Muhammad ibn 'abd Allah ibn Hashim (Ahmad), (PBUH)
Arabic: محمد بن عبد الله ibn Hashim (Ahmad), (PBUH), Hebrew: מוחמד ibn Hashim (Ahmad), (PBUH)
|Also Known As:||"Rasulullah", "Abu Qasim", "Ahmad", "محمد", "Mohammed", "Mohammad", "M'Hammud", "Muhammed", "حضرت محمد", "Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim"|
|Death:||Died in Al Madinah, Madinah, Saudi Arabia|
|Place of Burial:||Medina, Arabia|
Son of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; <private>; Āmina bint Wahb and <private> آمنه بنت وهب
|Occupation:||Prophet and founder of Islam, Prophet, رسول الله وخاتم النبيين, PROPHIT, Prophète de l'Islam, Begründer des Islam, Profeta, El Profeta, Rasulullah|
|Managed by:||Rehan Allahwala|
About Prophet Muhammad of Islam (PBUH)
Muhammad was the founder of the religion of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as a messenger and prophet of God, the final law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets as taught by the Qur'an (33:40–40).
Muslims thus consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith preached before him by Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets.
He was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general, and, according to Muslim belief, an agent of divine action.
Born in 570 in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection.
According to Islamic beliefs it was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām) is the only way of life (dīn) acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other prophets before him.
Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes; he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his remaining followers in Mecca eventually migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccans, his followers — who by then had grown to 10,000 — conquered Mecca. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; and he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.
The revelations (or Ayat, lit. "Signs") — which Muhammad reported receiving until his death — form the verses of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and around which the religion of Islam is based. Besides the Qur'an, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld by Muslims. They discuss Muhammad and other prophets of Islam with reverence, adding the phrase "peace be upon him" whenever their names are mentioned.
In Michael H. Hart's 'The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History', Muhammad is described as the most influential person in history. Hart asserted that Muhammad was "supremely successful" in both the religious and secular realms.
His our Prophet...All Muslim love him...Salawat to him
Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet1
b. 9 May 570, d. 8 June 632
Father 'Abd Allâh ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib Banu Hâshim1,2 b. 545, d. before 9 May 570
Mother Aminah bint Wahab al-Qurayshi (as)1 b. circa 545, d. circa 576
Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was related to Fâtimah al-Zahra bint Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh Banu Hâshim (as); the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah (and possibly the only child together).3,4 Messenger of Allah. Seal of all Prophets. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was from the offspring of An-Nadr bin Kinana (Sahih Bukhari 4.698). He was a descendant of Mudar, of which Muhammad was informed by the angel Gabriel, and was not common knowledge.5 Also called Abu al-Qasim Muhammad.6 He was the father of al-Qassim ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the son of Muhammad and Khadijah.7 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Ibraheem ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the son of Muhammad by Maria, the Egyptian Coptic Christian.8,7 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Zainab bint Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the eldest daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah.4,9 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Umm Kalthum bint Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh Banu Hâshim; the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah.4 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Ruqaiyah bint Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah.4 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Ta'hir ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the son of Muhammad and Khadijah.7 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was born on 9 May 570 at 17th Rabi' al-Awwal 54 B.H., Mecca, Saudi Arabia. He was born after his father's death.1,10,6 He was the son of 'Abd Allâh ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib Banu Hâshim and Aminah bint Wahab al-Qurayshi (as).1,2 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was born on 20 August 570.11 He was born at Friday, 17th Rabiul-Awwal, 52 B.H.. Muslims claimed that he was born on this date, but according to scholars, the date is uncertain.8 He was a witness where 'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hâshim, Clan Chief took in his grandson, Muhammad, who later became the Prophet, on the death of Muhammad's mother in 576. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was taken into the home of Grandfather, 'Abd al-Muttalib, at age six when his mother died in 576.6 He witnessed the death of 'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hâshim, Clan Chief in 578; He died at age 82. On his deathbed he appointed his son Abu Talib as the guardian of Muhammad.12 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was a witness where Âbu Tâlib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib, Clan Chief made the guardian of his nephew, Muhammad, on the death of his father in 580. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was taken into the care of his uncle, Abu Talib, on the death of his grandfather, 'Abd al-Muttali, in 580. He was so described: a gentle, soft spoken, tall and handsome boy. An approximate outline may be traced of his appearance in the prime of manhood: Slightly above the middle size, his figure, though spare, was handsome and commanding, the chest broad and open, the bones and framework large, the joints well knit together. His neck was long and finely moulded. The head, unusually large, gave space for a broad and noble brow. The hair, thick, jet black, and slightly curling, fell down over his ears. The eye- brows were arched and joined. The countenance thin, but ruddy. His large eyes, intensely black and piercing, received additional lustre from their long dark eye-lashes. The nose was high and slightly aquiline, but fine, and at the end attenuated. The teeth were far apart. A long black bushy beard, reaching to the breast, added manliness and presence. His expression was pensive and contemplative. The face beamed with intelligence, though something of the sensuous also might be there discerned. The skin of his body was clear and soft; the only hair that met the eye was a fine thin line which ran down from the neck toward the navel. His broad back leaned slightly forward as he walked; and his step was hasty, yet sharp and decided, like that of one rapidly descending a declivity.13 He accompanied the trading caravans of his uncle and guardian, Abu Talib, across the deserts, giving him deep insight into nature and man between 585 and 595. He was a witness where Khadîjah bint Khuwaylid banu As'sad al-Qurayshiyya hired Muhammad as the manager for her rich merchantile caravans, and soon married him. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Khadîjah bint Khuwaylid banu As'sad al-Qurayshiyya, daughter of Khuwaylid banu As'sad al-Qurayshi, in 595; His 1st. 4th cousins.14,2,6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was a witness where Zaid ibn Muhammad carried away while young and sold into slavery, and as a slave was presented by Khadija to Muhammad after 595.15 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet received the Divine Message, where the angel Gabriel appeared to a fearful Muhammad and informed him that he was God's chosen messenger, and became the Prophet of God in 610.16 He experienced his first vision of the angel, and is deeply disturbed, but reassured by his wife, whose Christian cousin, Waraqah, helped him to understand his experience in the Judeo-Christian Biblical tradition of prophets in 610.6 He was a witness where Clan Chief Abu Lahab ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib Banu Hâshim an enemy of the Prophet from the very beginning of his public mission after 610. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was a witness where Umm Jamil (?) an enemy of the Prophet from the very beginning of his public mission after 610. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet began preaching publicly circa 613.6 A contract for the marriage of Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet and 'Â'isha umm Mu'minin bint Abu Bakr al-Makkiyya was signed in 620.17 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Saudah bint Zam'ah (?), daughter of Zam'ah (?), in 621; His 2nd. Her 2nd (widow).6,18,19 Twelve men from Yathrib on a pilgrimage to the pagan Ka'bah shrine of Mecca (of the god Hubal and about 300 lesser idols) secretly professed allegiance to Muhammad's message of monotheism at Mecca, Arabia, in June 621.6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet commanded his followers in Mecca to emigrate to Yathrib, later called Medina (Medinat-en-nabi=City of the prophet) in April 622 at Mecca, Arabia.6 He fled from a planned assassination, by the Meccans, towards Medina (the Muslim era of Hijrah (Emigration) is named after this incident), southward to the cave of Thaur on 16 July 622 at 17th Rabi' al-Awwwal.6 Prophet of Islâm between 16 July 622 and 8 June 632.2 He arrived safely on 24 September 622 at Yathrib (now Medina), Arabia.6 He led three raids on trade caravans but all fail in 623.6 He married Ayishah as a political marriage to cement ties with 'A`ishah's father, Abu Bakr, who was one of Muhammad's most important supporters, but last endly, she remained his favourite in January 624.6 Followers of his, disguised as pilgrims during the annual period of sacred truce among all Arab tribes, attack an unarmed trade caravan from Yemen, at Nakhlah south of Mecca, killing one person and taking two for ransom, at Arabia in January 624.6 He married 'Â'isha umm Mu'minin bint Abu Bakr al-Makkiyya, daughter of 'Abû Bakr al-Siddiq, 1st Rightly Guided Caliph of Islam and Umm Ruman (?), in January 