Ona Maria Staines, escaped slave of George Washington

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Ona Maria Staines (Judge), escaped slave of George Washington

Also Known As: "Oney"
Birthdate: (75)
Birthplace: Mount Vernon, Virginia
Death: February 25, 1848 (71-79)
Greenland, New Hampshire, United States
Place of Burial: Greenland, Rockingham, New Hampshire, United States
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Andrew Judge, indentured servant and Betty Davis, dower slave of Custis family
Wife of John Staines
Mother of Eliza Staines; William Staines and Nancy Staines
Sister of Nancy Judge; Lucinda Judge and Philadelphia Costin, freed slave of Custis family
Half sister of Austin

Managed by: Linda Kathleen Thompson, (c) on ...
Last Updated:

About Ona Maria Staines, escaped slave of George Washington

Ona Maria Staines (Judge)

Born: circa 1773 at Mount Vernon, in Virginia

Died: February 25, 1848 in Greenland, New Hampshire, USA

Children: Eliza, William, and Nancy

There is now living in the borders of the town of Greenland, N.H., a runaway slave of Gen. Washington, at present supported by the County of Rockingham. Her name at the time of her elopement was ONA MARIA JUDGE. She is not able to give the year of her escape, but says that she came from Philadelphia just after the close of Washington's second term of the Presidency, which must fix it somewhere in the [early?] part of the year 1797.

Being a waiting maid of Mrs. Washington, she was not exposed to any peculiar hardships. If asked why she did not remain in his service, she gives two reasons, first, that she wanted to be free; secondly that she understood that after the decease of her master and mistress, she was to become the property of a grand-daughter of theirs, by name of Custis, and that she was determined never to be her slave.

Being asked how she escaped, she replied substantially as follows, "Whilst they were packing up to go to Virginia, I was packing to go, I didn't know where; for I knew that if I went back to Virginia, I should never get my liberty. I had friends among the colored people of Philadelphia, had my things carried there beforehand, and left Washington's house while they were eating dinner."

She came on board a ship commanded by CAPT. JOHN BOLLES, and bound to Portsmouth, N.H. In relating it, she added, "I never told his name till after he died, a few years since, lest they should punish him for bringing me away. …"

Washington made two attempts to recover her. First, he sent a man by the name of Bassett to persuade her to return; but she resisted all the argument he employed for this end. He told her they would set her free when she arrived at Mount Vernon, to which she replied, "I am free now and choose to remain so."

Finding all attempts to seduce her to slavery again in this manner useless, Bassett was sent once more by Washington, with orders to bring her and her infant child by force. The messenger, being acquainted with Gov. ,then Senator, John Langdon, then of Portsmouth, took up lodgings with him, and disclosed to him the object of his mission.

The good old Governor. (to his honor be it spoken), must have possessed something of the spirit of modern anti-slavery. He entertained Bassett very handsomely, and in the meantime sent word to Mrs. Staines, to leave town before twelve o'clock at night, which she did, retired to a place of concealment, and escaped the clutches of the oppressor.

Shortly after this, Washington died, and, said she, "they never troubled me any more after he was gone. …

The facts here related are known through this region, and may be relied on as substantially correct. Probably they were not for years given to the public, through fear of her recapture; but this reason no longer exists, since she is too old and infirm to be of sufficient value to repay the expense of search.

Though a house servant, she had no education, nor any valuable religious instruction; says she never heard Washington pray, and does not believe that he was accustomed to. "Mrs. Washington used to read prayers, but I don't call that praying.["] Since her escape she has learned to read, trusts she has been made "wise unto salvation," and is, I think, connected with a church in Portsmouth.

When asked if she is not sorry she left Washington, as she has labored so much harder since, than before, her reply is, "No, I am free, and have, I trust been made a child of God by the means.

Never shall I forget the fire that kindled in her age-bedimmed eye, or the smile that played upon her withered countenance, as I spake of the Redeemer in whom there is neither "bond nor free," bowed with her at the mercy seat and commended her to Him "who heareth prayer" and who regards "the poor and needy when they cry," I felt that were it mine to choose, I would not exchange her possessions, "rich in faith," and sustained, while tottering over the grave, by "a hope full of immortality," for tall the glory and renown of him whose slave she was.


Probably the Capt. John Bowles that helped Ona escape. - John Bowles at findagrave

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Ona Maria Staines, escaped slave of George Washington's Timeline

Age 25
Portsmouth, Rockingham, New Hampshire, United States
Age 28
Age 29
Portsmouth, Rockingham, New Hampshire, United States
February 25, 1848
Age 75
Greenland, New Hampshire, United States
Greenland, Rockingham, New Hampshire, United States