Oliver Perry Goodwin

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Oliver Perry Goodwin

Birthplace: OH, United States
Death: 1907 (76-77)
CO, United States
Immediate Family:

Son of Jonathan Nels Goodwin and Margaret L. Goodwin
Husband of Jennie Blue Blanket Goodwin
Father of Nellie Hudspeth; Francis Janis; Julia Little Horse; Susan Goodwin; Charles Goodwin and 3 others
Brother of Jane Goodwin; Tipton Goodwin and Rachel Goodwin

Managed by: Dan Berwin Brockman
Last Updated:

About Oliver Perry Goodwin

                         Oliver Perry Goodwin was a complex man with many interests and skills and an amazing career in the Early US West. He was a photographer and Postmaster, a Oregon Trail guide and many other interesting jobs. 
                                    Essay written by and copyright by Dan Berwin Brockman.               
                                                     Oliver Perry Goodwin (1830-1907)

Oliver Perry Goodwin (1830-1907) was James Andrew Brockman (1966-), Mark Reynolds Brockman (1963-1983) and John Mark McMahon’s (1984- ) great-great-great grandfather. Goodwin was a well-known man of the early West, especially in the Cheyenne, Wyoming area. His exploits were recorded in several books about the development of the Nebraska, Colorado, and Wyoming territories. Two photographs of him appear as illustrations.


Oliver Perry Goodwin was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, near Cincinnati, on June 9, 1830, to Jonathan and Margaret Goodwin according to family records. According to his own claims for land from service in the Mexican War, Goodwin was born June 9, 1830, at Dayton, Ohio. According to his death certificate he was born on June 8, 1830 in Ohio. An examination of the Ohio census index records for 1820 and 1840 showed no evidence of his family in any location in Ohio.

The 1830 Census for Hamilton County and Cincinnati lists several families of Goodwin’s. The heads of families named are Aaron, David(2), Griffith and Oliver. No Jonathan is listed as a head of family. The Oliver Goodwin family had no children under the age of five. Dayton is in Montgomery County today but the Census for this county did not verify the existence of our subject family. There was a record of a Miles Goodwin, and a Nathan Goodwin, both in Preble County Ohio in the 1830 census. A Nathaniel A. Goodwin was found in Medina County in the 1830 census.

According to family tradition, Oliver’s mother was Margaret Sublette, who was born in Kentucky. The 1860 census record of her at Jefferson City states she was born in Virginia. She could have been a member of the well known and extensive Sublette family of fur traders; further investigation is underway on this line. Information on his death certificate indicates his mother was named Smith and she was born in Virginia. A marriage record of Jonathan Goodwin and Margaret Smith in Fayette County, Indiana on June 10, 1824 is on file at the Connersville Court House.

His father, according to family tradition, was Jonathan Nels Goodwin, who was born in Wales. Oliver’s death certificate states his father was Jonathan Goodwin, born in Scotland. Information from the 1880 census record indicates Oliver’s father was born in Maryland and his mother was born in Virginia. The dates are unknown. The 1880 census records from Oliver’s brother Tipton in Jefferson City state that his father was born in Virginia and his mother was born in Virginia.

Records in the National Archives regarding Mexican War Pensioners include Oliver P. Goodwin’s request for pension and bounty lands. His widow, Margaret J. Clark, also applied for a death benefit. Some of these records have been reproduced in Appendix 8. They provide us with an extensive record of his life.

Goodwin’s Mexican War service was in Col A. R. Easton's St. Louis Legion, 1st Regiment, Infantry Company C, Boone Guards, where he served in Capt. John Knapp’s Company C as a Private, in 1846. He also made an alleged claim of service in Oregon with Captain Robert L. Williams’ Oregon Mounted Volunteers in 1855 or 1856 under the name of Madison Goodwin in what was called the Oregon Indian War.

The 1840 census of Jefferson City, Missouri records Margaret Goodwin, who also appears in the 1850 Missouri census in St. Louis. Oliver’s pension records indicate that he enlisted from Jefferson City, and his name appears in a County History as one of those who marched to St. Louis to enlist. The 1840 census records Goodwin’s mother as the head of the household. Goodwin’s father had died in 1839 according to his footstone.

On March 1, 1845, President Tyler signed into law a joint resolution by Congress admitting the Republic of Texas into the United States, and as a corollary, Texas’s quarrel with Mexico over territory became the United States’ quarrel. Three days later, on March 4, Tyler relinquished office to incoming President James K. Polk who was elected on a platform that advocated “reoccupancy” of Oregon, and the acquisition of California from Mexico by purchase or pressure. A smart newspaper editor summed up history in the catch phrase Manifest Destiny. At that point the war against Mexico was ordained. (Lavender’s Bent’s Fort).

The St. Louis Legion was formed of volunteers, from St. Louis and other areas, in the Spring of 1846 to relieve Zachary Taylor‘s regular army at Monterey, Mexico, south of the Rio Grande. Many men were stirred to enlist, without any declaration of mobilization of militia by the government, because of killings of several American citizens in Mexico. Goodwin’s company of volunteers was under the command of George Knapp (1814-1883) of St. Louis, who was the owner and publisher of the Missouri Republican newspaper. Familiarly known as “Old 1808” the paper was the oldest English language newspaper west of the Mississippi River.

In 1835 Knapp took a prominent part in the organization of the volunteer militia that for twenty-five years prior to the Civil War was the city’s pride. His biographer says that in 1846 he went to Mexico as a lieutenant in the St. Louis Grays of the St. Louis Legion. They were organized in mid-May, and reported 53 men ready for duty. On May 15, three companies of the Legion went to Camp Lucas, at Olive and Twelfth Streets, just outside the city. On May 16, just five days after news of the war had reached St. Louis, the steamboats Galveston and James L. Day started for New Orleans with six companies under the command of Colonel Alton R. Easton. (Encyclopedia of the History of St. Louis).

When Knapp returned from service, he became a Lt. Colonel. In 1862 he organized a company called the Missouri Republican Guards composed of his employees. (Cyclopaedia of Biography) Goodwin claims in his pension application that he was a printer and it is likely that he worked for Knapp at the newspaper after he returned. In 1848 W. Clayton published a Latter-Day Saints’ Emigrant’s Guide at the St. Louis Republican Steam Power Press owned by Chambers and Knapp. This type of book might have contributed to Goodwin’s interest in the West.

By the time the volunteer units were formed, Taylor had concluded an armistice with the Mexican Army there and no longer needed the help. The Legion was to serve for only six months and never saw action.

The St. Louis Legion was under the command of Col. Lucien J. Easton. According to Hughes, Doniphan’s Expedition, reprint by Connelley, these men went ahead of Doniphan from Fort Leavenworth to join the Army of Occupation: their term of enlistment expired in six months and then they were discharged. Other companies from the Kansas City and western Missouri county's area followed under Doniphan, who was from Liberty, north of Kansas City. A Colonel Alton R. Easton raised another battalion of infantry in August of 1847 composed of Missouri volunteers, called the Missouri Battalion of Volunteer Infantry.

The first record of Oliver appears in newspaper accounts of the departure of men from Cole County, Missouri for St. Louis to join the St. Louis Legion. Goodspeed’s History of Cole County mentions the date, May 15, 1846, and the names of twelve men. This county history was written in 1889 and added the information that “Goodwin is said to be official interpreter among the Wyoming Indians and a postmaster at Cheyenne.”

Parkman met some of these troops in his visit to Bent’s Fort. They may have been from Captain John C. Dent’s St. Louis Company and Captain Thomas M Horine’s St. Genevieve Company. Parkman noted their travel through the wilderness more as a band of free companions than like the paid troops of a modern government. They wore their belts and military trappings over the ordinary dress of citizens. (Parkman in Feltskog).

A search of the biographical data archives of the Wyoming Department of Commerce, in the Wyoming State Archives, by Sharon Lass Field, revealed two references to O. P. Goodwin in Charles Griffin Coutant’s notebook collection. C.G. Coutant was a newspaper man from Fremont County who traveled a great deal, and carried a notebook in which he would record the stories of the people he met. He evidently happened to meet O.P. Goodwin twice. The earlier reference, folder 15, says that Goodwin, of Lusk, Wyoming, was;

“Born Dayton, Ohio. 1830. Served in the Mexican War. Came west 1848, at Pueblo, Colorado. Spent his after years in freighting for government and large outfits at points on the Missouri and afterwards at Denver. Served the government of the U.S. as guide. Since 57 lived in the vicinity of Fort Laramie and Lusk. Has in his possession several manuscripts of old timers and had in his employ Mr. Whitcomb and several other old time citizens. Manuscripts: Account of Lord Fritz Williams, 1851 to 1853 Early history of Fort Laramie, 1825, etc. Description of the Post etc., cost $25,000. Big Horn Expedition from Cheyenne, 1880 Early history of the Cheyenne Indians Mrs. Lattimer saved by Joe Knight also Mrs. Kelly and Miss Roper rescued by Joe Knight of Cheyenne Massacre below Fort Laramie Gories expedition in the interest of astronomy to the north

 through Wyoming in “51.

Information Much supplies, cordelled up and down the Missouri to Fort Randall carted overland to Fort Laramie previous to 1849. Mackinaw boats used and a distance of 12 to 15 miles per day was made by them. Later, small sized steamboats were used.”

The second of the Coutant references, in Folder 56, states

“Oliver P. Goodwin, Born Dayton, June 9, 1830, Moved to Missouri, 1838, grew up in St. Louis. Enlisted in the St. Louis Legion and went to the War in Mexico, participated in the battle of Buenavista, etc. Returned home in fall 47 an in spring of 48 went with Fremont, came back after the disaster to the expedition. Says that Fremont and not Williams was responsible for the disaster as the latter advised against attempting to cross over mountains at that place. Entered the employ of Bent and Savery fur traders, in 49 went with the rush for California, twenty men and 12 wagons. Stated met with disaster on the South Platte stock stolen by Indians. Goodwin and two of his comrades walked to Fort Laramie where they entered the government service as guide. Was sent to Ft Mann on the Arkansas River with dispatches to Maj. Fitzpatrick. Was wagonmaster under Albert Sidney Johnson in 57. In 58,9 and 60 was in the service of Major, Russell and Waddell. In 57 was attacked by Indians near Ash Hollow, had two men killed and lost six yoke of cattle and captured a large amount of commissary supplies. Until the U.P.[Union Pacific] was built took Army supplies. In 67 hauled goods from Denver to Cheyenne with his oxen teams. 67 located a ranch on Horse Creek in Laramie County, known as Goodwin’s Ranch. Continued it until 72. In that year he went to Texas bought cattle and sold them to H. B. Kelly who had the beef contract at Fort Laramie. Worked on the Cheyenne the latter 70’ s. In 1886 went to Silver Cliff, [near Lusk] and started a meat market and in August same year went with the balance of the citizens of Silver Cliff and found the town of Lusk where he continued the meat business until 90. Then entered the employ of Clay, Robinson and Co., John Buster, and Capt. Torrey also the Qgullalla [sic] Land and Cattle Company. Of late has lived in Lusk and followed the photograph business.”

What manuscripts are referred to and where they may be today remains unknown. They may have been part of the collection of family history that Goodwin’s granddaughter Naomi Martin kept in preparation for publishing.