624; His 3rd.20,2,6,17,19 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet regarded the Jewish tribes as at par with his own followers, but his experiences of their betrayals of the pacts they entered into with him for the joint defense of Medina (Yathrib) against his Meccan enemies, led him to expel them and execute all Jewish males in Medina; he also levied a special tax (jizyah) on the Jews of Khybar (creating a precedent that later led orthodox Islam to conclude must be paid by Christians and Jews to the Muslim state), and consequently also changed the prayer direction (qiblah) of his followers from Jerusalem to Mecca's Ka'bah, even though it was a shrine of tribal idols, and justified this by announcing that Abraham with Ishmael had built it as a shrine to God (Qur'an 2:125,127) circa February 624.6 He received a revelation justifying the crimes because of Mecca's banning of his access to the Ka'bah (Qur'an, 2:217) in January 624.6 He led a raiding party of about 315 men to attack a Meccan trade caravan which eluded him, but the leader of the Makhuzum clan of Mecca confronted him with a force of 800 near Badr; his troops triumph and in the aftermath many of his critics in Medina are assassinated and the Muslim movement grows on 15 March 624.6 He married Hafsa bint 'Umar ibn al-Khattab Bani Adiy, daughter of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, 2nd Rightly Guided Caliph of Islam, after 15 March 624; His 4th. Her 2nd (widow).2,6,21,19 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Hind umm Salamah bint Ummayyah after 15 March 624; His 5th.6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Zainab ummu al-Masakin bint Khuazimah, daughter of Khuazimah (?), circa 625 at 3 A.H; His 6th. Her 3rd (widow).6,22 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Zainab bint Jahsh Banu Hâshim, daughter of Jahsh Banu Hâshim and Hind umm Salamah bint Ummayyah, in 625 at 4 A.H; His 8th. Her 2nd (allowed by al-Ahzab 33:37).6,23 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet present when a Meccan force of 3000 attacked Medina at Uhud; and returned them to Mecca having killed as many Meccans as the Muslims had lost, on 23 March 625.6 He withstood a siege by a Meccan confederacy of 10,000 troops; his troops at Medina were well prepared and the siege failed in April 627 at Medina, Arabia.6 He attacked the Jewish clan of Qurayzah who surrendered, and had their men savagely executed and their women and children sold as slaves after April 627.6 He married Zaynab bint Jahsh, the former wife of his adopted son, and received a revelation to justify it (Qur'an 33:37)
after April 627.6 He had his forces attack and defeat the Banu Khuza'ah tribe, from whom he took the beautiful Juwayriya as a wife from the tribe instead of a ransom after April 627.6 He married Juwayriya bint al-Harith Banu Khuza'ah, daughter of al-Harith bin Abi Dirar Banu Khuza'ah, after April 627; His 7th.6,19 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Mariah al-Qibtiyah circa 628; His 9th.6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet set out on pilgrimage to the Ka'bah at Mecca driving sacrificial animals ahead of him, but was dissappointed that only 1,600 of his men were willing to accompany him, and after long negotiations at al-Hudaybiyah, the Meccans and Muslims agreed to stop hostilities and that Muslims would be allowed to make the pilgrimage the following year in March 628.6 He married Ramlah umm Habibah bint Abu Sufyan (?), daughter of Abu Sufyan (?), after March 628; His 10th. Her 2nd (widow).6,24 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Safiyah bat Huyay Banu Akhtab, daughter of Huyay Banu Akhtab, after March 628; His 11th. Her 2nd (widow).6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet conquered Mecca in 629 at Arabia.20 He entered Mecca by the Hudaybiyah agreements with unarmed followers as an act of worship in March 629 at Mecca, Arabia.6 He married Maimunah bint Al-Harith (?) in March 629 at Mecca, Arabia; His 11th. Her 2nd (widow).6,19 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet repudiated the Hudaybiyah agreements after his allies were attacked by allies of Mecca circa November 629.6 He associated with Rayhanah the Jewess after November 629; Concubine. She a widow.6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet entered Mecca with 10,000 men in triumph, and killed 28 opponents, removed the statue of the god Hubal from the Ka'bah, destroyed all the tribal idols, and announced the Law of Islam in January 630 at Mecca, Arabia.6 He led a force of 30,000 men to the Syrian border in a month long campaign, concluded treaties of submission to Islam with various tribes (but Christian support for Byzantium provoked his hostility) after January 630.6 He performed the old pagan Arab rites of the 'hajj' pilgrimage to Mecca, giving them a new, monotheistic meaning in March 632 at Mecca, Arabia.6 He died on 8 June 632 at 28th Safar 11 A.H., Medina, Arabia, at age 62 years and 30 days. Said to have been poisoned by an old Jewish woman. He forbade, by revelation, Muslim's from marrying his widows. He was survived by nine wives. (Qur'an 33:53).1,2,25,26,27,28 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was buried in his house adjoining the Great Mosque, Medina, Arabia.
