one time domain of Oleg's father Svyatoslav.

Failing to get along with his uncle Prince Vsevolod, in April 1077 Oleg had sought refuge with his brother Roman, who ruled in Tmutarakan. Together with his cousin, Boris Vyacheslavich, who had also settled in Tmutarakan, Oleg made an alliance with the Cumans and invaded Rus' in the summer of 1078. Together, the cousins and their Cuman allies routed Prince Vsevolod on the Sozh River and entered Chernigov on 25 August. The Russian Primary Chronicle erroneously accuse Oleg and Boris of being the first "to lead the pagans to attack the land of Rus". In fact, Prince Vsevolod had availed himself of an alliance with Cuman mercenaries when attacking Polotsk in the year 1077.

Expelled from Chernigov, Prince Vsevolod fled to Kiev and sought assistance from his brother Iziaslav. The brothers united their forces to retake Chernigov. Although Prince Oleg and Prince Boris were not in Chernigov when their uncles arrived, the citizens of Chernigov opted for resistance. While Prince Oleg was willing to enter into negotiations with his uncles Prince Boris was adamantly opposed. A decisive battle between the uncles and their nephews was fought "at a place near a village on the meadow of Nezhanta" on October 3. The defeated Prince Oleg escaped to Tmuturakan, where he was first imprisoned by the Khazars and thence sent in chains to Constantinople. The Byzantine emperor, related by marriage and an ally of Prince Vsevolod, thence exiled Prince Oleg to Rhodes.

While in exile, Prince Oleg met and married the Byzantine noblewoman Theophano Mouzalonissa, who would bear him several children. In a reversal of fortune, the details of which are unclear, Prince Oleg returned to Tmutarakan in 1083 to exact revenge on the Khazars for their alleged complicity in the murder of his brother, Prince Roman on August 2, 1079. The complicity of the Khazars is debatable, inasmuch as Prince Roman was murdered by Cuman allies in the immediate aftermath of an unsuccessful campaign against Prince Vsevolod. Regardless, Prince Oleg thence styled himself as "Archon of Khazaria". The reign of Prince Oleg as Archon of Khazaria proved the requiem for the Khazars as, "after one more conflict with the Polovtsi / Cumans in 1106", the Khazars are no longer referenced in the historical record.

In 1094, Prince Oleg returned to Rus' accompanied by Cuman allies and retook his principality of Chernigov. Subsequently, there ensued an extended internecine struggle with his cousins Sviatopolk Iziaslavich and Vladimir Monomakh for dominance in Rus'. One of the most prominent princes of the Kievan period who never attained the Kievan throne, Prince Oleg died on August 1, 1115 and was buried in Chernigov.

"The Tale of Igor's Campaign" styles Prince Oleg as "Gorislavich", poetically deriving his patronymic from the Russian word for "sorrow". Prince Oleg's descendants, known as Olgovichi, were archrivals of his cousin Vladimir's descendants, known as Monakhovichi, in their struggle for supremacy in Rus'.

Source -- "Oleg I of Chernigov" / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oleg_I_of_Chernigov


OLEG MIKHAIL Sviatoslavich "Gorislavich" ([1058]-1 Aug 1115[271]).  The Primary Chronicle names Oleg, son of Sviatoslav, recording that he and Vladimir, son of Vsevolod, fought the Czechs with the Poles in 1076[272].  Prince of Volynia [1073].  He claimed Chernigov in 1076 on the death of his father, but was expelled in Apr 1078 by his uncles Iziaslav and Vsevolod to Tmutorokan.  He returned with support from the Kuman [Cumans] to take Chernigov by force and defeated his uncle Vsevolod on the river Sozh, east of Pereyaslavl, 25 Aug 1078[273].  Prince Vsevolod sought support from Prince Iziaslav.  They defeated Oleg 3 Oct 1078 at Nezhatin Meadow near Chernigov, where Prince Iziaslav was killed.  Oleg was kidnapped from Tmutorokan on the orders of his uncle Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev and taken to Constantinople (from where he went to Rhodos where he spent two years and married his first wife), being replaced by Vsevolod's agent Ratibor, who in turn was expelled by Oleg's cousins David Igorevich and Volodar Rostislavich, before returning himself to take control of Tmutorokan in [1083].  He captured Chernigov in 1094, after expelling Prince Vladimir "Monomakh".  He was expelled in 1095 by Princes Vladimir and Sviatopolk, but waged continual war against them 1096/97[274].  He installed himself as Prince of Murom and Suzdal in 1096, but was obliged to withdraw by the armed forces of Mstislav Vladimirovich Prince of Novgorod (later Mstislav II Grand Prince of Kiev)[275].  Under the terms of the family accord at Liubech in 1097, he became Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy and Riazan.  m firstly (Rhodos [1081/83]) THEOFANO Mousalonissa, from Rhodos, daughter of --- (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1088] names "Theophano Mouzalonissa archontissa of Russia"[276].  Schlumberger assumes that “archontissa” indicates that Theofano was the wife of a Russian prince, citing as another example of use of the title a reference to St Olga, wife of Igor son of Rurik, as "archontissa tes Rosias", but he remarks that he had not identified the husband of Theofano[277].  Baumgarten identifies her husband, but he only cites the same passage in Schlumberger in support[278].  It has not been ascertained whether Baumgarten´s identification is based on another (primary) source or was an informed guess in light of Oleg´s reported stay in Rhodos (see above) and after eliminating other possible candidates in the Rurikid dynasty.  m secondly --- Kuman princess, daughter of OSSOLUR Asaduk Khan of Kumans.  Baumgarten records this marriage and cites a primary source in support[279].  Oleg & his first wife had three children:

a) VSEVOLOD Olegovich (-1 Aug 1146). Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[280]. Prince of Chernigov 1127-1139. He succeeded in 1139 as VSEVOLOD II Grand Prince of Kiev. - b) IGOR Olegovich (1096-murdered Kiev 19 Sep 1147). Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[281]. Prince of Kursk 1115-1127. Prince of Chernigov 1139-1146. He succeeded in 1146 as IGOR Grand Prince of Kiev. He was expelled 1147 by Iziaslav Mstislavich, became a monk, but murdered shortly after. He came to be venerated as a saint.

c) GLEB Olegovich (-1138). Baumgarten names him, citing a secondary source in support[282]. He was installed as Prince of Kursk in 1136. He helped his brother Sviatoslav, then Prince of Novgorod, to drive out Vsevolod Mstislavich from Pskov where he had been planning to invade Novgorod[283]. m ---. The name of Gleb´s wife is not known. Gleb & his wife had one child:

i) IZIASLAV Glebovich (-14 May 1134). Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[284]. Oleg & his second wife had one child:

d) SVIATOSLAV NIKOLAI Olegovich (-15 Feb 1164). Baumgarten names him, citing a secondary source in support[285]. He was installed as Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy in 1139.



Pr Svyatoslav II of Chernigov (1054-73), Great Pr of Kiev (1073-76), *1027, +1076; m.2m: 1070 Oda von Babenberg, a half-sister of Archbp Burghard of Trier; He had issue:

   * A1. Gleb, Pr of Novgorod (1068-73)+(1077-78), +1079
   * A2. Roman "the Red", Pr of Murom, Pr of Tmutarakan (1069-79), +murdered 2.8.1079
   * A3. Oleg "Gorislavich", Pr of Volynsk (1076), Pr of Chernigov (1076-78), Pr of Tmutarakan (1083-94)+(1113-15), Pr of Murom-Riazanj (1096)+(1096-97), +1115; 1m: N, a dau.of Asaduk, Khan of Khumans; 2m: Theofania Muzalon (Oleg spent 4 years in Byzantium 1196-1200)
         o B1. [1m.] Vsevolod II, Pr of Chernigov (1127-39), Great Pr of Kiev (1139-46), +1.8.1146; m.1116/25 Maria of Kiev (+1179)
               + C1. Svyatoslav, Pr of Seversk (?-1176), Pr of Chernigov (1164-76), Pr of Kiev (1176-94), +24.7.1194; m.1143 Maria Vasilkovna of Polotsk
                     # D1. Mstislav, Pr of Chernigov (1215-23), +k.a.Kalka River 1223; m.Yasyna
                           * E1. Tito, Pr of Karachev, +1223
                                 o F1. Vasiliy, Pr of Kozel, +young by Mongols atack 1238
                     # D2. Vladimir, Pr of Novgorod (?-1201), +1201; m.1178 Feodulia, dau.of Great Pr Michail of Kiev
                     # D3. Gleb, Pr of Chernigov, +1214; m.1183 N, a dau.of Pr Rurik of Belgorod
                           * E1. Mstislav, Pr of Turov, last Pr of Chernigov (1238-39), fl 1239
                           * E2. Yevfimia, +1194; m.Pr Alexei of Byzantium
                     # D4. Vsevolod "Chermniy", Pr of Chernigov (1204-12), +1215; m.Anastasia, dau.of King Kasimir of Poland; for his descendants see HERE
                     # D5. Oleg, Pr of Chernigov (1202-04), +1204
                           * E1. Davyd, +1196; m.1190 N, a dau.of Igor of Seversk
                                 o F1. Mstislav, *1193
                           * E2. Boris, fl 1166
                     # D6. Boleslava, +before 1189; m.Vladimir of Galitzk (+1197)
                     # D7. a daughter; m.Pr Roman of Murom
               + C2. Yaroslav, Pr of Chernigov (1176-98), *1139, +1198; m.Eufrosinia Borisovna (+1202)
                     # D1. Rostislav, Pr of Snov (1192), *24.6.1174, +after 1214; m.1187 Vseslava of Vladimir (+after 1206)
               + C3. Vladimir, +1201
                     # D1. Rostislav, *1174, fl 1192
                     # D2. Yaropolk, fl 1214
               + C4. Svyatopolk, fl 1162
               + C5. Veleslava; m.Pr Vladislav of Poland
               + C6. Zvenislava, fl 1142
         o B2. [1m.] Saint Igor II (Ingvaar), Pr of Kursk (1115-27), Pr of Chernigov (1139-46), Great Pr of Kiev (1146-47), *1096, +murdered in monastery 19.9.1147
         o B3. [1m.] Svyatoslav, Pr of Chernigov (1157-64), +14.2.1164; m.Maria Petrilovna OR N, a Kuman woman, dau.of Aepo Girgenevich
               + C1. Oleg, Pr of Seversk, +I.1180; 1m: 1150 Maria of Kiev (+by 1165); 2m: 1163 Agafia, a dau.of Rostislav of Smolensk
                     # D1. [2m.] Svyatoslav, Pr of Rilsk, *1166
               + C2. Igor, Pr of Seversk (1179-98), Pr of Chernigov (1198-1202), *3.4.1151, +29.12.1202; 1m: 1169 NN; 2m: 1184 Eufrosinia, dau.of Yaroslav Osmomysl of Galitzia; all children from 1m.
                     # D1. Vladimir, Pr of Putivl (1185-98)+(1207-08), Pr of Novgorod-Severskiy (1198-1208), Pr of Galitzk (1206-07)+(1208-11), *1170, +1212; m.1188 Svoboda, dau.of Konchak, Khan of Kumans
                           * E1. Vsevolod, Pr of Seversk, fl 1206
                           * E2. Izyaslav, Pr of Terebovl (1210), Pr of Novgorod-Severskiy (?-1235), Great Pr of Kiev (1235-36), *1186, fl 1255
                     # D2. Oleg, *1174
                     # D3. Roman, Pr of Putivl (1198-1206), Pr of Zvenigorod (1206-07)+(1208-11), Pr of Galitzk (1207), *1175, +1211
                           * E1. Ivan
                                 o F1. Ivan, +murdered by Tatars
                                       + G1. Vladimir, Pr of Kiev (?-1303)
                                       + G2. Fedor, Pr of Kiev (?-1362)
                                       + G3. Andrey, Pr of Ovruch
                                             # H1. Vasiliy, Pr of Ovruch
                     # D4. Svyatoslav, Pr of Kursk (?-1206), Pr of Volynya (1206-07), Pr of Peremyshl (1210-11), *1176, +1211; m.1188 Yaroslava, dau.of Great Pr Rurik of Kiev
                           * E1. Oleg, Pr of Kursk (1207-?), Pr of Chernigov (1224), fl 1228
                                 o F1. Yuriy, Pr of Kursk (after 1228-?)
                           * F2. Dmitriy, Pr of Kursk
                                 o G1. Vasiliy, Pr of Kursk (?-1278), +murdered by Tatars 1278