In the archives of the American Heritage Center, at the University of Wyoming at Laramie, is a letter from Naomi Reynolds Martin to the director indicating her research results regarding her Grandfather,

“In going back to the Wyoming papers which carried his obituary in Dec., 1907, I gathered the information that he had reached Ft. Laramie in 1849, and that he had settled in Colorado for a few years before establishing a ranch in Wyo. That sent me to the Colorado records, and in the meantime I had encountered a lot of material which had to do with his early life, such as his part in the Mexican War, his cattle drives and cattle work in Texas, his settlement and marriage at Fort Laramie, his work as a teamster for the famous old freighters, Russell, Majors and Waddell, hauling supplies for the Government between Ft. Leavenworth, to Salt Lake, his days as a Wagon Master and Guardian of supplies at Ft. Laramie and Pueblo, Colo. Then his purchase of his first ranch in Box Elder Park, near what is now Ft. Collins and his subsequent sale of that ranch and the purchase of another on Bear Creek, Wyoming. A lot of this information came from the Missouri newspaper files. Then I was able to find newspaper files regarding his ranch on Horse Creek, and his final years in Wyoming before he returned to Greeley, Colo. where he died. I have not mentioned his work as an Army guide or his experiences in Central America after 1849 when he became involved in the Billy Walker Filibuster in Nicaruagua [sic], etc. etc., nor his activities, elbow to elbow with E.W. Whitcomb, High Kelley, Judge J. M. Carey, and many other Wyoming notables.

I am giving you this summary as I want to let you know in what areas my research is lagging, such as the exact routes of those freighting trips, what cargos he hauled and references I want to make of his hobbies--photography and Music. He was a trained violinist and took his fiddle everywhere. He also was, probably, the first cameraman to cross the plains. His diary relates his having to haul his dark room in a little cart which he fastened behind his freight wagons. He also tells of acquiring the know how of using fallen trees with branches attached to use as brakes on his heavily laded freight wagons when crossing some of the precitous [sic] and almost perpendicular walled canyons in getting across the mountains, as well as how he learned to “float” his cargos across the wild Springtime torrents of the Missouri, Platte and Arkansas Rivers in reaching his destinations, while engaged in freighting. The Indian battles and blizzards and major stampedes, too are all there for the sake of exciting reading as well as perpetuating the truth.”

The reference to Fremont’s fourth expedition in 1848 is suspect. No record of Goodwin’s participation in this fiasco has been located. Of the thirty men who left St. Louis in the fall, ten died on the trip and several shortly thereafter. ( Egan, Hafen, Favor). Goodwin may have known Fremont from his associations in St. Louis, or met him on other trips and tried to appear as a friend of the famous and popular explorer and presidential candidate.

Goodwin may have been at Bent’s Old Fort in Pueblo, Colorado in 1848 according to the above references. Charles and William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain had founded the fort in about 1832, used it for trading through the late 1830s and up to the murder of Charles Bent in Taos in January 1847. Fremont started the fourth expedition from Old Pueblo on November 21, 1848 with Old Bill Williams as a guide.

On August 21, 1849 William Bent destroyed the fort and then went into business as an independent trader. St. Vrain remained in Taos after the breakup of the firm in 1849. St. Vrain was born about 1802 in Spanish Lake, Missouri, near St. Louis. He founded a trading outpost named Fort St. Vrain midway between Fort Laramie and Bent’s Fort. This was near to the Cache la Poudre area of Colorado. Parkman visited that site in 1846 and made some remarks about it. Goodwin may have married at the Pueblo site as a note in Martin’s files indicates he was first married in 1848.

William Bent was married to a Cheyenne, Owl Woman, and when she died in 1847 he married her sister Yellow Woman. They were daughters of Gray or Painted Thunder.(McNitt). There were many traders married to Indians.

In The Wagonmasters, Henry Pickering Walker, Goodwin is mentioned as playing a heroic role in 1857 in the defense of a wagon train for which he was the wagonmaster. When a band of Cheyenne warriors attacked, Goodwin was able to wound the Chief and the Indians took off. The incident was reported in the Kansas City Enterprise of August 22, 1857, which was paraphrased by Walker as follows:

“By 1857 the Northern Plains Indians were on the warpath. Two small trains belonging to Russell and Waddell, totaling about sixteen wagons, camped within sight of each other, were attacked by a band of Cheyenne. One man was killed, one was severely wounded and the wagons were burned. Another train was harassed as it moved west of Fort Kearny. Finally on the divide between the North and South Platte rivers, the Indians cut the train in two and surrounded the rear portion. Most of the weapons were in the last wagon. Oliver P. Goodwin, the wagonmaster, had been at the head of the column when the trouble struck. After distributing what weapons were available in the forward wagons, Goodwin rode to the rear. He found a band of some fifteen Cheyenne warriors under Chief White Crow attacking the wagons. Riding forward, Goodwin fired at the Indians and broke the arm of the Chief, whereupon the Indians withdrew.”(Walker).

The full text of this newspaper clipping, dated 1907, is found in Appendix 2.

Goodwin reported in his Mexican War files that in 1856 and 1857 he was in Mexico and Central America after being discharged from service in California. In 1858 to 1860 in the height of the gold rush, and “Pikes Peak or Bust," he reported that he was in Denver.

The reference to Central America pertains to Goodwin’s claim that he was involved in “Billy” Walker’s 1857 attempt to secure Nicaragua’s government for himself and a band of men from the United States. Warfare between conservatives and liberals tempted a filibuster from the United States which was led by William Walker (1824-1860).

Walker was born in Nashville, was well educated in college, medical school and law school, and traveled abroad for two years in Europe. In 1848 he was an editor and owner of the New Orleans Daily Crescent. Later he went to California where he practiced law and politics. In 1853 he became interested in colonizing Lower California with Americans. He declared Lower California an independent republic with himself as president. In 1854 he annexed the state of Sonora, Mexico. Defeated by lack of support and blockade by United States and Mexican authorities, he surrendered, was tried, but was acquitted of violations of the neutrality laws.

In 1855 Walker fitted out an expedition of emigrants to Nicaragua where he had been invited by a revolutionary leader in search of outside aid. He landed in Nicaragua with 57 followers, joined in the fighting, and soon won a victory and became commander in chief of the Army. He brought recruits from the United States by offering free travel by ship from San Francisco by the American Accessory Transit Company. In 1856 he became the president of the country and was recognized by the United States.

His connections with the Transit Company caused his downfall as the opposition to the firm was led by Cornelius Vanderbilt’s interests, a relentless and unscrupulous fighter himself. On May 1, 1857 he surrendered to the U.S. Navy. He briefly returned to the U.S. but then escaped and went again to Nicaragua as president. He was soon arrested by the Navy and brought back to custody. Three years later he returned to Honduras and went to Nicaragua by land, but was arrested and turned over to the Honduran authorities where he was shot on September 12, 1860. (Dictionary of American Biography).

If Goodwin was involved with Walker, he probably went in 1855-56 from San Francisco. In the Jefferson City Inquirer, for May 9, 1857 mention is made of Goodwin’s return.

“Jefferson City, May 4, 1857, FROM NICARAGUA. Mr. Oliver Goodwin, who left this city some five years since, returned on Saturday last, direct from the camp of Walker in Nicaragua. Mr. Goodwin gives a terrible account to the condition of Walker’s men, and says that nearly all his force have deserted him, and gives it as his opinion that Walker cannot hold out much longer. He says, when he left, Walker was surrounded. Since writing the above, we have received the St. Louis REPUBLICAN containing the latest intelligence from Nicaragua, per steamer Illinois, and find Mr. Goodwin statement confirmed in every particular. Mr. Goodwin says the loss of the filibusters in the battle of the 16th of March was very great. A dispatch from General Morer, in the intelligence published in the Republican says that he has Walker and whole force confined to two houses and that he will force him to surrender by the 20th (ult.).”

References to the Walker episode are being examined to determine the extent of Goodwin’s involvement.

Smiley’s History of Denver state’s that a Raymond B. Goodwin was one of the original incorporators of the town of Colona, Colorado, later to become LaPorte, north of Denver on the Cache de Poudre river. Smiley states:

“In the summer of 1844, Antoine Janise, the French trapper, first visited the Poudre valley and was so pleased with its beauty that he determined to locate there should the country ever become settled by white people. In the summer and autumn of 1858 he was there again, with his Indian associates and after having learned of the presence of gold-seekers in the country and the coming of emigrants, he resolved to establish a town on the Poudre River; and after having been joined by Elbridge Gerry and Nicholas Janise, obtained the consent of an Arapahoe band of Indians whose chief was Bald Wolf and who then in the Poudre valley to settle there. Through the winter of 1858-59 a considerable number of traders and prospectors had assembled there and among them a town company was formed. Its members were Antoine and Nicholas Janise, Gerry, Todd, Randall, Raymond, John Batiste, Oliver Morisette, Antoine Le Beau, Goodwin, Ravofire and others. A town was located and named Colona and some thirty or forty cabins built. The place afterwards became the present village of LaPorte, near Fort Collins.”

A reference to the founding of Colona is found in Watrous’s History of Larimer County, Colorado . This reference, quoting a letter from Antoine Janis at Pine Ridge Agency, March 17, 1883, states that:

“A company was formed composed of Nicholas Janis, E. Gerry, Todd Randall, Raymond B. Goodwin, John B. Provost, Oliver Morisette, A. LeBon, Ravofire and others...”

A second reference in Watrous states that “E.W. Raymond (and) B. Goodman” were part of the company, and that on July 25, 1860 at Colona City, Nebraska Territory, “William G. Goodwin was the Recorder of the Claim Club for mining claims.”

These men may have been related to Oliver since our Goodwin and his family were in LaPorte even before the summer of 1870 census recorded them there along with the Whitcombs. Watrous states that:

“E. W. Whitcomb, now a resident of Cheyenne, was probably the first settler in the [Boxelder Valley]. He located a stock ranch on the creek near the canon in 1867 or 68, and pastured a large herd of cattle and a band of horses on the rich and succulent grasses of the valley and adjacent bluffs. Mr. Whitcomb sold his ranch in 1875 to Noah Bristol...E. W. Whitcomb and Oliver Goodwin ranged their cattle on Upper Boxelder in the late 60’s and early 70’s, controlling a large range in the foothills and on the Plains. Whitcomb lived at that time on the ranch later owned by Noah Bristol and now owned by the Buckeye Ranch Company. One of Fort Collins’ principal streets is named for Whitcomb.”

Antoine Janis, born in. 1859, possibly at LaPorte, a son of trader Antoine Janis, was the second husband of Oliver Goodwin’s daughter Fannie. The letter from Antoine Janis(Senior?) at Pine Ridge is also referred to in Lecompte’s biography of Antoine Janis in Hafen’s Mountain Men series.

Goodwin lived in several other locations in the West, including Horse Creek, twenty-eight miles north of Cheyenne, where he was perhaps best known as Postmaster and Station-keeper on the Stagecoach line to Deadwood. John Hunton’s Diary recorded the purchase of Fagan’s Ranche by Goodwin in October 1880 or 1882. He and his family were recorded there by the 1880 census.

The mother of Goodwin’s known children was Jennie Louisa Robinson. According to family tradition she was born about 1843 in the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming to Kathryn Roubavel. Jennie died in 1875, at Bear Creek, Wyoming. Other information in the files of Naomi Reynolds, Jennie’s granddaughter, indicates that Jennie was a full blood Sioux whose mother Susan later married a white man, Eli Robinson.

Sharon Lass Field, in a letter to Dan Brockman dated June 5, 1992, stated that she “had visited with people who had knowledge of Mr. Goodwin.” She states that he “had an Indian wife, as so many people had at that time.”

An unpublished manuscript of the biography of Ernest Logan of Cheyenne, Wyoming, written by his daughter Grace Schaedel, furnished by Sharon Lass Field, contains a reference to the death of Jennie Goodwin.