Zaid ibn Muhammad b. c 58515
Khadîjah bint Khuwaylid banu As'sad al-Qurayshiyya b. circa 555, d. between 619 and 620
al-Qassim ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim b. c 596, d. c 598
Zainab bint Muhammad Banu Hâshim+ b. c 597, d. 629
Ruqaiyah bint Muhammad Banu Hâshim+ b. c 598, d. 6232
Umm Kalthum bint Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh Banu Hâshim b. c 603, d. 630
Fâtimah al-Zahra bint Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh Banu Hâshim (as)+ b. c 605, d. c 63329,2
Ta'hir ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim b. c 605, d. c 606
'Â'isha umm Mu'minin bint Abu Bakr al-Makkiyya b. after February 614, d. July 678
Saudah bint Zam'ah (?) b. circa 601, d. 643
Hind umm Salamah bint Ummayyah b. circa 608, d. 676
Hafsa bint 'Umar ibn al-Khattab Bani Adiy b. circa 590, d. circa 665
Zainab ummu al-Masakin bint Khuazimah b. circa 595
Zainab bint Jahsh Banu Hâshim b. circa 607, d. 641
Juwayriya bint al-Harith Banu Khuza'ah b. circa 614, d. circa 676
Mariah al-Qibtiyah b. circa 607, d. 637
Ibraheem ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim b. c 628
Safiyah bat Huyay Banu Akhtab b. circa 608, d. circa 670
Ramlah umm Habibah bint Abu Sufyan (?) b. circa 595, d. 664
Maimunah bint Al-Harith (?) b. circa 600, d. 670
Rayhanah the Jewess b. circa 613
[S204] Roderick W. Stuart, RfC, 435-45.
[S653] PoH, online http://www.friesian.com/
[S894] Muslim History, online http://members.nbci.com/muslimhistry/index.htm, Chapter 1.
[S469] Al-Islam.com, online http://www.al-islam.com/, The Prophet's daughters.
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, per Ibn Sa
d, "Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir", Vol. I, p. 4, "The people of Banu Fuhayrah came to the Prophet and said to him : You belong to us. He replied : Verily, (the archangel) Gabriel has informed me that I belong to Mudar.".
[S911] Hadrian to Islam, online http://users.iafrica.com/l/ll/lloyd/1-TimeLine/…..
[S469] Al-Islam.com, online http://www.al-islam.com/, The Prophet's sons.
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html
[S469] Al-Islam.com, online http://www.al-islam.com/, The Prophet's grandchildren.
[S894] Muslim History, online http://members.nbci.com/muslimhistry/index.htm, Chapter 1, pg. 1.
[S954] Esq., Bengal Civil Service William Muir Muir on Mahomet, Vol. 2, Chap. 1, "...it suffices to state that the widowed Amina gave birth to a son in the autumn of the year 570 A.D. It is a vain attempt to fix with certainty the precise date of the birth, for the materials are too vague and discrepant to be subjected to so close a calculation." but consider too M. Caussin de Perceval (whose calculations have already been recommended for general acceptance) accepts the 20th of August, 570 A.D..
