Pierre René Rene Maillot dit Laviolette, Jr.

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Pierre René Rene Maillot dit Laviolette, Jr.

French: René-Pierre Maillot, Jr.
Also Known As: "Mailhot", "Millaut", "Mayot"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Castet-Arrouy, Gers, Midi-Pyrénées, France
Death: 1711 (73-74)
Deschaillons, Deschaillons-sur-Saint-Laurent, Bécancour, Québec, Canada
Immediate Family:

Son of Rene Maillot dit Laviolette; Rene Maillot dit Laviolette; Jeanne-Catherine Berger and Jeanne-Catherine Berger
Husband of Marie Chapacou
Father of Pierre-René Mailhot, III; Marie-Rose Maillot; Marie-Simone Simonette Maillot; Guillaume Maillot; Marie-Louise Mailhiot and 9 others
Brother of Marie Rose Maillot; Simone Maillot; Marie Louise Maillot; Marie Anne Maillot and Francois Maillot

Managed by: David Lee Kaleita
Last Updated:

About Pierre René Rene Maillot dit Laviolette, Jr.

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More Notes

Name: Pierre Rene Jr MAILLOT

Surname: Maillot

Given Name: Pierre Rene Jr

Sex: M

Birth: 1644 in Gascogne, France

Death: 1711 in St Anne de la Perade, Quebec

Father: Rene MAILLOT b: 1600 in Touloise, Gascogne, France

Mother: Jeanne Catherine BERGER Ou Prigele b: 1618 in Castellory, Toulouse, Gascogne, France

Marriage 1 Marie CHAPACOU b: 1658 in Province of Quebec

Married: 28 Oct 1671 in Quebec City, Quebec

Children

Pierre Rene III MAILLOT b: 1675 in Grondines, Portneuf, Quebec
Guillaume MAILLOT b: 31 Dec 1680 in Grondines, Portneuf, Quebec
Simonette MAILLOT Laviolette b: 1682 in Grondines, Quebec
Louis MAILLOT Mailhot b: 14 Jan 1688 in Cap Sante, Quebec
Jacques MAILLOT b: 1691 in Cap Sante, Portneuf, Quebec
Francois Louis MAILLOT b: 18 Jan 1695 in Grondines, Portneuf, Quebec
Louise MAILLOT
Genevieve MAILLOT b: 1700
Rose MAILLOT b: 1673 in Grondines, Quebec
Francois MAILLOT
Louise MAILLOT

Maillot is also spelled Mailhot.

He arrived in Quebec in 1665 as a soldier in the Porte Company of the famous Carignan-Salieres Regiment, the troops who had come to rid the country of the Iroquois menace.

Without a doubt, it was the unsettled conditions brought about by the salt-tax revolt and the difficulties of making ends meet in Gascony, which drove ancestor René Maillot dit Laviolette, about 1665, to try his luck in New France. But things were no easier for him in his adopted land. Poor on arrival, he died still poorer, completely impoverished and consumed by debt. He did not live long enough to resolve his financial problems. Son of René Maillot and of Catherine Berger, René was born about 1637. His marriage contract, drawn up by Romain Becquet on 28 October 1671, tells us that he came from Castelleroy (Castel-Arrouy), in the diocese of Toulouse in Gasco ne. He arrived in New France in 1665 as a soldier in the Porte Company of the famous Carignan-Salières Regiment, the troops who had come to rid the country of the Iroquois menace. From Varennes to Québec A man named Arnaut Maillot dit Laviolette is noted at Varennes in 1669. It is entirely probable that Arnaut and René are the same person. As a matter of fact, on 24 November 1669, notary Thomas Frerot wrote that Arnaut had sold a fifty arpent homestead on the Saint-Lawrence to Bernard Voisin dit Beausoliel from Montréal. We then find René at the signing of his marriage contract at Québec. The religious ceremony must have taken place a few days later at Sillery or someplace else in the area, however, a record of this event has not been found.

The descendants of René Maillot and Marie Chapacou are now spread to the four corners of Québec, with a strong concentration in Montréal, where Guillaume went to take a wife in 1704. The regions of the Mauricie, the Bois-Francs and Québec have received the heritage of most of the other children. 1. René, born in 1675 and married in 1702 to Marie-Françoise Goron. They settled in Deschaillons. 2. Rose, born about 1676 and died before 1717. About 1690 she married Raymond Chesne dit Lagrave, or l?Agreable. Later on he was remarried to Marguerite Renaut. 3. Marie (1677-1746), married François Guibaut in 1708 and lived at Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade. 4. Jean was born in 1679; his fate in unknown. 5. Guillaume (1681-1718), married Marie Anne Macé in 1704. This blacksmith and edge-tool maker settled in Montréal. 6. Marie (1682-1702), was not married. 7. Marie-Louise (1684-1713), married Pierre Mataut in 1706 and lived at Château-Richer. In 1715 Pierre was remarried to Scholastique Toupin dit Dussault. 8. Pierre was born in 1686 and married Marguerite Goron in 1708. They lived at Deschaillons. 9. Louis (1689-1760), married Madeleine Houy about 1712. 10. Jacques was born in 1691 and married Marie-Angélique Houy in 1713. 11. Geneviève (1692-1731), married Antoine Godard in 1722. In 1733 he was remarried to Madeleine Dubois from Château-Richer. 12. François (1695-1758), married Marie-Charlotte Goron in 1719. This couple settled at Saint-Pierre-les-Becquets. 13. Marie-Anne, the twin of François, married Antoine Guibaut in 1711. They lived in Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade.