“Ernest had one scary experience. Oliver P. Goodwin had a ranch near Bear Creek about fifteen miles from Whitcomb’s. Goodwin’s Indian wife had died about a month before, leaving him with four or five children to raise. One day, Jim Long, who worked for Goodwin, came to get some cattle that Whitcomb had ordered trailed to Bear Creek, and Jackson’s mother asked Ernest to go along and help Long drive the herd.

That night. Goodwin told Ernest that as a guest, he could sleep with him. His bed, the best in the house, was made entirely of buffalo hides spread on the floor. It was warm and Ernest was restless. Sometime in the night, he was awakened by unearthly noises, weird calls and plaintive wails outside, which brought him straight up in bed.

Goodwin woke up and asked what the trouble was. Ernest said, ‘that awful noise’.But the noise had stopped, and Goodwin told him he must have been dreaming. Ernest felt sure there had been a Sioux outbreak at the Red Cloud Agency, not far from there Torrington now stands, and that the Indians were making a raid. But Goodwin said,’ Bosh, go back to sleep.’ Ernest heard a thumping sound, but didn’t dare wake Goodwin again. When it began to get light, he slipped out of bed to look out and be sure his horse was still in the corral. It was.

After breakfast he told Jim Long what he had heard. Jim said ‘Goodwin knew what it was alright, but he didn’t want to tell you. The Goodwin kids have been mourning for their mother ever since she died a month ago. She was buried up on that little hill back of the house, and the kids go out there every night crying for their mother, the way Indians do.

‘Poor kids’ said Ernest. ‘I think they’ve got a pole upstairs that they let out the window and slide down and climb back up later and pull it back through the window. They never use the stairs. Their Pa would hear them, and wouldn’t let 'em go.’ ‘Have you ever seen them?’ Jim shook his head,’ Never tried. They got a right to their ways.’”

Oliver Perry Goodwin and Jennie’s children were:

 	1. Nellie Jane Goodwin, born in 1861 or 1862 in Wyoming.  Nellie married William (Bill) E. Hudspeth, a Texas outlaw according to family tradition. A marriage record in Laramie County dated May 4, 1878 indicates their marriage service was performed by Reverend Cowhick, a Presbyterian minister, with the approval of O. P. Goodwin. The witness’s were Wilssey S. Sabing and O. F. Cowhick, the minister's wife. The 1880 census records this family, with a daughter Juna age 2, at Horse Creek, and Nellie’s age as 20. The Pine Ridge census for the period 1896-99 lists Nellie Hudspeth, ages 35-37, and her children, but no husband. Her children were Edna, born about 1880. Oliver, born about 1885, William, born about 1886, Myrtle, born about 1888, Thelma, born about 1897, and Zona, born about 1878. Zona is listed as Zona Hudspeth in 1896, but in 1897 and 1898 census records she is listed as Zona Wilson, head of a family with a son named John Thomas Wilson, born about 1897. No husband is listed. Her sister Edna is also listed as a head of a family without a husband. Her name was Edna Wilson, with a son named James John Wilson, born in 1896 and a daughter named Dorothy Edna, born in about 1899. The records state the family lived in the White Clay district of Pine Ridge reservation. The Wilson husbands were evidently brothers from England. Both were listed in the 1900 census, Thomas, b. 1866, with Zona and James, b. 1868, with Edna. William and Nellie are both listed in the 1900 census at Pine Ridge, and as being married for 28 years. William’s birthplace was Texas, in October 1854. Nellie died at White Clay, Pine Ridge on October 6, 1901 according to the quarterly death reports. The 1900 census stated she was born in January 1865, but this seems to be an error in that she was about 16 when married, not 13. The 1920 census listed William E. Hudspeth, age 68, born in Texas living with Thelma Yeager, age 28, probably his daughter in Range 46W, Township 42N, South Dakota. William’s son Oliver was listed in the 1920 census in the South Dakota penitentiary in Sioux Falls, age 35. In the 1922 census at Pine Ridge, Oliver and his wife Lillie and their children are listed together so evidently he was released by then. His children were cited as Zona, b. 1907, Paul, b. 1908, Mary, b. 1910, John, b. 1911, Alice, b. 1912 and Oliver Jr., b. 1914. Also listed is a Step-daughter of Oliver Hudspeth’s named Elizabeth Many Horses, b. 1903. She was listed in the 1920 census as Elizabeth Ledux. It is possible that some of the Hudspeth great-grandchildren of Oliver Perry Goodwin may be alive today. A photograph of one of Bill Hudspeth’s sons appears in Eyewitness at Wounded Knee .The book mentions Bill and George Stover coming in from the White River in the spring of 1891. Bill’s son is dressed up as an Indian boy. A photograph in the collection of the Nebraska State Historical Society captioned “Bill Hudspeth and daughter Thelma in South Dakota Badlands in 1890” depicts a white bearded cowboy in vest and torn pants and boots accompanied by a young woman in skirt and cowboy hat climbing a rock wall. This caption date is inconsistent with Thelma’s birth date of 1897.

2. Fanny Marie Goodwin, born in 1862 or 1863 in Wyoming. According to family tradition Fanny married Antoine Javis Meridian. However a marriage record in Laramie County indicates a marriage between Miss Fanny Goodwin and Jabez Brandham occurred on November 15, 1879 at the Goodwin house with Reverend Cowhick officiating. The 1870 census recorded her at LaPorte, age 7. The 1880 census recorded her at Horse Creek in June at age 17, but not with her husband. The Pine Ridge census for the period 1896-99 lists Fannie Janis, ages 33-36 with her husband Antoine and their large family. Julia Goodwin is listed with them each year in this time period as a Sister-in-Law. Evidently Fannie married at least twice. Fannie’s second husband, Antoine Janis, was born in April 1860, and was the half-breed son of the trader from Fort Laramie, Antoine Janis. This trader is well documented in Hafen in an article by Janet Lecompte. His wife was Mary of the Red Cloud family. He was at Cache la Poudre in 1858-59.(Hafen). He and his family left LaPorte, Colorado and moved to Pine Ridge in 1878.The trader died in 1890. Fannie’s children listed in the Pine Ridge census were Lucy, Bessie, Herbert, Peter, Fannie, and Joe. Later records, in the 1921 and 1922 Pine Ridge census, list Antoine and Fannie with a son Stanley, born in 1907. The parents were identified as 1/2 Indian. They lived in the Wakpamni District. Fanny died at Wakpamni, Pine Ridge on February 27, 1930. Her allotment number was 302. They married in 1880 according to the 1900 census, and five children survived to be listed then. Listed with the family were Herbert, born Feb., 1890, Peter, born Mar. 1894, Fannie, born Apr. 1896, and Joseph, born July, 1898. Data on Lucy and Bessie is missing from the 1900 family record. There are numerous Janis family names at Pine Ridge today. Sadie Janis is pictured in Oglala Women by Marla N. Powers. The photograph caption states “Sadie Janis, housewife and craftswoman. She has spent her entire life on the reservation and is a reservoir of information on Lakota language and culture which she learned from the old people.” Powers list of those who helped her in research for her studies included Sadie and Clarence Janis.

3. Susiebue Goodwin, also known as Susie was born in 1864 or 1865 in Wyoming. She married a gold miner. She died at Cripple Creek Colorado. The 1870 census recorded her at LaPorte, age 5 the 1880 census recorded her at Horse Creek, age 15.

4. Estella Lizzie “Little All-Eyes” Goodwin. She was born June 20, 1866 at Fort Laramie, Nebraska Territory according to family tradition. Estella married William Marcus Reynolds (1861-1930) on November 24, 1881. She died on December 12, 1950 at San Bernardino, California at the home of her daughter Naomi. Listed as Elizabeth in the 1870 Census, age 3, and age 14 in the 1880 census at Horse Creek.

5. Julia Goodwin was born in Colorado in 1867 or 1868. She was married four times, but had no children. She inherited a lot of land, from which the family retains some acreage to this day. See a sketch of her life herein. Listed as age 2 in the 1870 census and age 12 at Horse Creek in 1880. Possibly the Julia, age 17, listed in the 1887 Federal Census at Pine ridge living with the widow Robinson, a grandmother, age 67. Listed in the Pine Ridge census of 1896-99 living with the Fannie and Antoine Janis family.

6. Kathryn Goodwin was born in 1870. She went to the Indian school at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Not present at the 1870 census recording but listed in 1880 at Horse Creek as age 10, born in Wyoming. Carlisle started operation in the mid 1870 s. Kathryn was old enough to go East in the mid 1880's. Nothing else is known about her life.

7. Lulu Goodwin born in 1874. One record on a photo indicates that Lulu was 3 months old when her mother died. Lulu died in Chicago at age 12-14 according to the family records. Not present at the 1870 Census recording. In Horse Creek in 1880, age 6, born in Wyoming. Perhaps she died on the way East to Carlisle?

8. Charles Goodwin was born in 1869 but not recorded in the 1870 Colorado census. Appears in the 1880 Horse Creek census, age 11, born in Wyoming. No further record found on this only son. Some of Naomi’s records state he was an adopted son, who was killed by Indians.

Family tradition indicates that after Jennie’s death in 1875 Estella Lizzie helped raise the 3 youngest children, Lulu, Charles and Katheryn, until she got married in 1881. Afterwards some may have moved to Pine Ridge with their Robinson relatives. Bill Miller interviewed some relatives of the Bradley family, descendants of Billy Reynolds’ stepmother, in his visit to Lusk in 1993. They stated that Oliver Goodwin’s sister Jane came to Wyoming to help care for the children. They recall that Jane often used a switch on the kids which she obtained from trees near the Horse Creek. Jane died in 1900 and was buried on the Billy Reynolds ranch.

Oliver Perry Goodwin’s second wife was Margaret Jane Clark, a Chicago school teacher and at one time County Superintendent of Schools in Wyoming. They married at Buffalo, Wyoming in 1883. She was born at Jacksonville, near Virginia, Cass County, Illinois on April 26, 1843. This was her first marriage.

On November 16, 1867, dated at Fort Laramie, a letter was composed and sent to the US Congress requesting land for a large group of half-breeds and “loafers” at the Fort. The “loafers” were mostly the Indian family members of squaws who had married white men, and their children. Many of the principals in this history signed the letter. Included were: James Bordeaux, Hight Kelly, Oliver Goodwin, James Robinson, Wheetcam (could be Eli Whitcomb) and about 100 others. The letter claims that 2000 people were in this group in the area. While the letter did not result in lands, later in 1868 the group was offered a chance to go to a new agency in South Dakota. Naturally the whites were interested in the acquisition of land for their Indian relations and helped promote the idea.

In 1868, the government developed a plan to have all Western Indians sign a series of peace treaties. The Sioux and other northern tribes eventually did sign the Fort Laramie Treaty. As a result of their signature they were given a new reservation in the Dakotas. Also the tribes agreed to incorporate some whites and all the half breeds on the Reservation ration rolls. It may have been the occasion of Oliver Goodwin’s children’s acceptance into the Oglala Sioux. His children did take Indian names in addition to their white names.

In the Spring and early Summer of 1868 the government had these Indians in the Fort Laramie area agreeable to being moved to White Clay River, near Fort Randall on the Missouri River. They assembled into one large camp 8 miles east of Fort Laramie before starting on the journey. This mobilization included all white men with Indian families who cared to make the move. During this time a fight broke out and “Cy” Williams (of Bordeaux store) was killed after killing Charley Richards. Oliver P. Goodwin, an innocent spectator was wounded, but not seriously. (Hunton, Vol. 1). This would have been two years after Lizzie Goodwin was born, and places Goodwin himself in the area at this time. He may have left soon after (Bettelyoun/Bordeaux manuscript).