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, ABDUL MUTTALIB.
[S954] Esq., Bengal Civil Service William Muir Muir on Mahomet, Vol. 2, Chap. 2.
[S204] Roderick W. Stuart, RfC, 436-45.
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, ZAID B. MUHAMMAD.
[S711] Encyclopedia, MS Encarta 2001, under "Islam.".
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, AISHA BINT ABU BAKR.
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, WIVES.
[S469] Al-Islam.com, online http://www.al-islam.com/, The Prophet's wives.
[S172] Various Encyclopaedea Britannica.
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, HAFSAH.
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, ZAINAB BINT KHUAZIMAH.
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, ZAINAB BINT JAHSH.
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, UBAIDULLAH B. JASH.
[S862] Various EB CD 2001, Muhammad, says 8 June, 632.
[S890] Ali Abbas, Shiíite Encyclopedia, Ch 1.b, pg. 41.
[S911] Hadrian to Islam, online http://users.iafrica.com/l/ll/lloyd/1-TimeLine/…., but has it as 8 June 632..
[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam, online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index.html, 8 Jun 632.
[S204] Roderick W. Stuart, RfC, 436-44.
Mahoma (La Meca, c. el 26 de abril de 570/571 — Medina, 8 de junio de 632) fue el profeta (nabi نبي) fundador del islam. Su nombre completo en lengua árabe es Abu l-Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh al-Hashimi al-Qurashi del que, castellanizando su nombre coloquial Muhammad (مُحَمِّد), se obtiene Mahoma.
De acuerdo a la religión musulmana, Mahoma es considerado el "sello de los profetas" (jātim al-anbiyā' خاتم الأنبياء), por ser el último de una larga cadena de mensajeros, enviados por Dios para actualizar su mensaje, que según el islam, sería en esencia el mismo que habrían transmitido sus predecesores, entre los que se contarían Ibrahim (Abraham), Isa (Jesús) y Musa (Moisés).
Vida anterior a la predicación
Su nacimiento e infancia
Árabe de la tribu de Coraix (Quraysh), nació en La Meca (مكة) alrededor del 570/571. Meca se encuentra en la región de Hiyaz en la actual Arabia Saudí. Fue hijo póstumo de Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib, miembro del clan de los hashimí.
La costumbre de los más honorables de la tribu de Quraysh era enviar a sus hijos con niñeras beduinas con el propósito de que crecieran libres y saludables en el desierto, para poder también robustecerse y aprender de los beduinos, que eran reconocidos por su honradez y la carencia de numerosos vicios, y Mahoma fue confiado a Bani S’ad.
Apertura del pecho
El primer milagro que se narra sobre Mahoma en la compilación de los hadices es que el Arcángel Gabriel descendió y abrió su pecho para sacar su corazón. Extrajo un coágulo negro de éste y dijo «Esta era la parte por donde Satán podría seducirte». Después lo lavó con agua Zam Zam en un recipiente de oro y devolvió el corazón a su sitio. Los niños y compañeros de juego con los que se encontraba corrieron hacia su nodriza y dijeron: «Mahoma ha sido asesinado»; todos se dirigieron a él y lo hallaron en buen estado, a excepción del rostro pálido. Los musulmanes ven este acontecimiento como una protección para que él se apartara desde su infancia de la adoración de los ídolos y probablemente la razón por la que fue devuelto a su madre. Se quedó huérfano a temprana edad y, debido a una costumbre árabe que dice que los hijos menores no pueden recibir la herencia de sus progenitores, no recibió ni la de su padre ni la de su madre.[cita requerida] Se dice que ella murió cuando él tenía seis años, por lo que fue acogido y educado primero por su abuelo Abd al-Muttalib y luego por su tío paterno Abu Talib, un líder de la tribu Quraysh, la más poderosa de La Meca, y padre de su primo y futuro califa Ali.