AKA-Maillot
http://www.genealogy.com/forum/surnames/topics/mailhot/144/ 5)An Ancestor Not Gifted For Business Without a doubt, it was the unsettled conditions brought about by the salt-tax revolt and the difficulties of making ends meet in Gascony , which drove ancestor René Maillot dit Laviolette, about 1665, to try his luck in New France . But things were no easier for him in his adopted land. Poor on arrival, he died still poorer, completely impoverished and consumed by debt. He did not live long enough to resolve his financial problems.Son of René Maillot and of Catherine Berger, René was born about 1637. His marriage contract, drawn up by Romain Becquet on 28 October 1671, tells us that he came from Castelleroy (Castel-Arrouy), in the diocese of Toulouse in Gasco ne. He arrived in New France in 1665 as a soldier in the Porte Company of the famous Carignan-Salières Regiment, the troops who had come to rid the country of the Iroquois menace.From Varennes to QuébecA man named Arnaut Maillot dit Laviolette is noted at Varennes in 1669. It is entirely probable that Arnaut and René are the same person. As a matter of fact, on 24 November 1669, notary Thomas Frerot wrote that Arnaut had sold a fifty arpent homestead on the Saint-Lawrence to Bernard Voisin dit Beausoliel from Montréal. We then find René at the signing of his marriage contract at Québec. The religious ceremony must have taken place a few days later at Sillery or someplace else in the area, however, a record of this event has not been found. The Chapacou Family "Who was this Marie whom he took to wife"? She was the daughter of Simon-Jean Chapacou,a colonist probably from St. Seurin, Saintonge, France where he was married about 1653, to Marie-Vincente Pacaud. This couple was noted for the first time in the Québec region in February 1665. In the census of 1666, we learn that the Chapacou family had a son named Louis, twelve years old, and a daughter, Marie, four years younger than her brother.Abbot H. A. Scott noted that "Simon-Jean Chapacou had here (at Sainte-Foy) in 1667, eight arpents of land under cultivation", but that he had left the place before 1681.(6) During these years, two other sons and two other daughters were born. Louis settled in the seigneury of Villemure and Marie had already married René Maillot.

http://www3.sympatico.ca/rmmayette/mailhot-historiques.htm

Samedi, 1 juillet 117


Les surnoms de Mailhot René Mailhot et Marie Chapacou Léandre et Louis Mailhot La famille d'Edmond Mailhot


Les surnoms de Mailhot

On sait que l'ancêtre René Mailhot portait déjà le surnom de Laviolette qu'aucun de ses descendants ne semble avoir adopté.

Par contre, à la troisième génération, trois autres surnoms furent ajoutés. Jacques fils de Jacques et petit fils de René, fut surnommé Boisclair. Il demurant à Deschaillons. Par ailleurs, l'abbé Charles-Edouard Mailhot (Michel et Julie Bourbeau, né en 1855) portait le surnom de Leblond qui lui venait de son arrière-arrière-grand-père Louis.

Ensuite nous avons René Mailhot dit Villoche (fils de Jacques et de Marie-Angélique Houy).

Un que je parle de faire notre généalogie avec grand-mère Mailhot, elle me dit "quant tu rencontreras des Mailhot dit Villoche, c'est les nôtres, parce qu'à Ste-Gertrude où est né mon grand-père Louis Mailhot, il y avait un cousin qui s'était noyé, il avait le surnom de Cotton-Villoche". Grand-mère était certaine.

Je voudrais aussi faire remarquer au départ que Louis Mailhot et Jacques Mailhot à la deuxième génération sont mariés aux deux sœurs Houy.

Source: Gertrude Mailhot (fille de Henri Mailhot et de Eugénie Luneau), épouse de Louis-Arthur Leblanc. Auteure de «Généalogie Famille René Mailhot et Marie Chapacou», 1981.

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René Maillot et Marie Chapacou

Le Gascon René Maillot dit Laviolette n’a jamais eu la vie facile dans sa terre d’adoption. Pauvre à son arrivée, il mourra encore plus pauvre, complètement fauché, cousu de dettes. Il n’a pas vécu assez longtemps pour arriver à résoudre ses problèmes financiers.

Fils de René Maillot et de Catherine Berger, l’ancêtre des Maillot de la Mauricie est né vers 1637. Son contrat de mariage passé devant le notaire Romain Becquet, le 28 octobre 1671, précise que René nous vient de Castelleroy (ou Castel-Arrouy), diocèse de Toulouse en Cascogne. Il est possible qu’il soit arrivé en Nouvelle France en 1665 ave le célèbre Régiment de Carignan-Salières, du moins à peu près en même temps que les troupes venues aider le pays à se débarrasser de la présence Iroquoise.