In the 1870 Colorado Territorial census the Goodwin’s are listed as living in Larimer County, on the north border with Wyoming, in La Porte in the Cache la Poudre river district. This town, formerly known as Colona, had been occupied by fur traders for many years. Antoine Janis built a log cabin there in 1859, and brought his family down from Fort Laramie. During the summer of 1859 Antoine and Nick his brother located the town site and had it surveyed and mapped for sales of lots. (Hafen, Mountain Men) . Colona became LaPorte in 1862.

The census lists children Elizabeth(3), Fannie(7), Julia(2), Nellie(8), and Susan(5). Oliver(38), and wife Jane(26) are described as white and Indian respectively.

Oliver Perry Goodwin was described in The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and Express Routes by Agnes Wright Spring. Spring said, “He had wide experience in the west as a fur trader, soldier, miner, freighter, master of government transport, station keeper and postmaster.” According to Spring, the last coach ran through Goodwin’s stop at Horse Creek Ranch on February 19, 1887. Some records show this location as Fagan’s Ranche.

The Goodwin ranch and stage station was built by Michael Fagan in 1876 and is better known in history as Fagan’s Ranch even though Fagan’s operation and ownership was short-lived. Failing health caused Mr. Fagan to sell out in 1877, shortly before his death, to a man named Moore. Mr. Moore in turn sold to Oliver P. Goodwin about 1880 or 1882 according to Flannery’s notes on Hunton’s Diary. In an article in the Annals of Wyoming for April 1965, Mary Elizabeth Carpenter traced the history of Fagan’s Ranch or Horse Creek Station on the Cheyenne-Deadwood trail. Fagan set up an eating station with a large solid structure containing nine rooms and a ladies parlor. Fagan furnished meals for 50 cents and he had stabling quarters for 75 head of stock. Fagan sold to Moore in about 1877. Carpenter states “three years later O.P. Goodwin, married to a Sioux Indian purchased the station. The ranch was treeless. The buildings listed were the house, saloon and station stable.”(Carpenter). Mr. Goodwin continued operations until the coming of the railroad put the stagecoach and bull trains out of business. (John Hunton’s Diary, Vol. 4).

Three coaches from the Cheyenne and Black Hills Line are in museums, one is at the Buffalo Bill Historical Center in Cody, Wyoming, one is in the Stagecoach Museum in Lusk, the third is in the Smithsonian. At Lusk, the Stagecoach Museum at 342 S. Main, has a Concord type Cheyenne-Deadwood Stagecoach. The Rawhide Buttes station used on the line from 1876 to 1887 is 12 miles South of Lusk. The Running Water Station nearby is marked by stone ruins.

One of Goodwin’s pension records states that he was in Virginia City, Montana from 1870 to 1875. He was mentioned in Hunton in 1868 in Wyoming, was in Colorado in 1870, and his wife Jennie may have died at Bear Creek in 1875, so part of the time period in between these events may be accounted for by residence in the gold strike area of Virginia City. In 1863 gold was discovered in Alder Creek, and it proved to be one of the richest strikes in the West. Virginia City became Montana’s second territorial capital, and had a population of 35,000 people by 1864. Present day Virginia City has museums, reconstructed buildings and library collections dealing with the gold rush.

Goodwin was a postmaster at Goodwin’s Ranch Post Office. In a letter to Dan Brockman from the National Archives dated April 17, 1979, the postal history researcher indicated that Oliver Perry Goodwin was appointed postmaster of Goodwin’s Ranch post office in Laramie County, Wyoming on May 16, 1879. His Successor D. A. Adamson was appointed on November 24, 1879. Goodwin was thus postmaster for about 6 months. He followed Michael Fagan, who was reported to be postmaster from May 12, 1875, to April 26, 1879. The Post Office at Goodwin’s Ranch was discontinued on October 24, 1884. Horse Creek, Wyoming has Zip Code 82061 in today’s postal system.

A check of the National Archives records for the Civil War, on the side of the North, failed to reveal any record of Oliver Perry Goodwin, so evidently his earlier service in the Mexican War was his only service.

Mention was made of the Goodwins’ in John Hunton’s diaries, edited by L. G. “Pat” Flannery, Volumes 1 through 6. Mr. Hunton was a southern soldier who came to Wyoming very early. He too had an Indian wife, as did Hiram “Hi” Kelly who also lived in the area. John Hunton’s wife was a sister to a prominent guide for the Army at the time. Kelly’s wife was a member of the Reshaw or Richard family of the area. Hi Kelly and John Hunton lived nearby, Kelly at Chugwater and Hunton at Bordeaux.(Field)

Mentioned on the back of one of the family photos of Oliver Perry Goodwin is the name of one of his friends of the area, Eli Whitcome, a rancher. Elias Whitcomb was also recorded by the Census at La Porte, Colorado in 1870, just a few houses away from the Goodwin family. Whitcomb, age 37, born in Massachusetts, a farmer, was with his wife Kate, an Indian, age 27, born in Dakota, and daughter Lizzie, age 2, born in Colorado. Whitcomb was recorded with a large value of both property and personal estate, a total of $20,000. Goodwin’s had only $200 in value.

A photograph of Goodwin when he joined the Knights Templar in Cheyenne is in the family archives in Boston, a copy of which is reproduced herein.

Several major events in the history of the United States occurred during the lifetime of Oliver Perry Goodwin. Probably the defining event for him was his service in the Mexican War (1846), when he was 16 years old.

South Dakota was organized as a territory in 1861, and became a state in 1889. Wyoming became a territory in 1869 and became a state in 1890. Nebraska was made a territory in 1854, and became a state in 1867. The Union Pacific Railroad began heading west from Omaha in 1865. Goodwin was involved in all these historic events as he moved about in the various trades in which he participated.

Gold was discovered in the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1874, one year after the railroad arrived from the East. Gold was discovered in Cripple Creek Colorado in 1891, silver had been mined there since 1875. It is not clear where Spring obtained her note that Goodwin was a miner, but he could have been mining in Colorado. There were several miners listed in the 1870 Census in La Porte. Goodwin was described as a printer, Whitcomb as a farmer.

Goodwin’s pension application and his conversations with Coutant provide a summary of his life, which gives an opportunity to create a time line for him. The physical description upon enlistment given in the pension claims is for a 16 year old young man 5 foot, 9 inches in height, florid complexion, blue eyes, with auburn hair.