Encuentro con el monje Bahira
En aquella época La Meca era un centro comercial próspero, principalmente porque existían varios templos que contenían diferentes ídolos, lo cual atraía a un gran número de peregrinos. Mercaderes de diferentes tribus visitaban La Meca en la época del peregrinaje, cuando las guerras tribales estaban prohibidas y podían contar con un viaje seguro. En su adolescencia, Mahoma acompañó a su tío por sus viajes a Siria y otros lugares. Por tanto, pronto llegó a ser una persona con amplia experiencia en las costumbres de otras regiones.
A los doce años se dirigió a Basora con su tío Abu Tâlib y tuvieron un encuentro con un monje llamado Bahira, algunos orientalistas dicen que esto demuestra que Mahoma aprendió de él los libros sagrados, pero los escolares musulmanes refutan esta opinión alegando que no pudo haber aprendido en la hora de la comida ese conocimiento y que además no se registra un segundo encuentro con este monje, en los hadices se narra que Bahira reconoció algunas señales de la profecía de Mahoma y le advirtió a su tío sobre llevarlo a Siria por temor de los judíos y romanos.
Matrimonio con Jadiya
Mahoma no tuvo un trabajo específico en su juventud, pero se ha reportado que trabajó como pastor para Bani Sad y en la Meca como asalariado. A la edad de los 25 años Mahoma trabajó como mercader en la ruta caravanera entre Damasco y La Meca a las órdenes de Jadiya, hija de Juwaylid (خديجة بنت خويلد ), una rica comerciante viuda, había impresionado a Jadiya y ésta le propuso matrimonio en el año 595. Ibn Ishaq presenta que la edad de Jadiya era 28 años, y Al Waqidi presenta cuarenta. Algunos dicen que al engendrar Jadiya dos varones y cuatro mujeres de Mahoma, hace que la opinión más fuerte sea la de Ibn Ishaq, pues es sabido que la mujer llega a la edad de la menopausia antes de los cincuenta años. A pesar de que estas informaciones no están establecidas en un hadiz sino que es algo que se hizo famoso entre los historiadores. Jadiya tuvo seis hijos con Mahoma, dos varones y cuatro mujeres. Todos nacieron antes de que Mahoma recibiera la primera revelación. Sus hijos Al-Qasim y Abdullah murieron en la infancia en La Meca. Sus cuatro hijas se llamaban Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulzum y Fátima. Jadiya sería posteriormente la primera persona en aceptar el islam después de la revelación.
Las primeras revelaciones
Mahoma era de carácter reflexivo y rutinariamente pasaba noches meditando en una cueva (Hira) cerca de La Meca. Los musulmanes creen que en 610 a los cuarenta años de edad, mientras meditaba, Mahoma tuvo una visión del ángel Gabriel. Describió esta visita como un mandato para memorizar y recitar los versos enviados por Dios. Durante su vida, Mahoma confió la conservación de la palabra de Dios (Allah الله), trasmitida por Gabriel (Yibril, جبريل), a la retentiva de los memoriones, quienes la memorizaban recitándola incansablemente que después de su muerte serían recopilados por escrito en el Corán debido a la primordial importancia de conservar el mensaje original en toda su pureza, sin el menor cambio ni de fondo ni de forma. Para ello emplearon materiales como las escápulas de camello, sobre las que grababan los versículos del Corán. El arcángel Gabriel le indicó que había sido elegido como el último de los profetas y como tal predicó la palabra de Dios sobre la base de un estricto monoteísmo, prediciendo el Día del Juicio Final.
De acuerdo con el Corán y las narraciones, Mahoma era analfabeto (ummi), hecho que la tradición musulmana considera una prueba que autentifica al Corán (Al-Qur'ān, القران), libro sagrado de los musulmanes, como portador de la verdad revelada.
Esta visión perturbó a Mahoma, pero su esposa Jadiya le aseguró que se trataba de una visión real y se convirtió en su primera discípula. Transformado en un rico y respetado mercader, recibió la revelación del ángel Gabriel, que le invitó a predicar una nueva religión.