Un nommé Arnaut Maillot dit Laviolette est signalé à Varennes en 1669. Arnaut et René sont peut-être la même personnes; du moins la chose est tout à fait vraisemblable. En effet, le 24 novembre 1669, précise le notaire Thomas Frérot, Arnaut vend à Bernard Voisin dit Beausoleil, de Montréal, une habitation de cinquante arpents de superficie, sise le long du St-Laurent. On retrouve ensuite René à la signature de son contrat de mariage à Québec. La cérémonie religieuse dut avoir lieu quelques jours plus tard à Sillery ou quelque part ailleurs dans la région de Québec. L’acte de mariage est introuvable.

Qui est cette Marie qu’il prend comme épouse? Elle est la fille de Simon-Jean Chapacou et de Marie Pacaud. Ce couple est probable- ment originaire de la Saintonge, d’où il est arrivé vers 1664 avec deux enfants: Louis et Marie. Née vers 1658 cette dernière n’a donc que treize ans le jour de ses épousailles, tandis que René a atteint sa trente-quatrième année. À cette époque le fait n’est pas rare des hommes d’âge mur épousent fréquemment des fillettes.

Les enfants de René et de Marie sont baptisés tour à tour à Grondines, Cap Santé et à Pointe-aux-Trembles de Québec (Neuville) entre 1675 et 1695.

Au début de 1676, la famille est établie à Saint-Charles-des- Roches (Grondines) où elle demeurera, croyons-nous, plus d’un quart de siècle. Le 5 février 1676, rapporte le notaire Michel Roy dit Châtellerault, René s’oblige à donner à Louis Foucher, du même lieu, douze jours de travail pour acquitter le solde de l’habitation qu’il a achetée de lui. Le 22 septembre 1677, le même tabellion ajoute que René vend à Urbain Gabeau une terre de deux arpents de front sur quarante de profondeur, à St-Charles-des-Roches; le 5 février suivant, il en acquiert une autre de trois arpents de front, de Jean Pouzet, dans la même localité. C’est là que, en 1681 le recenseur signale la présence de la famille Maillot: René a 44 ans et Marie 24 ans et leurs enfants sont René, Marie et Jean. Le cheptel est composé de deux bêtes à cornes et cinq arpents de terre ont été défrichés.

Le 28 septembre 1698, Maillot vend sa terre de trois arpents de front au seigneur François Hamelin. Le même jour son fils aîné Pierre vend aussi la sienne au même seigneur. Sans doute envisage-t-on déjà une installation prochaine à la seigneurie des Deschaillons, si ce n’est déjà chose faite.

Le 4 novembre 1701, Pierre Leboeuf vend à René une terre de quatre arpents sur quarante à Deschaillons. La famille Maillot est l’une des premières à s’implanter dans cette future paroisse, qui ne sera effectivement fondée qu’en 1737. En 1708 et 1711, deux filles de René, Marie et Anne, s’unissent à des fils de Louis Guibaud (Guilbault) et de Marie Lefebvre: François et Antoine tous deux domiciliés à Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade. Les contrats de mariage sont rédigés par le notaire François Trotain, de Batiscan.

Comparant la situation de René Maillot à celle guère plus reluisante de son coparoissien Michel Goron dit Petitbois, l’historien Raymond Douville écrit dans "Trois seigneuries sans seigneurs, Cahiers Dix, 1951": «La situation de René Maillot n’était guère plus florissante. Après sa mort, la terre qu’il avait défrichée tomba entre ses neuf enfants. À la fin de l’acte de partage, passé le 27 février 1742, le notaire Arnould Baltazar Pollet écrivit: «les héritiers... ont ce jour cédé, délaissé à Messire louis Jean Desbruières, curé de ladite église de l’Échaillon, Louis Maillot et Michel Goron (fils) tous deux marguilliers d’icelle paroisse, à ce présent et acceptant pour eux et leurs succession, savoir tous les droits et prétentions à eux échus par ledit héritage des défunts René Maillot et René Chapacou... Attendu que la terre allait être réduite au domaine et qu’elle se trouve chargée des arrérages des cens et rentes...». Ce document nous apprend donc que René a trépassé sans être en mesure de sortir de ses dettes. Telle fut sa vie, telle fut sa mort. Quant à Marie Chapacou, elle n’est déjà plus de ce monde depuis près de dix ans, ayant été inhumée à Ste-Anne-de-la-Pérade en 1733. Du moins, c’est dans cette paroisse que son acte de décès est inscrit.

La descendante de René Maillot et de Marie Chapacou est main- tenant dispersée aux quatre coins du Québec, avec une forte con- centration à Montréal, où Guillaume né en 1681, est allé prendre femme en 1704. Les régions de la Mauricie, des Bois-Francs et de Québec ont reçu l’héritage de la plupart des autres enfants: René marié à Marie-Françoise Goron, Pierre marié à Marguerite Gauron, Louis marié à Madeleine Houy, Jacques marié à Marie-Angélique Houy, François marié à Marie-Charlotte Gauron, tous établis à Deschaillons; Marie marié à François Guibault et Anne mariée à Antoine Guilbault établis à Ste-Anne-de-la-Pérade; Louise mariée à Pierre Mataut et Geneviève mariée à Antoine Godard se sont établis à Château-Richer; enfin Rose mariée à Raymond Chêne dit Lagrave ou l’Agréable se sont établis à Deschaillons.

