Peroz I, Shah of Persia

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Peroz I Unknown, King of Persia

Also Known As: "Emperor of Sasanian Persia"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Persia
Death: Died in Herat, Persia
Cause of death: killed at the battle of Herat
Immediate Family:

Son of Yazdegerd II, King of Persia and Dinak, Empress of Sasanian Persia
Husband of Dinak wife of Peruz I - mother of Kavadh I and Jamasp
Father of Kavadh, I, King of Persia; Kavadh I; Djamasp - Raja Iran XXI (496–498); <private> Sasanian King (son of Piruz I); Zareh and 1 other
Brother of Hormizd III Sasani, King of Persia; Balash I 18th Sassanid King, of Persia and <private> Sassanian prince leader of rebellion in 485
Half brother of Hormizd III Sasani, King of Persia

Occupation: King, koning van Perzië
Managed by: Douglas John Nimmo
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About Peroz I, Shah of Persia

Occupation: Shah of Persia


Peroz I (Pirooz, Peirozes, Priscus, fr. 33; Perozes, Procop. Pers. I. 3 and Agath. iv. 27; the modern form of the name is Perooz, Piruz, or the Arabized Ferooz, Firuz; Persian: پیروز "the Victor"), was the seventeenth Sassanid King of Persia, who ruled from 457 to 484.

On the death of Peroz I's father, Yazdegerd II, the younger son of the deceased Emperor, Hormizd seized the throne in the absence of his elder brother Peroz who had been posted as the Governor of distant Sistan forcing Peroz to seek the protection of the Hephthalites. The Hephthalite monarch, Khush-Nevaz was only too glad to welcome him and aid him in his war against Hormizd. So, with Hephthalite assistance, Peroz led an army against Hormizd, defeated him and held him captive. Sources differ as to what happened to Hormizd after his capture. Some say that he was put to death. However, the Persian historian, Mirkhond says that Peroz pardoned his younger brother and amicably spared his life.

Peroz ruled from 457 to 484. He is said to have favored Nestorianism and persecuted Chalcedonians. Historians regard him as a fearless monarch and give him the epithet, Peroz the Victorious.

The civil war in Persia had affected the nation so much as to cost a province. Vatche, the king of Aghouank (Albania), rebelled against Persian rule and declared himself independent while the brothers were busy fighting amongst each other. So once Peroz I ascended the throne in the year 457, he led an army into Albania and completely subjugated the nation. He then dismissed his allies the Hephthalites with costly presents and proceeded to rule the nation in moderation and justice.

Historians of the period record the occurrence of a seven-year famine which devastated the crops and ruined the country. Sources say that the wells became dry and that there was not a trickle of water either in the Tigris or the Euphrates. Eventually the crops failed and thousands perished.

Historians record that Peroz I showed an extreme rigidness of character in the face of such an adversity and great wisdom in dealing with the catastrophe. As a result of his wisdom and benevolence, Persia gradually recovered from the famine.

No sooner had Persia recovered from the famine, than war broke out with the Huns of the north. Provoked by an insult heaped upon him by Khush-Newaz, Peroz led an invasion of the Hephthalite country forcing them to retreat. But when Peroz pursued the Hephthalites to the hills, he suffered a crushing defeat and was forced to yield to the Huns and pay them tribute. More importantly, he had to surrender his son Kavadh I to Khush-Newaz as hostage.

In 481, Peroz was defeated by the Kushans. Soon afterwards, Iberia broke into revolt and declared its independence. Peroz sent the Persian Governor of Armenia to Iberia to quell the rebellion. But no sooner had he left the province, that Armenia rose in rebellion and chose an Armenian Christian called Bargatide as its Emperor.

The Persian Governor, Adar-Vishnasp after restoring Persian rule in Iberia rushed to Armenia to quell the rebellion but was squarely defeated. Peroz responded by sending two large armies to the region, one under Adar-Narseh into Armenia and the other against Iberia.

Sahag, the Armenian king, was killed and Mihran was wreaking havoc in Persia, but just when success was within grasp, Peroz blundered by recalling Mihran and entrusting the command to one Hazaravough. Hazaravough too did not remain long in Armenia and was recalled in a few months. This policy of rotating military commanders frequently ensured that Armenia was lost to the Persians for the time being.

Towards the end of his reign, Peroz gathered an army of 50,000-100,000 men and, placing his brother Balash at the head of the government in Ctesiphon, he invaded the Hephthalites in order to avenge the insult heaped upon him during the first campaign. He set up his position at Balkh and rejected the terms of peace offered by Khush-Newaz. However, when a showdown with the Persians seemed imminent, Khush-Newaz sent a small body of troops in advance in order to trick Peroz into an ambuscade. The plan was successful, and the Persians were defeated with great slaughter, Peroz being one of the victims. Khush-Newaz, however, treated the body of his erstwhile friend with dignity and dispatched it to Persia to be buried with full honors. Balash was crowned the next Emperor of Persia.