A medida que los seguidores de Mahoma comenzaban a aumentar en número, se convirtió en una amenaza para los jefes de las tribus locales. La riqueza de estas tribus se basaba en la Kaaba, el recinto sagrado de los ídolos de los árabes y el punto principal religioso de La Meca. Si rechazaban a dichos ídolos, tal como Mahoma predicaba, no habría peregrinos hacia La Meca, ni comercio, ni riqueza. El repudio al politeísmo que denunciaba Mahoma era particularmente ofensivo a su propia tribu, la qurayshí, por cuanto ellos eran los guardianes de la Kaaba. Es por esto que Mahoma y sus seguidores se vieron perseguidos.
En el año 619 fallecieron Jadiya, la esposa de Mahoma, y su tío Abu Talib. Este año se conoce como el "año de la tristeza". El clan al que pertenecía Mahoma lo repudió y sus seguidores sufrieron hambre y persecución.
Isra y Miraj
En 620, Mahoma hizo un viaje en una noche que es conocido como Isra y Miraj. Isra es la palabra en árabe que se refiere a un viaje milagroso desde La Meca a Jerusalén, específicamente al lugar conocido como Masjid al-Aqsa. Isra fue seguida por el Mi'rāŷ, su ascensión al cielo, donde recorrió los siete cielos y se comunicó con profetas que le precedieron, como Abraham, Moisés o Jesús.
La vida de la pequeña comunidad musulmana en La Meca no sólo era difícil, sino también peligrosa. Las tradiciones árabes afirman que hubo varios atentados contra la vida de Mahoma, quien finalmente decidió trasladarse a Medina, un gran oasis agrícola donde había seguidores suyos. Rompiendo sus vínculos con las lealtades tribales y familiares, Mahoma demostraba que estos vínculos eran insignificantes comparados con su compromiso con el islam, una idea revolucionaria en la sociedad tribal de la Arabia. Esta migración a Medina marca el principio del año en el calendario islámico. El calendario islámico cuenta las fechas a partir de la Hégira (هجرة), razón por la cual las fechas musulmanas llevan el prefijo AH (año de la Hégira).
Mahoma llegó a Medina como un mediador, invitado a resolver querellas entre los bandos árabes de Aws y Khazraj. Logró este fin absorbiendo a ambas facciones en la comunidad musulmana y prohibiendo el derramamiento de sangre entre los musulmanes. Sin embargo, Medina era también el lugar donde vivían varias tribus judías. Mahoma esperaba que estas tribus lo reconocieran como profeta, lo cual no ocurrió. Algunos académicos afirman que Mahoma abandonó la esperanza de ser reconocido como profeta por los judíos, y que, por tanto, la alquibla, es decir, la dirección en la que rezan los musulmanes, fue cambiada del antiguo templo de Jerusalén a la Kaaba en La Meca.
Mahoma emitió un documento que se conoce como La Constitución de Medina (en 622-623), en la cual se especifican los términos en que otras facciones, particularmente los judíos, podían vivir dentro del nuevo estado islámico. De acuerdo con este sistema, a los judíos y cristianos les era permitido mantener su religión mediante el pago de un tributo (no así a los practicantes de religiones paganas). Este sistema vendría a tipificar la relación entre los musulmanes y los dhimmis, y esta tradición es la razón de la relativa estabilidad que normalmente existía en los califatos árabes.
Las relaciones entre La Meca y Medina se deterioraron rápidamente. Todas las propiedades de los musulmanes en La Meca fueron confiscadas, mientras que en Medina Mahoma lograba alianzas con las tribus vecinas.
Los seguidores de Mahoma comenzaron a asaltar las caravanas que se dirigían a La Meca. En marzo de 624, Mahoma condujo a trescientos guerreros en un asalto a una caravana de mercaderes que se dirigía a La Meca. Los integrantes de la caravana lograron rechazar el ataque y posteriormente decidieron dirigir una represalia contra los musulmanes, enviando un pequeño ejército a invadir a Medina. El 15 de marzo de 624, en un lugar llamado Badr, ambos bandos chocaron. Si bien los seguidores de Mahoma eran numéricamente tres veces inferiores a sus enemigos (trescientos contra mil), los musulmanes ganaron la batalla. Éste fue el primero de una serie de logros militares por parte de los musulmanes.