                                        Oliver Perry Goodwin Time Line

1830, June 9 Born at Dayton, Ohio 1838 Moved to Missouri, grew up in St. Louis. 1839, Sep 20 Father Jonathan died, aged 35. 1841, Jan 20 His sister Sarah married at Jefferson City by the Revd. Thomas to Peter Wonderly of St. Louis. Father deceased, mother a widow. 1846 Described himself as a printer, from Jefferson City. Possibly knew George Knapp editor of the St. Louis Republican newspaper. Enlisted from Jefferson City according to Ford’s History of Jefferson City, Missouri. 1846 May 19 Recorded date of enlistment as a private at St. Louis, Company C, 1st Regiment, St. Louis Legion Missouri Volunteers, Knapp's Company. 1846, June 2 On casualties (sick) list at Algiers, Louisiana 1846, Aug. 4 On casualties list at Burita, Mexico 1846, Aug. 7 On casualties list at Brazos Santiago, Texas 1846, Aug. 28 Discharged at St. Louis. Pension declaration states he was with St. Louis Legion guarding government stores near where the battles of May 8th and 9th, 1846 had been fought, near Brazos, Santiago. 1847, Aug 13 Executed application at Jefferson City, Missouri for bounty land. 1847 Granted Land Warrant No. 1331 for 40 acres of Land at Dixon, Illinois for service in Mexican War. Sold to James Carson on April 12, 1848. 1848 Coutant’s Biographical record in the Wyoming State Archives states “he came west 1848, at Pueblo, Colorado. Spring of 48 went with Fremont, came back after the disaster.”(Fremont actually went in Nov.). 1848 Entered the employ of Bent and Savery(St. Vrain), Fur Traders. They were based at Bent’s Fort, Colorado. 1849 Went with rush for California, twenty men, twelve wagons. Ran into trouble. 1949-50 Claimed enlistment as a guide at Fort Laramie, took papers to Ft. Mann to Major Fitzpatricks. Fort Mann was established in April 1847 eight miles from Dodge City, Kansas and was abandoned in 1850 when Fort Atkinson was established. 1852, Aug 1 His sister Rachael D. married by the Rev. John G. Fackler to Mr. Boyer of Vincennes, Indiana. 1855, Fall Claimed enlistment at Yreka, California as a private in Captain Robert L. Williams company, Colonel Henry S. Templeton’s regiment of Mounted Volunteers in the Indian War in Oregon. His claims for bounty land denied. 1855 Granted Land Warrant No. 92597 for 120 Acres for service in the Mexican War. Sold to Miller and Lux, assignees of John Cleary, February 27, 1867. This land was at Stockton, California. 1856 Discharged at Yreka, California, close to the Oregon line. 1856 and 57 Mexico and Central America with Americans in Nicaragua aiding Walker’s attempt to take over the country. 1857, April 30 In St. Louis making application for additional bounty land with his brother-in-law Peter Wonderly and Walter Ransom as witnesses as to his appearance. The Wonderly's lived with Oliver’s mother in 1850 based on the census records. 1857, May 4 Dateline of article in Jefferson City newspaper regarding Goodwin’s return from Nicaragua. 1857 Wagon Master of Government supply train from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to Fort Douglas, Utah. 1857 Report in the Kansas City Enterprise of Goodwin’s defense of a wagon train run by Russell and Waddell. 1858 Lived in Denver, Colorado. Gold Rush time. Mention of a Goodwin at LaPorte, Colorado, north of Denver in 1858-59 by Smiley. 1859 Lived in Denver according to pension notes. Coutant states in 58, 59, 60 with Majors, et al. 1860 Lived in Denver. 1860 Colorado (Nebraska Ter.) Census fails to index him. Not at Fort Laramie in 1860 Census. 1861,62,63 Government Employee at Fort Laramie and Montana. Another pension record states Denver from 1860 to 1863, Salt Lake City from 1863 to 1870. 1861, Jan 25 Oliver’s mother Margaret died in Jefferson City, Missouri. Born May 10, 1807. 1860 to 62 First child, Nellie, born in Wyoming. 1862 or 63 Daughter Fanny born in Wyoming 1864 Lived at Cheyenne, Wyoming 1864, Sep.Injured in a fight with Indians in which he claimed wounds in the left shoulder and thigh resulted in disability. 1864 or 65 Daughter Susan born in Wyoming. 1865, June Captain Fouts killed, Bordeaux and Robinson observed. 1866, June 20 Daughter Lizzie born, Fort Laramie, Wyoming 1867 or 68 Daughter Julia Born in Colorado. 1867 Started a ranch on Horse Creek. 1868, May Injured in Shoot Out at Bordeaux’s store (Hunton). 1870 , Summer US Census Index shows Goodwin at La Porte, Colorado. 1870-86 Near Cheyenne, Wyoming. Another record states from June 1870 to 1875 in Virginia City, Montana. 1872 Coutant states Goodwin went to Texas and bought cattle and sold them to Hi Kelly. 1875-1877 Lived at Fort Laramie. 1875, Sep 27? Jennie Robinson Died at Bear Creek, age 31?. Her children were ages 13,12,10, 8 and 7 years old and the two youngest girls, Kathryn, 5 and Lulu, 3 months. 1876 Elected to the Upper Horse Creek school board with D. Clark and J. B. Jackson. 1877, April 11 Mentioned in an article in The Daily Leader, Cheyenne, about the Horse Creek schoolteacher and the murder of the Jackson family. Lizzie came back from reservation about this time. Julia stayed there. 1878, May 4 Daughter Nellie Jane marries Bill Hudspeth at Horse Creek. 1879, May 16 Appointed Postmaster, Horse Creek, until November 24th. when Adamson took over. 1879, Nov 15 Daughter Fanny married Jabez Brandham at Horse Creek. 1881, Nov 24 Daughter Lizzie married Billy Reynolds at Horse Creek. 1880 or 82 Bought Fagan’s Ranche. Census record 1880 at Horse Creek. 1883, Dec. 30 Married Margaret J. Clark at Buffalo, Wyoming, at the house of McCray and Buell, by J. D. Hinkle, Justice of the Peace. Witness’s were C. E. Buell and T.J. Woodley. Buffalo is in North Central Wyoming, near Fort Phil Kearny, in Johnson County. 1877-1886 Pension record states “Lived near Cheyenne.” 1886 Went to Silver City, near Lusk. Started a meat market. 1886, June 25 Mentioned in the Lusk Herald “O. P. Goodwin, of the firm Goodwin and Dyer, has the Herald’s thanks for courtesies rendered. Mr. G. is a newspaper man of experience.” 1886, July 13 Lusk opened for settlers when railroad came to town. 1886, August Went with the citizens of Silver City to found Lusk. 1886, May 27 Mentioned in the Lusk Herald “O. P. Goodwin, who has been connected with the Cheyenne Leader for some time paid Lusk a visit recently. Messrs. Goodwin and Dyer, two business men well known throughout Wyoming have opened a first class meat market on Second Street where they will handle all kinds of meat and vegetables.” 1886, July 2 Mentioned in the Lusk Herald “Goodwin and Dyer have sold their meat market to an Iowa man named Pickerel. The former will furnish our two markets by carcass.” 1886, Aug 6 Lusk Herald mentions Goodwin and Dyer’s meat market located on the west side of Main Street. 1886, Aug. 27 Lusk Herald mentions “Mr. Goodwin came into the Herald office the other day bearing a brace of dictionaries, which he deposited on our table, to the great convenience of the scissors manipulator. He has the thanks not only of the s. m. but of the many readers of this great truth promulgator.” 1886, Sept. 3 The Lusk Herald mentions “a school being held in the Tabernacle, a large tent that had belonged to the Congregational Church and was moved from Silver Cliff to Lusk.” In the Centennial Edition of the Lusk Herald published on July 9, 1986, it was stated “that the first school in Lusk was held in the Tabernacle tent for three months and taught by Mrs. Margaret Goodwin who is reported to have been an experienced teacher, having taught in Illinois for seven years and in Wyoming Territory for three years, Lusk was said to be particularly fortunate in securing her services as their first teacher.” 1886, Nov 12 Lusk Herald states “Mr. O. P. Goodwin has erected a very neat and comfortable school house near the gospel tent, and Mrs. Goodwin will begin school next Monday therein.Let it start with full attendance. A few days delay at the opening will keep the children back throughout the entire term.” 1886, Nov 19 Lusk Herald advertisement “Goodwin and Dyer pay the highest price for hides.” 1886, Dec 10 The Lusk Herald states “Mrs. O. P. Goodwin is having excellent success in the Lusk school. There are about 30 pupils in attendance.” 1886, Dec 31 A small fire was reported by the Lusk Herald in the rear of the Goodwin meat shop. 1886-1902 Lived at Lusk, Wyoming possibly near the Reynolds ranch. 1887, Feb. 19 Last Stage run through Horse Creek Station. 1888, Dec 4 Grandson Lewis Reynolds born at Upper Raw Hide Creek 1889, April 1 Charles E. Clay executed affidavit in which he stated he had known Goodwin for 25 years. At Lusk, Converse County, Territory of Wyoming. 1889, April 3 Executed a pension claims form at Lusk, Wyoming Ter. Witnesses included Margaret Carter, Charles Clay, E.E. Sonabaugh and ? F. Longer. 1890 Entered the employ of Clay, Robinson and Co. Land and cattle industry. 1897, Spring O. P. Goodwin, a photographer, meets and hires a twelve year old boy, Albert DeGering, on the road between Cottonwood Creek and Lusk, as reported in the Niobraraians History of Albert DeGering. DeGering lived at the home of Goodwin and earned his board and keep by going to the Hat Creek Breaks with a team and wagon for firewood and doing odd jobs for the Goodwins. DeGering’s stepfather, Dave Miller had loaned him a horse for the purpose of finding work and the stranger from Lusk seemed as promising an opportunity as any. 1899, Oct 19 Converse County Herald reported that “Lohlein and Renicke are drilling a well for O.P. Goodwin on his residence lot. O.P. is going to put up a windmill and do a little irrigating next year, thru placing himself in a position to be independent of the city water works.” 1900, April 12 The Herald reported that Mrs. M. J. Carter has been quite ill the past two weeks but is now feeling much better. 1900, May 19 Mary Jane Carter died at age 68. Buried at Reynolds ranch. 1901, Oct. 6 Daughter Nellie Hudspeth died at Pine Ridge Reservation. 1902, March 11 Asked that a duplicate land warrant be issued. Lusk, Wy. 1902, Oct. 13 Executed a pension claims form at Lusk in which he stated his weight as 185 pounds, height five feet nine inches, eyes blue and hair gray, with a florid complexion. This was witnessed by George L. Wilson and M.R.Collins. 1902, Sep 25 Executed a claim for pension for Indian War service under new legislation of 1892 and 1902. At Lusk, witnessed by Nat Baker and M. R. Collins who knew him for 16 years. Mentions his Mexican War Pension Certificate # 18390. 1902? Interviewed by Coutant. Final entry states “Of late he has lived in Lusk and followed the photograph business.” 1907, Sept 8 Dateline of article in Kansas City newspaper about Goodwin’s Indian troubles, see Appendix 2. 1907, Dec. 24 Died at Greeley, Colorado. Age 77 years, 6 months. His cause of death was “Bright’s Disease” or kidney failure. He was buried in Greeley by the Macy undertaker firm. 1908, Jan. 21 His widow executed a claim for Widow’s pension for his service in the Mexican War. At Greeley, County of Weld, Colorado. She also stated she owned a lot and a five room house at 1018 5th Street in Greeley worth $1500.00. This is where Oliver died. 1908, Mar. 31 Widow Margaret was identified on a claims affidavit by George W. Alb?? to the effect that Margaret had been known to him for 23 years. He knew her because she served three terms as County Superintendent of schools in Wyoming, and that his wife taught under her. Mrs. Goodwin subsequently moved to Greeley, Colorado. 1917, Jun. 28 Margaret J. Goodwin died at Greeley, Colorado of Cirrhosis of the liver. The informant on her death certificate was Helen M. Clark, possibly a relative. She was buried with her husband in Greeley by the Macy undertakers. She was 74 years old. 1930, Feb. 27 Daughter Fannie Janis died at Pine Ridge Reservation. 1950, Dec. 12 Daughter Lizzie Reynolds died in California.

Oliver Perry Goodwin’s life story is one of action and drama. He left many descendants who continue to be interested in his accomplishments.

     Jennie Louisa Robinson (1843 or 1844-1875)

Reynolds family tradition states that Jennie was born in the Wind River mountains of Wyoming, a common place for fur trappers to be living. According to family tradition, Jennie Louisa Robinson was born to Kathryn Roubaval, a daughter of James Bordeaux, who himself was born in 1814. Various documents indicate he married a Ree or Rhee or Arikara wife about 1837(Hanson, McDermott). He married his second wife, a Sioux, in about 1840 according to Fort Laramie records.( Trenholm). He had a third wife, also a Sioux, at this time also.(Hanson).

Jennie married Oliver Perry Goodwin. The 1870 Colorado census recorded Oliver Goodwin’s wife’s name as Jane and her age as 26 at her last birthday. This would place Jane’s birth in 1843, or possibly 1844. The first of Jennie’s children, Nellie, was recorded as being of age 8. The census record states Jane was born in Wyoming, as were her first three children. She was recorded as an Indian, whereas her children were recorded as white. We believe Jane and Jennie to be one and the same. The 1880 census of the Goodwin’s at Horse Creek, Wyoming failed to report Jennie or Jane probably because she had died. The oldest daughter Nellie was reported as being age 20. If Nellie was born in the period 1860-62, then Jennie met Goodwin about that time and she would have been at least age 15, and therefore born about 1845.

These facts present a problem regarding the age of Jennie’s mother Kathryn, and Kathryn’s identity as a child of a white man. If there was a half breed daughter named Kathryn, she would have to have been at least 13 in 1843/1845. This would place her birth year as 1830/31 when James Bordeaux made his first trip to Fort Union at age 16. His connection with her may be possible, but no record has yet been found.

If her father was white, Jennie would have been one-fourth Indian. The 1870 census recorded her as an Indian, while her children were recorded as white. If she had been one-fourth Indian she probably would have been recorded as white at that time. Notes on the back of photographs in the possession of Ellen Brockman state that Jennie was a half blood, which could have been the result of her father being white and her mother a full blooded Indian or conversely her father and mother could have both been half blooded Indians.

In 1846, James Bordeaux lived with his second wife, Huntkalutawin, and family at Fort Laramie. By then he had two children from the second marriage, Louisa, b. 1841, Antoine, b. 1846. We know that this Louisa married Clement Lamoureaux.(Hanson).

The 1860 Census Index for Nebraska Territory, Post Office of Fort Laramie, Wyoming lists Antoine Bordeaux ( age 14), Henry Bordeaux ( age 2 months), James Bordeaux ( Age 45, Trader), John Bordeaux ( Age 7), Louis Bordeaux,( Age 12) Louisa Bordeaux ( Age 19), Alexander ( Age 2 ) and Susan Bordeaux ( Age 4). There are two Robinsons listed; E. and Charles. No Jane or Jennie nor Roubavol or similar spellings appear, and neither of James Bordeaux’s wives appear. This record indicates Susan Bordeaux was born in 1840/41. Hanson states she was born in 1845. O.P. Goodwin does not appear in this Census.

Jennie Louisa Robinson Goodwin died at Horse Creek, Wyoming on September 27, 1875 according to Goodwin’s pension applications. According to family statements by Lewis Reynolds and Naomi Martin she died at Bear Creek, Wyoming in 1873. She would have been about 31 years old. Some of her children were raised by Goodwin’s second wife. The 1880 census of Wyoming Territory shows the family group.

Lewis Reynolds’ essay on his Eighty-odd years in Wyoming states that Jennie “was an Indian girl” and that her daughter Estella Lizzie was able to obtain allotment land by court action.(Reynolds). These court records, found in Appendix 15 record a considerable number of facts about Jennie, as used to establish land allotments. The truth may be slightly different if the records were distorted in order to obtain these allotments.

These court records state that Jennie’s parents were full blood Oglala Sioux and that she was full blooded herself. After her death Lizzie and Julia were reported to have gone to the Sod Agency or reservation to live with their grandmother, Mrs. Robinson, and an aunt. From independent research by Bob Peterson, a Rooks descendant, it appears that the Aunt was Kate Rooks and her mother was Susan Robinson, wife of Eli Robinson, a former soldier at Fort Laramie. Susan was a full Lakota Sioux born in about 1820. It is our supposition that Jennie was a child of an earlier marriage to an Indian, and that later Susan married Robinson and some of her children took the man’s name for their own in order to appear more white.