Toujours selon l"historien Raymond Douville dans "Trois seigneu- ries sans seigneurs, cahier Dix, 1951" les trois plus importants colons qui ont fait souche à Deschaillons sont précisément Michel Goron, René Maillot et Raymond Chêne, dont les alliances et la commune destinée ont établi entre eux une amitié sincère, scellée par les liens indestructibles du sang de leurs petits-enfants.

Extrait du journal Le Nouvelliste de Trois-Rivière publié le 23 décembre 1978, écrit par Gertrude Mailhot (fille de Henri Mailhot et de Eugénie Luneau) épouse de Louis-Arthur Leblanc auteur de «Généalogie Famille René Mailhot et Marie Chapacou» 1981.

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Léandre et Louis Mailhot

Voici quelques détails de la vie de Léandre Mailhot et de Louis Mailhot.

Après vérification au Bureau d’enregistrement d’Arthabaska, il est certain que Léandre Mailhot fils, marié à Émérence Bélanger est le premier de notre famille Mailhot arrivé à St-Rémi-de-Tingwick et qu’il a bien demeuré sur le lot numéro 971 et 972. C’est exact mais ils n’ont pas le contrat de la terre. Que Léandre Mailhot commence a payer des taxes en 1884 est une preuve certaine qu’il a été propriétaire.

Que Léandre Mailhot père, marié à Sophie Champoux en première noce, et en deuxième noce à Marie Provencher a demeuré aussi à St-Rémi-de-Tingwick en 1890 comme rentier est aussi chose certaine.

Ensuite vient mon grand-père Louis Mailhot né en 1874 à Ste-Gertrude, marié à St-Rémi-de-Tingwick à Amanda Lalime, née en 1878 (fille de André et Mathilde Dufresne). J’ai le contrat de la terre où mon grand-père a demeuré, c’est une donation de Émérence Lemay, veuve de André Lalime dit Ravenelle. Elle donne à son gendre Louis Mailhot la terre lot 1097, le 3 décembre 1896. Louis est obligé à elle jusqu’à la fin de ses jours.

Je sais que Grand-père Louis Mailhot est parti de Ste-Gertrude à l’âge de deux ans pour immigrer aux États-Unis et que Grand-mère Amanda Lalime est née à Lawrence Mass. aux États-Unis et qu’elle est arrivée à l’âge de six ans à St-Rémi-de-Tingwick, elle s’est mariée à Louis Mailhot en 1894.

Par Gertrude Mailhot (fille de Henri Mailhot et de Eugénie Luneau) épouse de Louis-Arthur Leblanc auteur de «Généalogie Famille René Mailhot et Marie Chapacou» 1981.

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La famille Edmond Mailhot et Irène Lampron

Né le 31 août 1900, Edmond est le 7e enfant, fils d’Octave Mailhot (natif de Bécancour) et d'Hermine Beauchesne, 1er mariage enregistré le 18 avril 1882 à Saint-Rémi-de-Tingwick.

En 1905, ses parents déménagent à Asbestos puis à Saint-Georges-de-Windsor. Il ira à l'école Saint-Aimé d'Asbestos avec son frère Donat. Sa mère décède à Saint-Georges-de-Windsor. Son père se remarie à Grâce Martel Gagnon, veuve. En 1919, ils déménagent sur une ferme du chemin McLaughlin dans le Canton de Cleveland.

Edmond apprend son métier de boucher à Asbestos. Il travaille au moulin de papier à East Angus et une année au récolte dans l’Ouest. Il revient sur une ferme, voisine de son père avec son frère Donat.

Le 4 juillet 1933, il épouse Irène Lampron, née le 21 m ai 1908. fille de Narcisse Lampron, cultivateur et de Liliane Donahue de Sainte-Bibiane de Richmond. Institutrice, elle a enseigné à deux écoles de rangs de Cleveland, à Saint-Cyr et à L'Avenir (1927-1933). Irène avait obtenu son diplôme bilingue au pensionnat de la Congrégation Notre-Dame au Mont Saint-Patrice de Richmond.

Ils ont 5 enfants:

Eugénie, né. le 22 mars 1934 et décédée en mars 1936.

Hélène née en 1935, cuisinière (Aimé Houle de Sherbrooke le 2 mars 1957), parents de Carole, Raymond, Ronald, Sylvie, Maryse, Linda, Nicole, et grands-parents de 11 petits-enfants.

Dolorès, née en 1937, diplôme Supérieur à l'institut Familiale des Sœurs A.S.V. de Nicolet en juin 1958. Active auprès de la bibliothèque et loisirs des jeunes du village, et dans la JRC, devient secrétaire de l’UCFR et plus tard, présidente de l’AFÉAS. Enseigne les arts ménagers à l’école Masson et au pensionnat de Danville (1959-1964). Épouse Maurice Mayette de Danville, en juillet 1963, cultivateur, ils sont propriétaires, de la ferme ancestrale de Narcisse Lampron dans le Canton de Cleveland. Ils sont les parents de: Mario journaliste et co-propriétaire de CJAN, radio d’Asbestos de 1988 à 1999, il est maintenant adjoint de circonscription du député fédéral André Bachand; Françoise secrétaire. épouse de François Duplessis, de Drummondville; Christine technicienne en mode diplômée du Collège Marie-Victorin, épouse de Luc Rajotte de Wickam; Martin, technicien en horticulture diplômé de l’ITA de Saint-Hyacinthe; Marthe graphiste, conjointe de Stephan Codère de Drummondville; Marjolaine étudiante en fleuristerie.