Soon afterwards, the Hephthalites invaded and plundered Persia. Persia, however, was saved when a noble Persian from the Parthian family of Karen, Zarmihr (or Sokhra/Sufra), raised Balash (484–488), one of Peroz I's brothers, to the throne.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peroz_I for more information.


Peroz I (Pirooz, Peirozes, Priscus, fr. 33; Perozes, Procop. Pers. I. 3 and Agath. iv. 27; the modern form of the name is Perooz, Piruz, or the Arabized Ferooz, Firuz; Persian: پیروز "the Victor"), was the seventeenth Sassanid King of Persia, who ruled from 457 to 484. Peroz I was the eldest son of Yazdegerd II of Persia (438–457).

Contents [hide]

1 War of Succession

2 Reign

3 Events

3.1 The Seven Year Famine 464-471

3.2 The First Campaign Against the Huns

3.3 Trouble in Armenia

3.4 The Second Campaign against the Huns and Peroz I's Death

4 References

[edit]War of Succession

On the death of Peroz I's father, Yazdegerd II, the younger son of the deceased Emperor, Hormizd seized the throne in the absence of his elder brother Peroz who had been posted as the Governor of distant Sistan forcing Peroz to seek the protection of the Hephthalites. The Hephthalite monarch, Khush-Nevaz was only too glad to welcome him and aid him in his war against Hormizd. So, with Hephthalite assistance, Peroz led an army against Hormizd, defeated him and held him captive. Sources differ as to what happened to Hormizd after his capture. Some say that he was put to death. However, the Persian historian, Mirkhond says that Peroz pardoned his younger brother and amicably spared his life.

[edit]Reign

Peroz ruled from 457 to 484. He is said to have favored Nestorianism and persecuted Chalcedonians. Historians regard him as a fearless monarch and give him the epithet, Peroz the Victorious.

[edit]Events

The civil war in Persia had affected the nation so much as to cost a province. Vatche, the king of Aghouank (Albania), rebelled against Persian rule and declared himself independent while the brothers were busy fighting amongst each other. So once Peroz I ascended the throne in the year 457, he led an army into Albania and completely subjugated the nation. He then dismissed his allies the Hephthalites with costly presents and proceeded to rule the nation in moderation and justice.

[edit]The Seven Year Famine 464-471

Historians of the period record the occurrence of a seven-year famine which devastated the crops and ruined the country. Sources say that the wells became dry and that there was not a trickle of water either in the Tigris or the Euphrates. Eventually the crops failed and thousands perished.

Historians record that Peroz I showed an extreme rigidness of character in the face of such an adversity and great wisdom in dealing with the catastrophe. As a result of his wisdom and benevolence, Persia gradually recovered from the famine.

[edit]The First Campaign Against the Huns

No sooner had Persia recovered from the famine, than war broke out with the Huns of the north. Provoked by an insult heaped upon him by Khush-Newaz, Peroz led an invasion of the Hephthalite country forcing them to retreat. But when Peroz pursued the Hephthalites to the hills, he suffered a crushing defeat and was forced to yield to the Huns and pay them tribute. More importantly, he had to surrender his son Kavadh I to Khush-Newaz as hostage.

[edit]Trouble in Armenia

In 481, Peroz was defeated by the Kushans. Soon afterwards, Iberia broke into revolt and declared its independence. Peroz sent the Persian Governor of Armenia to Iberia to quell the rebellion. But no sooner had he left the province, that Armenia rose in rebellion and chose an Armenian Christian called Bargatide as its Emperor.

The Persian Governor, Adar-Vishnasp after restoring Persian rule in Iberia rushed to Armenia to quell the rebellion but was squarely defeated. Peroz responded by sending two large armies to the region, one under Adar-Narseh into Armenia and the other against Iberia.

Sahag, the Armenian king, was killed and Mihran was wreaking havoc in Persia, but just when success was within grasp, Peroz blundered by recalling Mihran and entrusting the command to one Hazaravough. Hazaravough too did not remain long in Armenia and was recalled in a few months. This policy of rotating military commanders frequently ensured that Armenia was lost to the Persians for the time being.