There is a connection with the Bordeaux family in that James Bordeaux had a daughter Susan, but she was married to Tackett and Bettlyoun and is well known for her writing about her father. There is another connection between the family of Bordeaux and that of Susan Robinson and that is explained on a family chart included as Appendix 16.

Jennie and Oliver Goodwin’s children are discussed in the Oliver Perry Goodwin essay. Jennie may have had several sisters or stepsisters and they are discussed in the essay about Susan Robinson.

Transcription of clipping dated 1907 in the Dawson scrapbooks in the Colorado State Historical Society, from the Kansas City Enterprise, referenced in The Wagonmasters, by Henry Pickering Walker, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 19

GOODWIN HELPED TO MAKE HISTORY THRILLING LIFE STORY OF VENERABLE RESIDENT OF GREELEY. Veteran of two wars and survivor of stirring times on the frontier. Finds Restful Peace in Vineclad Cottage After Years of Strife for Conquest of Wilderness.

Greeley, Colo. Sept 8 -Special. -A soldier in the Mexican War and in the bloody skirmishes with the Modoc Indians in California and Washington in the late Fifties, a fiillibuster with “Billy” Walker in Nicaragua and Central America, for five years master of government transportation services, when supplies to the forts of the West were sent by Fort Leavenworth, Kan. by ox teams; a cow puncher and stockman on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming in the late sixties and early seventies was Oliver P. Goodwin of Greeley, who, two years ago, decided to spend the remainder of his days in a pretty vine covered cottage here, surrounded by a wealth of hollyhock and elderberry blooms, and live again the stirring events of a most adventurous life in the recounting of them to his friends and neighbors.

Goodwin is 77 years old, stout, hale and hearty, looking 15 years younger.

It was on July 6, 1857, that Goodwin entered the employ of the government freighters, Russell, Majors and Wadell, as master of their wagon trains to carry provisions, military and hospital supplies to all the government forts west of Fort Leavenworth, Kan. On the first trip the outfit consisted of 26 wagons, each drawn by three yokes of cattle, and 84 men, including drivers and helpers, the supplies carried being valued at $240,000 and going to Fort Laramie, Wyo.

After striking Fort Kearney, Neb., the party began to be annoyed by roving bands of Indians. On the divide between the North and South Platte near Ash Hollow the redskins succeeded in cutting the wagon train in two and surrounding the read end. Goodwin was in front some distance ahead, but one of the drivers reached him and told him of the trouble saying that two men, Burke, a Massachusetts schoolteacher , and one named Johnston had been killed. Unfortunately, the guns of the party were all in the rear wagon, except a few carried by Goodwin, who distributed them, and notwithstanding the pleadings of his men started back with the messenger to the rear wagons, the other members of the party getting ready to stand off the Indians who were rapidly coming toward them.

Memorable Experiences With the Redskinned Warriors

A band of 15 Cheyennes, under their chief, White Crow, had attacked the rear wagons and it was on these that Goodwin directed his shots, breaking the arm of the chief and scattering the band. One member of the party, named Grant, was wounded, 50 oxen killed, and much of the supplies destroyed by the Indians. The graves of Burke and Johnston may be yet seen at Ash Hollow, near the present site of Julesburg.

Six companies of cavalry going to a Western fort overtook them and accompanied them for four days through the worst of the Indian territory. After three months the freighting outfit reached Fort Laramie.

On the next trip, which was the following year, Goodwin had a memorable experience at Independence Rock on the Sweetwater River in Wyoming with Shawnee Indians and Mexicans. Both were in his employ and the killing of a Mexican by the Shawnees was the signal for a bloody battle between the races after which the Indians deserted and it was with the utmost difficulty that they reached their destination at Fort Bridger in the nick of time to keep the troops from starving, for bacon and flour could scarcely be purchased and then only for $1 a pound. On the return trip to Leavenworth the freighters stopped at Soda Springs and gathered the soda crust which was a eagerly sought for bread making by the ranch women along the road, for which they exchanged butter, eggs, etc.

On one trip going to Fort Fetterman, Goodwin was attacked by Sioux Indians, badly wounded in the shoulder and was only saved from death by his companions who put him on a horse and supported him to the Fort. The soldiers routed the Indians.

In 1876 Goodwin was on the Big Horn River and left Custer’s camp just two days before the massacre.

Grasped Opportunities Offered on the Western Plains

During his journey across the plains Goodwin had not been slow to see the opportunities for stock-raising. So in 1869 and 1870 he went into the business, bought a ranch on the Box Elder, which he afterwards sold to Noah Bristol. In 1874 he went down into Texas and drove back 1500 head, which he placed on the Box Elder. During the severe winter of 1878 his cattle drifted to Crow creek and hundreds of them died. The coming of the sheepmen into the country decided Goodwin to remove to Wyoming with the remnants of his herds and he settled at Bear Springs, where, and at other places, he lived for 26(?) years, taking part in all the events of the country which have now become history. Here he married, his wife being a Wyoming school teacher and county superintendent for several years.

Goodwin’s services as a soldier with “Billy” Walker, who aided the Liberal party in Nicaragua in the fifties, who was made first president of the country and recognized by the United States, but who was finally killed by an uprising, is well worth hearing, and how the young Goodwin, a printer by trade, saved his life and secured transportation home to the United States because he was able to “Set Up” proclamations of the new Nicaraguan President is a story all by itself.

               		Jonathan Nels Goodwin (1804-1839)

Jonathan Nels Goodwin, the father of Oliver Perry Goodwin, was born in Wales, according to family tradition. He heard about the Lewis and Clark expedition’s claims of enormous quantities of game and fur bearing animals and was able to come to North America and establish himself as a trapper. The 1880 census return for his son Oliver indicated however that his father was born in Maryland. The 1880 census return for his son Tipton indicated that his father and mother were both born in Virginia. Oliver’s death certificate indicates Jonathan was born in Scotland.

His son Oliver Perry Goodwin was born near Dayton, Ohio in 1830 so Jonathan was established some time before 1830. He possibly worked with the Sublette family of fur traders in the West from 1820-1830 as family tradition states that his wife was Margaret Sublette, however Oliver’s death certificate indicated her name as Smith, born in Virginia. The 1880 census record for Oliver indicated his mother was born in Virginia.

A family group in Fayette County, Indiana is most likely our subject. A marriage on June 10, 1824 between Jonathan Goodwin and Margaret Smith was recorded in the County Courthouse at Connersville, Indiana. Jonathan was 20 years old, and Margaret was 17 at that time based on their cemetery records.

In Naomi Reynold’s files a record was located indicating that Jonathan was killed by a slave in Ohio in 183?. Another file from Naomi in the Reynolds Family Association records states that Jonathan was born in Wales in 1799 and died at sea, no date given. The transcription of the cemetery stones of Woodland Cemetery and Old City Cemetery in Cole County, Jefferson City, Missouri indicates Jonathan N. Goodwin was born Jan. the 13th, 1804 and died Sept. the 20th, 1839. His stone is a footstone. Margaret L., wife of Jonathan Goodwin, born May 10, 1807, died Jan 25, 1861. Her headstone reads “I waited patiently for the Lord and he inclined unto me and heard my cry.”

The 1820 census of Fayette County, Indiana lists three Goodwin families; Daniel, James and Lemuel, each had males in right age band to be Jonathan’s family group. In 1820 there were twenty-two families of Goodwin’s in Indiana.

A Jonathan Goodwin was located in the 1830 Fayette County, Indiana census by Bill Miller. At that time the records did not show names of the family members so this may not be the right Jonathan, but if it is he had a number of children at that time. Also noted in the census records are several other adults.. All the known children of Jonathan and Margaret were born in Ohio, perhaps at one or the other of their grandparents family homes.

A list of Fayette County taxpayers, from the Indiana Historical Society library, dated 1829 fails to record any Goodwin’s on the county land, road and state tax rolls. This list concerns only land owners and Goodwin’s absence may reflect residence in Ohio at that time shortly before Oliver’s birth.

Margaret Goodwin, with several children and no husband, was located in Jefferson City, Missouri in the 1840 census. She was described as a widow in her daughter Sarah’s wedding announcement in the Jefferson City Enquirer in January 1841.

We can make only an abbreviated time line for Jonathan at this point in our research.

1804, Jan 13 Born, possibly in the United States or Wales or Scotland, date based on cemetery record. 1824, Jun 10 Married in Fayette County, Indiana 1830 Son Oliver born in Ohio 1830 Census record in Fayette County, Indiana 1834 Daughter Jane born in Ohio 1835 Daughter Rachel born in Ohio 1838 Oliver stated he moved to Missouri in 1838 1839, Sep 20 Death record from cemetery foot stone, Jefferson City, Missouri, Woodland Cemetery. 1839 Son Tipton born in Missouri 1840 Margaret as head of family, appears in census in Jefferson Township, Cole County, Missouri 1841 Margaret described as a widow at daughter’s wedding.

These facts do not negate the notes in Naomi’s files as to his death in Ohio and may also support the idea that the family left Ohio after the death of Jonathan in 1839. The history of Fayette County Ohio may shed some light on this matter. An index of Ohio will and estates to 1850 by Bell lists many Goodwins but no Jonathan.

       Margaret Smith (1807-1861)

According to family tradition Margaret Sublette was the mother of Oliver Perry Goodwin. She was married to Jonathan Nels Goodwin. Their son was born in 1830, but other children were born previously. Oliver’s death certificate indicates his mother was named Smith, and was born in Virginia. The 1880 census return for Oliver Perry Goodwin indicated his mother was born in Virginia. The 1880 census for Margaret’s son Tipton states that she was born in Virginia. The 1850 return for St. Louis in which Margaret Goodwin appears states that she was born in Virginia. A marriage record in Fayette County, Indiana between Jonathan Goodwin and Margaret Smith on June 10, 1824 confirms that her name was Smith and not Sublette. The January 21, 1841 Jefferson City Inquirer printed a marriage notice of Sarah Goodwin to Peter Wonderly and indicated that she was the daughter of Margaret L. Goodwin. The initial L is still a mystery.

Margaret’s tombstone in the Woodlawn cemetery, Jefferson City, Missouri states that she was born May 10, 1807 and died January 25, 1861. The inscription has been transcribed as “ I waited patiently for the Lord and he inclined unto me and heard my cry.”

The 1830 census for Fayette County, Indiana lists Jonathan Goodwin and family. This entry gives a total of 5 children under the age of five, 4 males and 1 female. Also, 1 female between five and ten, and 1 male between twenty and thirty. Between ages 30 and 40, 1 male is listed, possibly Jonathan, and 2 females between twenty and thirty, one possibly Margaret, the other unknown.

Margaret was located in the 1840 Census in Cole County, near Jefferson City, Missouri as a head of household with several children. Children under the age of five totaled 1 male, while children between five and ten totaled 2 females. Children between ages ten and fifteen totaled 2 males, possibly Oliver and his brother Tipton, and children between ages fifteen and twenty totaled 2 females, possibly Rachel and Jane.

Margaret J. Goodwin is listed the 1850 Missouri Census in St. Louis. Bill Miller examined these returns and found Margaret, age 41, living with Peter Wonderly, a Coppersmith. Wonderly’s name appears in Oliver Perry Goodwin’s pension application in St. Louis in 1857 as a witness. Listed with Margaret in 1850 was Rachael Goodwin, age 15, born in Indiana. Rachael’s age appears suspect; here she is too young to have been Jonathan’s child.

The 1860 census returns for Cole County, Jefferson City Missouri lists Margaret L. Goodwin, age 54, born in Virginia with Rachel Boyer, age 34, born in Indiana, and Jonathan Goodwin, son, age 22, a carpenter, born in Missouri. Also listed with her was Phoebe P. Smither, age 8, a negro slave, born in Missouri, and Sarah Lewis, age 23, a negro slave, born in Ohio. The identification of these individuals as slaves is in the handwriting of Naomi Reynolds.