Liliane, née en 1940, commis-comptable, elle travaille à Richmond, Sherbrooke, Montréal, Sept-Iles et Drummondville. On la trouve en service pour la coopérative Saint-Félix en 1963-1964, épouse de Jean-Guy Lalonde.. Ils sont les parents de: Michel adjudant, dans les Forces Armée, Canadiennes de terre depuis 1980; France secrétaire, épouse de Mario Lemaire de Saint-Zéphirin. Parents de Janick.

Michel né en 1942, fait ses études primaires et poursuit à l’école de métier à Asbestos. Il revient épauler ses parents comme commis-vendeur et sera leur bras droit jusqu’en 1969. Il devient propriétaire de la ferme située au 881, route 255, de 1969 à 1985. Il demeure maintenant sur la route Bernier et est chauffeur de camion. Il a épousé Claire Vanda. Ils ont 3 fils: Pierre, journalier (Josée Goulet) et une fille Fanny; Ghislain laveur d’autos (Lyette Allaire) ont un fils Joey; Marco journalier. Puis en compagnie de Carmen Vandal, Michel Mailhot est le père de 3 filles: Lyne cuisinière-pâtissière; Louise et Chantal.

À l’automne 1932, Edmond loue une ferme (route 255) d’un anglais de Saint-Félix-de-Kingsey. À l’automne 1935, il devient propriétaire de la ferme voisine, au 605 route 255 coin du chemin Talbot. Viennent le rejoindre à Saint-Félix deux frères: Arthur et leur père de Richmond en 1936; et de Lowell, Mass. États-Unis. Anselme arrive dans les années 40 et demeure sur une ferme au 440 chemin des Bouleaux face à la chapelle anglicane à «Belle Place». Il décède à l’âge de 72 ans le 9 juillet 1965. Sa demi-sœur, Simone, marie Gilles Noël en 1937 et s’installe dans le 3e rang.

En mai 1944, Edmond fait encan et vend sa ferme à Rolland Thibodeau. Au village, il achète la maison sise au 109 Principale, d’un monsieur Smith.

Il opère une boucherie, de mai 1944 à avril 1946, laquelle est située au sous-sol du magasin de l’Érablière.

Après 2 ans de travail journalier à Danville chez Nadeau; il achète de Sylvio Girardin le magasin général face à l’école. Ils sont en affaires du 30 octobre 1947 au 28 octobre 1970 alors qu’ils vendent à Raoul Croteau.

Ils prennent alors une retraite dans leur dernière maison située au 1249 rue de l’Église. Edmond jardine et Irène fait l’artisanat et devient secrétaire de l’AFÉAS.

Edmond décède le 12 août 1976 et Irène le rejoint le 28 janvier 1978. Ils sont inhumés au cimetière de St-Félix-de-Kingsey.

Hommage à nos ancêtre qui ont peiné pour nous!

Par Dolorès Mailhot, fille de Edmond et Irène Lampron, dans le livre du Centenaire de St-Félix-de-Kingsey.

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Accueil Les Mailhot L'ancêtre La descendance Notes historiques Modeste Mailhot Les adresses Nouveautés Notes légales L'auteur Courriel Sondage


GEDCOM Note

THE CARIGNAN-SALIÈRES

Formation

The Carignan-Salières was formed from two existing regiments: the Balthasar Regiment, formed during the Thirty Years' War and becoming the Salières when Balthasar died in 1665, and the Carignan Regiment, formed in 1644 in Piedmont.[2] Following the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, both regiments avoided disbandment by merging to form the Carignan-Salières Regiment.[3]

In 1664, following the request of the Sovereign Council, the French finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert ordered the Carignan-Salières to reinforce the existing 100 man force in New France. This reinforcement was as much, if not more, motivated by mercantile ambitions than actual cries for help from New France.[4] By now the regiment had been reduced to eight companies of about 400 troops; this was insufficient to meet King Louis XIV's demand for a large military force. The regiment's strength was increased to 20 companies and 1000 troops by absorbing 12 other French companies, including those from the Lallier, Chambellé, Poitou, and Broglio regiments. A popular erroneous story in New France was that the regiment had fought in the Austro-Turkish War of 1663-64; the story may have arisen from troops of the 12 new companies, many of whom may have fought in that war.[3]

Four companies under Alexandre de Prouville joined the Carignan-Salières in New France from Martinique; de Prouville companies were attached to, but never formally integrated into, the Carignan-Salières.[3]

Leadership

The following were members of the leadership hierarchy in New France during the regiment's stay:

Lieutenant General in command of French America: Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy Governor of New France: Daniel de Rémy de Courcelles Intendent: Jean Talon Commanding Officer: Henri de Chastelard de Salières (in charge of seven companies) Surgeon Major: Vincent Basset du Tartre Arrival in New France

The following is a list of ships that carried the Carignan-Salières Regiment from France to New France in 1665.