               + C3. Vsevolod, Pr of Kursk, *ca 1153, +1196; m.Olga Glebovna, dau.of Pr Gleb of Pereyaslav
               + C4. a daughter, +after 1170; m.Pr Vladimir of Volynia (+28.1.1170)
         o B4. [1m.] Gleb, Pr of Kursk, +1138
               + C1. Izyaslav, +1133
               + C2. Rostislav, fl 1144
         o B5. [1m.] Ivan, +1148
   * A4. Davyd, Pr of Novgorod, Pr of Smolensk (ca 1087/1093-97), Pr of Chernigov (1098-1123), +1123
         o B1. Vladimir, Pr of Chernigov (?-1151), +12.5.1151; m.1114 N, a dau.of Vsevolod of Hrodno
               + C1. Svyatoslav, Pr of Vshtchizh, +1166; m.1159 Maria, dau.of Great Pr Andrey Bogolubskiy of Vladimir
         o B2. Izyaslav III, Pr of Chernigov (?-1160), Great Pr of Kiev (1155)+(1157-59)+(1159-60/61), +k.a.6.3.1161
         o B3. Vsevolod, Pr of Murom; m.N, a Pss of Poland
         o B4. Svyatoslav, *ca 1080, +14.10.1142
         o B5. Rostislav, +1120
   * A5. Yaroslav, Pr of Murom (1097-1129), Pr of Riazanj (1097-1123)+(1127-30), Pr of Chernigov (1123-27), +1130; m.NN
         o B1. Yuriy, Pr of Murom (1129-43), +1143
         o B2. Svyatoslav, Pr of Riazanj (1129-43), Pr of Murom (1143-45), +1145
               + C1. Vladimir, Pr of Murom (1155-62), +1162
                     # D1. Yuriy, Pr of Murom (1162-74), +1174
                           * E1. Vladimir, Pr of Murom (1174-1205), +18.12.1205
                           * E2. Davyd, Pr of Murom (1205-28), Pr of Pronsk (1208); m.Fevronia N
                                 o F1. Svyatoslav, +1228
                                 o F2. Yuriy, Pr of Murom (1228-37), +1237
                                       + G1. Yaroslav, Pr of Murom (1237-48), +1248
                           * E3. Yuriy, fl 1220
                                 o F1. Oleg, fl 1220
         o B3. Davyd, +1147
         o B4. Igor, fl 1147
         o B5. Rostislav, Pr of Riazanj (1143-45) , Pr of Murom (1145-55), +ca 1155
               + C1. Andrey, fl 1147
               + C2. Gleb, Pr of Riazanj (1145-78), +30.6.1178; m.Euphrosyne of Pereyaslavl (+1179)
                     # D1. Yaroslav; m.1199 Vseslava, dau.of Great Pr Rurik of Kiev
                     # D2. Roman, fl 1207; m.N, a dau.of Svyatoslav of Chernigov
                           * E1. Yaroslav, Pr of Pronsk, +1237
                     # D3. Igor, Pr of Riazanj (1180), +1195; m.Agrafena Rostislavna (+murdered 1237)
                           * E1. Roman, Pr of Riazanj (1213-17), +murdered 20.7.1217
                           * E2. Ingvar, Pr of Riazanj (1217-35), +1235
                                 o F1. Yuriy
                                 o F2. Ingvar, Pr of Riazanj (1238-52), +ca 1252
                                 o F3. Roman III, Pr of Kolomna, Pr of Riazanj (1237), +k.a.nr Kolomna 1237
                                 o F4. Oleg "Krasniy", Pr of Riazanj (1252-58), +1258; 1237-51 arested in Mongolia
                                       + G1. Roman, Pr of Riazanj (1258-70), +k.a.19.7.1270; m.Anastasia N
                                             # H1. Fedor, Pr of Riazanj (1270-94), +1294
                                             # H2. Konstantin, Pr of Riazanj (1299-1301), +murdered 1305
                                                   * I1. Vasiliy, Pr of Riazanj (1301-08), +1308
                                             # H3. Yaroslav, Pr of Pronsk (1270-94), Pr of Riazanj (1294-99), +1299; for his descendants see HERE
                           * E3. Yuriy, Pr of Riazanj (1235-37), +1237
                                 o F1. Fedor, +1237; m.Yevpraxia (+1237)
                                       + G1. Ivan "Postnik", +young 1237
                     # D4. Vladimir, fl 1185
                           * E1. Gleb, fl 1219; m.N, a dau.of Davyd of Smolensk
                           * E2. Izyaslav, Pr of Pronsk (1207), +murdered 20.7.1217
                           * E3. Oleg, Pr of Pronsk (1207-08), +1208
                           * E4. Konstantin, fl 1217
                     # D5. Vsevolod, Pr of Pronsk, +after 1207
                           * E1. Michail, Pr of Pronsk (1207)+(1208-17), +murdered 20.7.1217; m.Anastasia (Vera), a dau.of Pr Vsevolod of Kiev
                     # D6. Svyatoslav, Pr of Pronsk (1186-87), +ca 1213
                           * E1. Svyatoslav, +murdered 20.7.1217
                           * E2. Rostislav, +murdered 20.7.1217
   * A6. [parentage uncertain] Konstantin


Last updated 19th March 2004


О Князе Черниговском Олег Святославич, из роде Рюриковичее (русский)

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