Jonathan and Margaret J. Goodwin’s children, as far as we know;

1. Sarah E., married in 1841 at Jefferson City on January 21 by the Reverend Thomas to Peter J. Wonderly of St Louis. She must have been born in about 1825 or later.

2. Oliver Perry Goodwin, born 1830 near Dayton or near Cincinnati across the Ohio from Kentucky. He died at Greeley, Colorado in 1907.

3. Jane, born in 1834. The 1850 census record for Cole County, Jefferson City, Missouri lists a C. M. Carter, saddler, age 27, born in Kentucky, with a wife Mahala J., age 16, born in Ohio, and J. H. Goodwin, age 13, born in Missouri. A note by Naomi states on this record that J.H was a negro slave. Also listed was a John Pope, age 28, born in Germany. Jane Carter cared for some of Oliver and Jennie’s children after Jennie’s death. She died at Lusk, Wyoming on May 19, 1900, and was buried on the Reynolds ranch.

4. Rachel, born about 1835 in Indiana, living with her mother in St. Louis in 1850, age 15. Rachel is also listed in the 1860 census, age 34 (born 1826). A Rachael D. Goodwin was married to S. S. Boy August 1, 1852 at Cole County, Missouri.

5. Tipton, born in 1839 in Missouri. Tip, age 41, carpenter, was located in the 1880 census for Cole County, Jefferson City, Missouri with his family. His wife Mary, age 33, was born in Missouri, with her father born in Kentucky and her mother born in Missouri. Their children Mettie, age 7, Safrona, age 5, Emma, age 3 and Effie L. , age 1 and another child Goldie born in 1881 according to a later note in Naomi’s file, all were born in Missouri. Tip’s mother and father were born in Virginia according to this record. Safrona was married to Benjamin F Sheldon on July 7, 1897 at Cole County. No record of Tipton has been found in the Civil War pension files on the side of the North.

6. Mary J. Goodwin was married to Herman Dermnen on November 18, 1868 at Cole County.

7. A John N Goodwin, married Rosella Augustus Ross on June 14, 1850 at Cole County. Could not be Jonathan, born about 1838 in Missouri(see 1860 census).

The death of Margaret’s husband occurred on September 20, 1839, possibly in Missouri.

A time line of Margaret L. Smith Goodwin can be constructed as follows:

1807, May 10 Born in Virginia as Margaret L. Smith 1824, Jun 10 Married to Jonathan Goodwin at Fayette County Indiana, age 17. Her parents must have been close by. Many Smiths are listed in the 1820 census. Marriage was performed by James Bennefield, under a license dated June 9. 1825 Daughter Sarah born based on census ages 1830 Jonathan Goodwin family appears in the census for Fayette County Indiana. 1830, Jun 9 Son Oliver Perry Goodwin born at Dayton Ohio 1834 Daughter Jane born in Ohio 1835 Daughter Rachel born in Indiana 1838 Oliver claims he moved to Missouri 1838 Son Jonathan born in Missouri 1839 Son Tipton born in Missouri 1839, Sep 20 Husband Jonathan died. 1840 Margaret and her family appear in the census for Cole County Missouri. Jonathan deceased. 1841, Jan 20 Daughter Sarah married to Peter Wonderly of St. Louis at Jefferson City. Margaret described as a widow 1846, May 19 Oliver enlisted in army from Jefferson City. Described himself as a printer 1850, Jun 14 A John N. Goodwin married Rosella Augustus Ross at Jefferson City. 1850 Census record of Margaret Goodwin in St. Louis living with the Wonderly family 1852, Aug 1 Daughter Rachel D. married to Mr. S.S.. Boyer of Vincennes, Indiana at Jefferson City. 1860 Census record of Margaret Goodwin with her family at Jefferson City 1861, Jan 25 Tombstone record of Margaret's death, buried at Woodland cemetery in Jefferson City, Missouri.

           Estella Lizzie “Little All Eyes” Goodwin (1866-1950)

According to family tradition, Estella Lizzie “Little All Eyes” Goodwin was born to Jennie “ Blue Blanket” Robinson and Oliver Goodwin in 1866 near Fort Laramie, Nebraska Territory. Lewis Reynolds stated that “Mother ...was born at Fort Laramie in Dakota Territory (later Wyoming) on June 20, 1866. She was the third of eight daughters born to Jennie Robinson and Oliver P. Goodwin. Jennie was an Indian girl. Oliver was a soldier during the Mexican War before becoming a freighter. At the time of Estella’s birth her father was freighting for the U.S. Government, hauling Army goods from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to Salt Lake City, Utah.”(Reynolds). The court case that awarded Lizzie land at Pine Ridge referred to her family as follows:

“I find from the record in this case that the plaintiff, Estella Lizzie Reynolds was born in the Indian country near Fort Laramie, within what was then Indian Country, in the year 1866, the issue of a marriage between her mother, a full blood Indian, named Blue Blanket, and her father, a white man, named Oliver P. Goodwin. That said Blue Blanket was a member of the Sioux Tribe of Indians and of the Ogalla band at the time of the birth of the plaintiff.”

In 1866 there was a treaty commission meeting at Fort Laramie in which the friendly Indians such as Spotted Tail and Swift Bear participated, but which was not attended by Red Cloud and Man Afraid of his Horses who were at the Powder River. Swift Bear’s sister was married to James Bordeaux and that was one reason that Swift Bear was “friendly”. These hostile Indians caused a great deal of trouble before they returned to the peace talks in 1867.

In 1866 Colonel H. B. Carrington took a huge wagon train from the railhead near Cheyenne up towards the Powder River in order to build forts for the new roads through the wilderness. This caused a big uproar among the tribes, and resulted in the killing of over one hundred soldiers at Fort Phil Kearny in the Fetterman massacre. Also at this time there were large crews of men working on the Union Pacific railroad and freight wagons hauling supplies. Most likely Oliver Perry Goodwin was involved in this activity.

In 1866 Spotted Tail and Swift Bear were taken for a short ride on the train. They passed by their own camp at thirty miles an hour and were amazed, as were their followers who watched them go by.(Hyde, Spotted Tail’s Folk, a History of the Brule Sioux).

In 1868 the Peace Commission selected a site for a new agency, the Whetstone, near Fort Randall on the Missouri River in present day Charles Mix County, South Dakota. As mentioned, in 1867 the half-breeds and loafer band at Fort Laramie had asked for land for themselves. Oliver Perry Goodwin signed this request as did James Bordeaux.

James Bordeaux obtained an appointment to supervise the transportation of subsistence stores for the movement of people to the new location. In June he left Fort Laramie with heavily loaded wagons and remained with the Brule at the site until fall. It was at this time that Indians stole horses and cattle from his store and ranch near Fort Laramie, and also the outlaws killed his store proprietor at Chugwater ( Hunton). It’s quite possible that the Goodwin family was involved in this transportation business with the Bordeaux's.

It is reported in Hyde, Spotted Tail’s Folk, A History of the Brule Sioux, that Captain Poole, the head of the Whetstone Agency, and his wife, started an Indian School. One of Bordeaux’s half-breed daughters was employed as an interpreter and assistant teacher.

Hunton recorded a fight in the Bordeaux station area in 1868 during which Goodwin was injured. Goodwin was reported in Susan Bordeaux’s manuscript to have left the area shortly thereafter (Bettleyoun). This may account for the family’s move to Colorado and their presence there in 1870.

The court documents indicate that Lizzie lived with her mother at her place of birth until after the ratification of the 1868 treaty. Her testimony indicated that for a short time thereafter her father, mother and herself and her sisters went to Colorado, but returned to the Indian Country and “resided with and affiliated with said Indians at what was known as the Sod agency for an indefinite period from 1872 to 1874, and during that period drew rations and was treated in all respects as a member of this band...”.

The 1870 Census for Colorado recorded the Goodwin family in northern Colorado at La Porte in the Cache de Poudre locale. This was about 20 miles south of Cheyenne, Wyoming. Estella was described as “Elizabeth, female, white, age 3 at last birthday.” Her sisters Nellie, age 8, Fanny, age 7, Susan, age 5 and Julia, age 2 were there also, along with their mother “Jane, female, Indian, age 26.” All the children except Julia were born in Wyoming. Jane was also born in Wyoming. Julia was recorded as being born in Colorado.

Lewis Reynolds recalled that in 1866 the Goodwins moved to Fort Collins. He also stated that they later moved to Bear Creek, Wyoming where Jennie died in 1875, and that after his wife’s death Goodwin bought a ranch on Horse Creek and established a post office, stage station, general store and U.S. Cavalry Supply Station.

The court testimony states that “her mother, Blue Blanket, died Sept. 27, 1875, and she and one of her sisters returned to what is now the Pine Ridge Agency, and lived with her grandmother, Mrs. Robinson, and an aunt, a sister of her mother, for an indefinite period, stated at from one year and a half to two years...”. This statement verifies that Mrs. Robinson was Jennie’s mother, and that she had a sister. No name was given, but evidence from Bob Peterson’s family history indicates that the aunt was Kate Rooks, and the mother of Kate and Jennie was Susan, a full blood Lakota, born in 1820.

The Crazy Horse Surrender Ledger lists Mrs. Robinson, Mrs. Rooks, Mrs. Stover and several female and male children at Red Cloud Agency in 1876 and 1877.

Court testimony further indicates that in the spring of 1877, Lizzie was taken from the reservation back to her father’s home for the purpose of educating her and sending her to school. Her sister Julia was not mentioned in this regard. In the fall of 1877 the Red Cloud Agency was moved to the Sioux reservation in Dakota Territory.

The June, 1880 census recorded Lizzie and her sisters and father at Horse Creek. She was recorded as Elizabeth, age 14. Her sister Nellie, age 20 was recorded there with her husband William S. Hudspith, a cattle herder born in Texas, age 22, and their daughter Juna, age 2, born in Wyoming. Lizzie’s other siblings at this June, 1880 recording were Lulu. age 6, Catherine, age 10, brother Charles, age 11, Julia, age 12, Susan, age 15, and Fannie, age 17. In this census all the children were recorded as being born in Wyoming and all were white.

Sometime in the early 1880's Lizzie met a cattleman named William Marcus Reynolds(1861-1930), who had come up the trail from Kansas and Texas several times. According to Virginia Reynolds Signaigo Laing “ Lizzy’s father, Oliver Goodwin, looked all the young men over and decided that William Marcus Reynolds was the best rider and the most serious of the trail riders. He arranged the marriage of Lizzie and Billy.” Billy settled down in the area, and married Lizzie in 1881, when she was 15, at Fort Laramie, according to family tradition. According to Lewis Reynolds, Lizzie and Billy were married at Horse Creek on November 24, 1881. Billy’s obituary states that he was married to Lizzie at Cheyenne.

Oliver Perry Goodwin offered the young couple land and a ranch house nearby. Billy had already agreed to be a foreman for another ranch for a year, but they married anyway and Lizzie ran the ranch they obtained from her father, while Billy continued his job. They met when they could obtain the time off.

Lizzie and Billy’s children are described in Billy’s Reynolds section of this work.