[edit]The Second Campaign against the Huns and Peroz I's Death

Towards the end of his reign, Peroz gathered an army of 50,000-100,000 men and, placing his brother Balash at the head of the government in Ctesiphon, he invaded the Hephthalites in order to avenge the insult heaped upon him during the first campaign. He set up his position at Balkh and rejected the terms of peace offered by Khush-Newaz. However, when a showdown with the Persians seemed imminent, Khush-Newaz sent a small body of troops in advance in order to trick Peroz into an ambuscade. The plan was successful, and the Persians were defeated with great slaughter, Peroz being one of the victims. Khush-Newaz, however, treated the body of his erstwhile friend with dignity and dispatched it to Persia to be buried with full honors. Balash was crowned the next Emperor of Persia.

Soon afterwards, the Hephthalites invaded and plundered Persia. Persia, however, was saved when a noble Persian from the Parthian family of Karen, Zarmihr (or Sokhra/Sufra), raised Balash (484–488), one of Peroz I's brothers, to the throne.

Peroz I

Sassanid dynasty

Preceded by

Hormizd III Great King (Shah) of Persia

457 –484 Succeeded by

Balash


Peroz I (Middle Persian: PiruzPahlavi.png; New Persian: پیروز "the Victor"), was the eighteenth king of the Sasanian Empire, who ruled from 459 to 484. Peroz I was the eldest son of Yazdegerd II (438–457).

On the death of Peroz I's father, Yazdegerd II, the younger son of the deceased Emperor, Hormizd, seized the throne in the absence of his elder brother Peroz who had been posted as the governor of distant Sistan forcing Peroz to seek the protection of the Hephthalites. The Hephthalite monarch, Khushnavaz was only too glad to welcome him and aid him in his war against Hormizd. Peroz was also supported by Raham of the Mihran family.[1] During this dynastic struggle, Denag, who was the mother of the two Sasanian princes, governed all of the Sasanian capital of Ctesiphon, or some parts of it.

So, with Hephthalite and Mihranid assistance, Peroz led an army against Hormizd, defeated him and held him captive. He then ceded Taliqan to Khushnavaz.

Sources differ as to what happened to Hormizd after his capture. Some say that he was put to death.However, the Persian historian, Mir-Khvand says that Peroz pardoned his younger brother and amicably spared his life.

Aftermath of the civil war The civil war in Iran had affected the nation so much as to cost a province. Vache II, the king of Caucasian Albania, rebelled against Sasanian rule and declared himself independent while the brothers were busy fighting amongst each other. So once Peroz I ascended the throne in the year 459, he led an army into Albania and completely subjugated the nation. He then allowed the Armenians of Persian Armenia to practice their religion, Christianity, freely. He also made an agreement with the Byzantine Empire that they would together defend the Caucasus from incursions. Furthermore, Peroz ordered his foster brother Izad Gushnasp to take the Armenians who had been held captive during the reign of his father to Herat.

Seven-year famine (464-471)

War with the Kidarites [The Kidarites, who had established themselves in parts of Transoxiana during the reign of the Sasanian king Shapur II, and had a long history of conflicts with the Sasanians, stopped paying tributes to them in the early 460s, thus starting a new war between these two states.

Two wars with the Hephthalites

Trouble in Armenia

Third war with the Hephthalites and death In 484, Peroz I, before invading the territory of the Hephthalite Empire, had his brother Balash installed as viceroy, and Sukhra appointed as his minister. Peroz I, however, suffered a major defeat to the Hephthalites and was killed at the battle of Herat.

[Peroz, the bitter persecutor of Christians, died a wicked death and was succeeded by Valash who ruled for four years [A.D. 484-488]. :

[In this period the Samaritans rebelled and established a certain man named Justus as their king. He killed many Christians, entering the church in Caesarea [Palestina] and shedding blood. They pulled down this church [and built a temple in its place]. The Byzantine troops went against them and broke them. They sent [the head of\ Justus, whom the Jews had made king [g212], to Emperor Zeno; and the temple which the Jews had built they consecrated as a church in the name of the blessed Mary. The Jews found in Antioch also were destroyed.

In these times there was an earthquake and the city of Nicomedia was destroyed — for the sixth time by the same means. Then Emperor Zeno died at the age of 60, after reigning for 16 years. Peroz, the bitter persecutor of Christians, died a wicked death and was succeeded by Valash who ruled for four years [A.D. 484-488]. In his day there was peace with Christians.

events: In the middle of the 5th century, by order of the Persian King Peroz I, King Vache built a city initially called Perozabad in Utik, and later called Partaw and Barda; he made it the capital of Albania.[73] Partaw was the seat of the Albanian kings and Persian marzban, and in 552 AD the seat of the Albanian Catholicos was also transferred to Partaw

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