Ship

Date of arrival at Quebec, New France

Companies carried

Le Vieux Siméon

19 June 1665

Chambly, Froment, La Tour, Petit[5]

Le Brézé

30 June 1665

La Durantaye (Chambellé), Berthier (L'Allier), La Brisardière (Orléans), Monteil (Poitou)[5]

L'Aigle d'Or

18 August 1665

Grandfontaine, La Fredière, La Motte, Salières[5]

La Paix

19 August 1665

La Colonelle, Contrecœur, Maximy, Sorel[5]

Le Jardin de Hollande

12 September 1665

Supplies for regiments[5]

Le Saint-Sébastien

12 September 1665

Rougemont, Boisbriand (Dugué), Des Portes (Duprat), Varenne[5]

La Justice

14 September 1665

La Fouille, Laubia, Saint-Ours, Naurois[5]

Seven ships were required to transport the regiment to New France. The first, Le Vieux Siméon, departed La Rochelle 19 April 1665, arriving at Quebec 1 July 1665. On board were the companies of La Fouille, Froment, Chambly and Rougment. The Le Vieux Siméon was a Dutch ship chartered by a La Rochelle merchant, Pierre Gaigneur, who was well-experienced sailing between France and its colonies.[6]

The next two ships to depart from France were La Paix and L’Aigle d’Or. The former carried the companies of La Colonelle, celles de Contrecoeur, Maximy, and Sorel, and on board the latter were de Salières, La Fredière, Grandfontaine and La Motte. These both were royal ships of the king’s navy that departed from La Rochelle 13 May 1665, arriving at Quebec 18 August 1665.

The following two ships were also royal vessels: Le Saint Sébastian and Le Justice. Aboard Le Saint Sébastian, amongst these next seven companies being transported to New France, were the newly appointed Intendant of New France, Jean Talon, and the Governor Daniel de Rémy de Courcelles. Aboard the final two ships were the companies of Du Prat, Naurois, Laubia, Saint-Ours, Petit, La Varenne, Vernon. These last two ships to depart from France left La Rochelle 24 May 1665, arriving at Quebec 12 September 1665.[6]

Four companies arrived with Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy on the Brézé from the Antilles, arriving in New France 30 June 1665. The captains of these companies were La Durantaye (Chambellé), Berthier (L'Allier), La Brisardière (Orléans), Monteil (Poitou). Tracy had been in the West Indies as part of his royal commission to officially establish Louis XIV's rule of the French colonies, following the King's takeover of the French territories after the bankruptcy of the Company of 100 Associates.[7]

The last ship to sail from France associated with the regiment was the Jardin de Hollande which carried the provisions and equipment for the troops.[6]

Depending on sources, there are some contradictions as to when ships arrived in New France and what companies were on board said ships.

Reception in New France

They were welcomed as saviours, particularly by Mother Marie of the Incarnation, head of the local convent, who wrote of their arrival:

The ships have all arrived, bringing us the rest of the army, along with the most eminent persons whom the king has sent to the aid of the country. They feared they would all perish in the storms they braved on their voyage...we are helping them to understand that this is a holy war, where the only things that matter are the glory of God and the salvation of souls.[8]

Although Mother Marie viewed them as saviors, modern day scholars like Jack Verney argue that their mission, contrary to what she states, was "a secular rather than sacred one".[4]Jean-Baptiste Colbert wanted to develop the colony's economic potential. After requiring that the Company of One Hundred Associates (Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France) relinquish its monopoly on trade in 1663, Louis XIV and his minister finally had the control they needed to develop the colony's economic potential.[9]

In Montreal, the Sulpician priest, François Dollier de Casson, reacted to the soldiers negatively, saying that "vices which have, in fact, risen and grown here since that time [when the troops arrived], along with many other troubles and misfortunes which had not up to that time made their appearance here".[4]

In Verney's view, this is a much more realistic account of how the men had "marked their progress along the road to La Rochelle with outbreaks of disorder and indiscipline".[4]

Fort Building

The regiment's service in New France began when a third of them were ordered to build new forts along the Richelieu River, the principal route of the Iroquois marauders. Fort Chambly formerly known as Fort St. Louis at Chambly, Fort Sainte Thérèse, and Fort Saint-Jean at Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, were along the Richelieu River and were constructed as ways to limit Iroquois nation attacks on citizens of New France. Fort Sainte Anne in Lake Champlain was near the river's source. All of the forts were used as supply stations for the troops as they were deployed on their two campaigns into Iroquois nation land in 1666.[10]

Fort Chambly as constructed in 1665 was the first wooden fort constructed in New France and had a rudimentary wood wall system with a building in the center of the fort. Inside, and near the center building, were small buildings for the troops.[10]

Campaigns

First campaign

The first of the regiment's campaign took place in the winter of 1666. The expedition was initiated by the governor, Daniel de Rémy de Courcelles. General Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy agreed to the campaign after the Mohawks refused to attend a delegation of the Iroquois nations and French leaders in Montreal in November of 1665. At this delegation the French entered into agreements with the Oneida and Onondaga nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, who were there to represent themselves as well as the Cayugas and the Senecas. Tracy interpreted the Mohawk absence as signalling a threatening lack of intimidation by the presence of the Carignan-Salières soldiers.[4]