Estella died at the home of her daughter Naomi in San Bernardino, California on December 21, 1950. She was 84 years old, and in failing health for a number of years, but her death was the result of cerebral thrombosis following a hip fracture. Her obituary states that after her marriage to Billy Reynolds they moved to their first home, the Old New Hampshire Ranch at the head of Rawhide Creek. Later they sold this place and moved to another ranch on Six Mile Creek north of Torrington. In 1893 they purchased the old Newton Meadows Ranch south of Lusk where the family lived until 1916. This ranch was then sold to the Baca family who resided there for a number of years and was later purchased by the James Hoblits. Appendix 11 contains her obituary from the Lusk Herald of December 28, 1950.

From family records and knowledge we know that Estella was involved in the Sioux tribal affairs with her sister, Julia “Little Horse”, and that she maintained a connection with the Sioux Indians all her life. In an article about Billy Reynolds written by Naomi Martin she states that “In 1918 Lizzie sold her Bar Five Ranch on allotment in South Dakota”(Martin). This statement would seem to indicate that she had obtained allotment land in or near Pine Ridge reservation independently of her sister Julia. It is thought by the family that Julia obtained her land, still held by the family, from marriage to members of the Pine Ridge tribe.

Oliver Reynolds recalled that the land he presently holds “came from the estate of Julia Little Horse and that there were twenty-six heirs involved in the settlement. Included were Lewis and his wife, Virginia Reynolds, Lizzie, her mother, and Oliver”. Evidently both sisters obtained some land as a result of decent from Jennie Robinson. Lewis Reynolds in his story of his life in Wyoming states “My mother came down here (South Dakota) to get her allotment of land. She had to go through court to do it. She had also picked out a piece of land for us kids. The court decided in her favor and gave her a section of land but decided that since we kids were born off the reservation and had become accustomed to white man’s way we weren’t entitled to the land”(Reynolds).

The court records for this settlement are in Lizzie’s file at Pine Ridge, from which copies have been made available by Bill Miller. The District Court of the United States for the District of South Dakota, Western Division in case number 376, approved June 13, 1913 a judgment in Lizzie’s favor, and issued a decree on July 8, 1913 awarding Lizzie Reynolds title to 640 acres (the entire section 33) , of Township 40 of Range 35 in South Dakota within the Pine Ridge Reservation. These documents are found in Appendix 15.

          Kathryn Roubavol (1831?-?)

According to Reynolds family tradition, Kathryn Roubavol was the daughter of James Bordeaux and an Indian wife. She was reported to have been born in North Dakota or Canada. No other information is available from the family regarding this person.

From Hafen and others we learn that Bordeaux was at Fort Union, on the North Dakota-Montana line near Saskatchewan, in the early 1830s. Bettleyoun states that he was carrying express correspondence from Fort Union to Fort Pierre in South Dakota. The 1870 Census record for Jane Goodwin, or “Jennie Robinson” demands a birth year in 1843-44. We might conclude that Bordeaux probably had an Indian woman as a companion starting in 1830 or 1831 at Fort Union. Kathryn might have been born in 1831, as Bordeaux did not arrive at Fort Union until the summer of 1830. Kathryn would then have to have met up with Robinson in 1843 or 1844 in the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming where the family tradition states Jennie Robinson was born. There was a Jack Robinson at Fort Bridger on Black’s Fork at this time but his records show he had wives and children with different names than the family we are interested in. In 1843 and 1844 Bordeaux was at Fort Laramie with his Sioux wife and children.

The photo back notes from Ellen Brockman indicate that Jennie Louisa was a half blooded Indian. This is incorrect if the court documents that established the Indian land’s for Estella Lizzie Reynolds are correct in stating that Jennie was a full blood.

From the standard sources on Bordeaux:Hanson,Trenholm, and McDermott we learn that a first wife, of the Ree or Rhee or Arikara tribe was at Fort Laramie, even before the US Army bought it in 1846. Some of the sources state that this woman left the Fort and went back to her own people. Bordeaux then married his first Sioux wife in about 1840 or 1842 (Hanson).

Some sources state that there were two children from the first wife. Kathryn may have been one, the other is unknown. Susan Bordeaux Bettelyoun states that one of these children, Mary, was lost at a picnic in St. Louis.

The name Roubavol is a puzzle. No names of James Bordeaux’s ancestors correspond, not have any traders names matched. It could be that this name was passed down in oral tradition, and the spelling could be considerably different. Kathryn may have had two husbands since her daughter was named Jennie Robinson. The Susan Robinson that we discuss in this document was evidently married twice, once to an Eli Robinson. In 1858 at LaPorte, Colorado at the Cache de la Poudre there was a man named Ravofire who was associated with the founding of Colonna.

Parkman states ( according to Feltskog’s analysis) that there was a family at Fort Laramie in 1846 named Robidoux. They were involved in blacksmithing for the locals and the passerby. This may have been the family name, corrupted by oral tradition. Feltskog mentions Antoine, Joseph,Joseph E., Michael R., and the Robidoux Pass in the Scott’s Bluff area of Nebraska with respect to this name. There was also a Robidoux spring nearby. Antoine may have been the same person who acted as a translator to the Mexican War troops from St. Louis that went with Doniphan, and Oliver Perry Goodwin,in 1846.

Bordeaux himself could not read or write until late in life. He valued education in his children. We know that he sent some of his children from the second wife Huntkalutawin to school in Iowa. He may have sent Kathryn to school in St. Louis. In 1849 Bordeaux is recorded at St. Louis by newspaper accounts ( DeVoto, Across The Wide Missouri ). He may have taken his young daughter, born about 1831 with him.

Until we learn more about this person she will remain a mystery to this family, even though her name has been passed down to us as a member.

Susan Robinson (1820-1900), Sioux

Susan Robinson, a full blooded Sioux Indian, is believed to have been the mother of Jennie Robinson, the wife of Oliver Perry Goodwin. Several pieces of evidence point to this conclusion but no specific record establishes her as the maternal ancestor. The most compelling evidence is a statement in Estella Goodwin Reynolds’ court case to the effect that she and her sister Julia went to the reservation and stayed with Mrs. Robinson and Aunt Kate Rooks. We know from Peterson’s Livermont-Rooks family research that Mrs. Robinson was Susan, a full Sioux. Peterson states that oral tradition indicates she may have been related to American Horse (c 1840-1908). Hyde is unclear on American Horse’s ancestry since at least three individuals held this name.

The following description of the basic organization of the Sioux is taken from The Last Days of the Sioux Nation by Robert M. Utley, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1963 and Red Cloud’s Folk, A History of the Oglala Sioux Indians by George Hyde, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1937.

There were many varieties of Sioux. The “Dakota” and the “Sioux” were the same people. “Dakota” meant allies, while “Sioux” was the name given them by their enemies, meaning enemy. Originally the Sioux were forest people who dwelt in the lake region around the head of the Mississippi River. They lived in semipermanent houses of pole, earth and bark, and lived on berries, fish, and game, procured on foot. Then, during the first half of the eighteenth century, French traders moved up from the Southeast, equipping the Chippewas, bitter enemies of the Sioux, with firearms. No longer could the Sioux hold their own against the Chippewas, and with food growing increasingly scarce, they drifted westward up the Minnesota River Valley.

Some of the Sioux continued to the treeless prairies beyond, and in about 1760 began to reach the Missouri River in mounting numbers. These people who pushed westward to the Missouri, and later still farther west, became the Teton Sioux. By the opening of the nineteenth century they had evolved into one of seven well-defined divisions of the Sioux confederation. The Teton division was itself a loose confederation of seven tribes: Oglala, Brule, Hunkpapa, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Two Kettle and Blackfeet. Each of the seven tribes in turn subdivided itself into numerous bands of changing size and composition.

The Teton division, like the parent Sioux confederation, had no form of central government, and the tribe and band thus commanded the largest share of the allegiance and affection of the people. But kinship and similar customs, history and danger forged strong bonds among the Teton tribes. Even though they rarely achieved unity of action, there was a unity of spirit that more or less justified the label applied to the Tetons in later years, by the white man: The Sioux Nation.

The Oglalas, meaning Village Divided into Many Small Bands, or simply scattered bands, as named by Lesueur, were living south of the Minnesota River and then scattered out in little camps in the prairies. The Brules, or Burnt Thighs, were also living and hunting in the prairies. Each year they went to a point near the mouth of the Mississippi to trade at the annual trading fairs. Standing in the way of their advance to the west were the Arikaras, a powerful nation along the Missouri river. With the arrival of more white traders epidemics of smallpox struck the Arikaras and reduced their numbers severely. By 1786 the Arikaras were living in only five villages along the Missouri, and were being bypassed by the Brules and the Oglalas.

Most of these Sioux movements were made without horses. They slowly acquired horses from the Cheyennes and developed their skills in hunting and in traveling great distances. The first entry in American Horse’s winter-count refers to the discovery of the Black Hills by a war-party of Oglalas led by Standing Bull in 1775-1776. Cloud Shields winter-count refers to the same event in 1777. The Sioux were gaining land and increasing their population and driving out the Crows and Cheyennes from the entire region.

From Truteau’s reports and the winter-count records it is clear that in 1795 the Oglalas were far out near the Black Hills, engaged in terrorizing the tribes in that region, the Brules were beginning to hunt on the White River, and some remaining Sioux, the Saones, were still east of the Missouri River interacting with the Arikaras.The Saones soon began to join their Oglala kinsmen in their warlike undertakings, and by 1840 perhaps half of all the people who called themselves Oglalas were of Saone blood.

During the period between 1800 and 1825 the Oglalas had a regular beat, passing back and forth between the Black Hills and the mouth of the Bad River. At first they wintered on the Missouri, trading during that season with Loisel at Cedar Island below Bad River or with some other French traders from St. Louis. Soon after 1805 they began to spend their winters in the eastern edge of the Black Hills, usually near Bear Butte. In the spring they would go down the Bad River, hunting as they went along, and upon reaching the Missouri they joined the Saones and Brules in robbing traders going upriver to the Arikaras and Mandans.

As time went on additional bands were found with the Oglalas. The Kiyuksas and the Brules and Saones all seem to be together in this time period. Red Water and his band seem to have come from the Brules and soon this chief was aiding Bull Bear of the Kiyuksas in getting control of the Oglala tribe. From the Brules also came the band led by Lone Man, Red Cloud’s father. One of the chiefs was Man-Afraid-of-his-Horse, whose son of the same name was born in the Oglala camp the winter of 1814-15.

Red Cloud was born in the country between the Black Hills and the Missouri during the winter of 1821-22. He was born the year a blazing star passed over the Sioux country and was so named because of the lurid light in the sky caused by the meteor.

In 1810 the Teton division, including the Brules and Saone, was along the Missouri. A trapper named Carson fired a gun across the river and killed a famous Teton chief named Blue Blanket. The Brule winter count for this year states “Blue Blanket’s father killed (in) winter.” Hyde states that the father was also named Blue Blanket, so there were at least two generations with this name.

Red Cloud stated that his father died of bad liquor or perhaps drinking in general. Red Cloud was a small boy at the time. This was about 1825. Red Cloud was raised by his sisters. At this same time the Oglalas signed their first treaty with the United States. The Atkinson expedition came up the Missouri in a steamboat and signed articles of peace and friendship along the way.

The names of the Indians who signed the treaty in 1825 give a picture of the organization of the tribes. Four chiefs named Standing Bull, Shoulder, Bull Bear and Ghost Boy or Ghost Heart and four head warriors signed the documents. The four warriors were Black Elk of the True Oglala band with Standing Bull as chief, Lone Bull whose chief was Shoulder, Crazy Bear with chief Bull Bear of the Kiyuksa band and Mad Shade whose chief was Ghost Boy.

These four ban

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Oliver Perry Goodwin's Timeline

OH, United States
June 20, 1866
Fort Laramie, Goshen, WY, United States
Age 77
CO, United States