The Marquis de Salières, recognized that the winter campaign would not succeed without basic necessities such as proper clothing, shoes and cooking equipment. Marquis de Salières thought that this endeavour was impossible, stating in his memoirs that:

When I understood and saw the state our soldiers were in for this enterprise, I saw all things ill-disposed, the soldiers having no snowshoes, very few axes, a single blanket, no equipment for the ice and having only one pair of moccasins and stockings. When I saw all this, I said to the captains that it would require one of God's miracles for any good to come of this. Some of them replied that M. le gouverneur [Courcelles] did as he pleased and took advice from no one.[1]

The men left 30 January 1666 under the orders of Courcelles, despite the fact that their Native guides had not yet arrived. Indeed, this campaign also differed greatly from the European tradition of not campaigning in winter.[4] The campaign was made up of about five hundred men of regimental soldiers, a number of Indians, and an estimated 200 volunteer habitants. The column ended up getting lost, wandering in the wilderness for three weeks before ending up on the outskirts of the Anglo-Dutch settlement of Schenectady. The soldiers came across a village that they assumed was Mohawk and launched a brutal attack, ravaging the village and killing two and severely wounding another two.[4]

The sounds of the battle were overheard by a passing Mohawk party of composed of approximately sixty warriors. The French and Mohawks engaged in a small skirmish which resulted in a small number of casualties on both sides. The French troops were at a tactical disadvantage as they were used to the pitched battles regulated by rigid drills commonly used in Continental Europe. Despite the experience of the soldiers of the Carignan-Salières Regiment, their tactics were useless against the hit-and-run tactics used by the Mohawks.[4] The fighting ended when the burgomaster of Schenectady informed Courcelles that he was in the territory of the Duke of York. The burgomaster implied that if the French chose to stay in the settlement they would be vulnerable to attacks by both Indians and the English units stationed at Schenectady and Albany (less than 25 kilometres away). The French stopped the attack and the burgomaster agreed to provide the men with some provisions for their return journey.

The campaign was ultimately a failure. Nothing was accomplished and the regiment sustained great losses; 400 out of 500 died. Due to the hastiness with which the campaign had been launched and the harshness of the weather, most of the deaths occurred while travelling from and to Fort St. Louis. When Courcelles commanded that the troops were to meet at Fort St. Louis at the end of January, he said that they should be prepared with three weeks worth of provisions. In total, the expedition took a little over five weeks to complete. What is more, the men were ill-equipped—many left the fort without snowshoes—which contributed significantly to the campaign's death toll.

Second campaign

The regiment's second and final campaign was led by Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy. The plan was to enter into Mohawk territory, located northwest of Schenectady along what is now the Mohawk River. The necessity of the campaign was created by the declaration of the Second Anglo-Dutch War in the summer of 1666. King Louis XIV wanted de Tracy to lead the men into the same area where they were the last year near Albany and Schenectady. However, it was first necessary for the French to subdue the Mohawks to protect themselves from facing multiple fronts against both the English and Mohawks. In addition, they wanted to ensure that their two opponents would not ally themselves against the French.[4] The destruction of four Mohawk villages was the most important outcome of the venture. However, there was no real fighting as the villages the regiment came across had been abandoned prior to the arrival of the regiment.

The plan was for the regiment to regroup at Fort Sainte Anne on the 28 and push into Mohawk territory on 29 September 1666. The Late arriving of several parties meant the regiment left in three separate columns over a period of three days. The number of men available in the campaign was approximately 120 regimental soldiers, habitants and Native warriors.[3] Because de Tracy sought to use the element of surprise and swiftly move into enemy territory, he ordered his soldiers to travel light. Thus, from the beginning of the campaign, the Regiment's situation was precarious as the soldiers brought insufficient provisions and did not carry the necessary equipment for a lengthy assault. Inclement weather added to the danger of the mission and further threatened the campaign's success.

As it moved inland, the regiment encountered four Mohawk villages all of which had been abandoned. The fact that the Mohawks abandoned their villages was fortuitous for the regiment since it was not operating at full strength and the soldiers were stretched over a large area. At this point in the campaign, the regiment probably would not have been able to withstand a large-scale attack. What is more, the villages were hastily abandoned thus providing the French troops with a supply of food, tools, weapons, and other provisions. After regrouping at the last of the four villages, Tracy ordered the soldiers to turn around and burn each one as they went, carrying all the loot they could back to Quebec. The Mohawks, though skilled in guerilla fighting, were caught by surprise by the speed of the French attack and were unable to engage the French.[3] On 17 October 1666, the lands and fields surrounding the Mohawk villages were all claimed as French territory and crosses were erected to symbolize that claim.[4] However, the French never returned to the area to enforce this territorial claim.

Despite the fact that the French troops had not directly engaged the Mohawks or the English, the campaign was considered a great success; the French finally assumed a position of tactical superiority over the Mohawk and Iroquois Confederacy which in turn gave the French a diplomatic advantage in the following peace talks.[4] In July 1667, peace was signed with the Iroquois following a five-day summit. The main objective of the French during the negotiations was to consolidate their control of the fur trade at the expense of the Anglo-Dutch interests in Albany. They sought to do so by placing themselves in a position that allowed them to oversee the traffic of the fur trade in the region. As a result, the French were able to place French-speaking traders as well as Jesuits in a number of Iroquois village. To ensure the success of this agreement as well as the security of the traders and missionaries, a system of hostages was implemented. Each Iroquois village was required to send two members of a leading family to live among in the St. Lawrence Valley.[4] Following the ratification of the treaties of 1667, the peace was kept in the region for twenty years.[1] The peace treaties of 1667 also signaled the end of the regiment's operations in New France. Nonetheless, the troops of the Carignan-Salières Regiment were held in duty until another means of protecting New France could be devised.

Troop life

Religion

Even though the Edict of Nantes in 1598 had allowed French Protestants to live in France, the law was not always observed in the colonies.[11] The king had given huge power to the Jesuit order by making it part of New France's government. So, when Mgr de Laval discovered the significant numbers of unconfirmed Catholics and even some French Protestants within the ranks of the regiment, drastic measures were taken.[4] Jesuit Father Claude Dablon gave two emergency sermons within five days of the first eight companies landing in New France to reaffirm the relapsed and unconfirmed Catholics in the regiment.[4]

Equipment

The first regulars of the Carignan-Salières were dressed for "efficiency rather than looks".[12] Additionally, the soldiers were rather poorly equipped during their first year. In the duration of one year, the king had sent only 200 flintlocks as well as 100 pistols for a troop force of over 1,200 men.[4] Below are descriptions of some of the equipment used:

Powder horn: used to store gunpowder for firing their weapons. Black powder: used to arm and fire the newly issued muskets of the regiment. Sword: used commonly for hand-to-hand fighting and every soldier had one.[3] Flintlock musket: became the main weapon of long range fighting for the Carignan-Salières. It replaced the matchlock musket that was common in early years due to its increased reliability and ability to be fired without the use of an external flame. Additionally, it was capable of a much higher rate of fire than the earlier matchlock. Bayonet: the Carignan-Salières were one of the first regiments to transition to the bayonet, which was introduced in 1647.[4] Pistol: a standard issue weapon but was not in high-supplies in New France. Slouch hat: was worn in place of later tricorn hats. It was better at repelling rain and wind from the faces of soldiers.[12] Uniform: The Carignan-Salières wore brown coats with contrasting colour sleeves. The Carignan-Salières were one of the first French forces to wear uniforms.[3] Departure and settlement in Canada

With the end to the Iroquois threat, King Louis XIV decided to offer the men of the regiment an opportunity to stay in New France to help increase the population. As incentive, regular officers were offered 100 livres or 50 livres and a year worth of rations. Lieutenants, alternatively, were offered 150 livres or 100 livres and a year worth of rations. Officers were also offered the incentive of large land grants in the forms of seigneuries.[7] This offer was particularly beneficial to such men as Pierre de Saurel, Alexandre Berthier, Antoine Pécaudy de Contrecœur, and François Jarret de Verchères, who were granted large seigneuries in New France.[1]

Although the majority of the regiment returned to France in 1668, about 450 remained behind to settle in Canada. These men were highly encouraged to marry, being offered land as incentive. As a result, most of them did marry newly arriving women to the colony known as Filles du Roi.[13] The largest import of women to New France occurred during the 1660s and early 1670s, largely in response to the need to provide wives for the regiment.[14]

Besides just rewarding Carignan-Salières officers by granting them seigneurial tenures, the tenure properties served an ulterior purpose. The properties granted to Contrecœur and Saurel were placed in strategic areas that could be used as a buffer between invaders both foreign (the British) as well as domestic (the Iroquois). It was believed that the men of the Carignan-Salières would be the colonists best suited to defend the territories of New France, therefore many of them were given properties on the Richelieu river and other areas prone to attack.[7] These Seigneurs would sub grant land to the men of their companies in order to create an even more thoroughly reinforced zone. Saurel's land would later be known as Sorel-Tracy in Quebec, while Contrecœur's property would later become a region named after himself.

The French had a practice of allotting noms de guerre – nicknames – to their soldiers (this is still continued, but for different reasons, in the Foreign Legion). Many of these nicknames remain today as they gradually became the official surnames of the many soldiers who elected to remain in Canada when their service expired as well as the names of cities and towns throughout New France.[12]

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Pierre René Rene Maillot dit Laviolette, Jr.'s Timeline

1637
1637
Castet-Arrouy, Gers, Midi-Pyrénées, France
1637
Castel Arrouy, Toulouse, Gascogne, France
1675
1675
Belfort, Territoire de Belfort, Franche-Comté, France
1675
Grondines, Portneuf, Quebec, Canada
1676
1676
1676
Portneuf, , Quebec, Canada
1677
1677
Champlain, , Quebec, Canada
1680
December 31, 1680
Grondines, Portneuf, Québec, Canada
1684
1684
Champlain, Pq, Canada
1689
January 14, 1689
Grondines, Portneuf Regional County Municipality, QC, Canada