El dominio de Mahoma se consolida
Para los musulmanes, la victoria de Badr resultaba una ratificación divina de que Mahoma era un legítimo profeta. Después de la victoria, y una vez que el clan judío de Banu Qainuqa fue expulsado de Medina, los ciudadanos de este lugar adoptaron todos la fe musulmana y Mahoma se estableció como el regente de facto de la ciudad.
Después de la muerte de su esposa, Mahoma contrajo matrimonio con Aisha, la hija de su amigo Abu Bakr (quien posteriormente se convertiría en el líder de los musulmanes tras la muerte de Mahoma). En Medina también se casó con Hafsah, hija de Umar (quien luego sería el sucesor de Abu Bakr). Estos casamientos sellarían las relaciones entre Mahoma y sus principales seguidores.
La hija de Mahoma, Fátima, se casó con Ali, primo de Mahoma. Otra hija, Ruqayyah, contrajo matrimonio con Uzman pero ella falleció y después Uzman se casó con su hermana Umm Kulzum. Estos hombres surgirían en los años subsiguientes como los sucesores de Mahoma (califas) y líderes políticos de los musulmanes. Por tanto, los cuatro primeros califas estaban vinculados a Mahoma por los diferentes matrimonios. Los musulmanes consideran a estos califas como los rashidún (الخلفاء الراشدون), que significa "guiados".
Continúa la guerra
En 625 un jefe de La Meca, Abu Sufyan, marchó contra Medina con 3.000 hombres. En la batalla que se libró el 23 de marzo, no salió victorioso ninguno de los dos bandos. El ejército de La Meca afirmó haber ganado la batalla, pero quedó muy diezmado como para perseguir a los musulmanes de Medina y ocupar la ciudad.
En abril de 627, Abu Sufyan emprendió otro ataque contra Medina, pero Mahoma había cavado trincheras alrededor de la ciudad y pudo defenderla exitosamente en lo que se conoce como la Guerra de las Trincheras.
Después de esta batalla, los musulmanes, se vieron traicionados por la tribu judía de Banu Qurayza o Banu Koreidha la cual se había aliado con las tribus de la Meca en la batalla de las trincheras, emprendieron guerra contra éstos, derrotándolos. Los hombres de la tribu fueron decapitados y las mujeres y niños fueron vendidos como esclavos.
Tras la victoria de la Guerra de las Trincheras, los musulmanes expandieron su influencia a través de conversiones o conquistas de varias ciudades y tribus.
La conquista de La Meca
Antes de su muerte en 632, Mahoma había consolidado su dominio sobre la península de Arabia.En el año 628, la posición de Mahoma era lo suficientemente fuerte para decidir su retorno a La Meca, esta vez como un peregrino. En marzo de ese año, se dirigió a La Meca seguido de 1.600 hombres. Después de diversas negociaciones, se firmó un tratado en un pueblo cercano a La Meca llamado al-Hudaybiyah. Si bien a Mahoma no se le permitió ese año entrar en La Meca, las hostilidades cesaron y a los musulmanes se les autorizó el acceso a la ciudad en el año siguiente.
El tratado duró solo dos años, ya que en 630 los regentes de La Meca rompieron dicho tratado. Como consecuencia de esto, Mahoma marchó hacia La Meca con un ejército de más de 10.000 hombres, la cual conquistó sin que encontrara resistencia. Mahoma declaró amnistía a los pobladores de la ciudad, muchos de los cuales se convirtieron al islam. Mahoma destruyó los ídolos de la Kaaba y, por tanto, el peregrinaje en adelante sería al lugar sagrado del islam. A pesar de Mahoma no estar presente en el asalto a la ciudad, como en todas las batallas por prescripción coránica, Muhammad administraba la quinta parte del botín para repartirlo entre los más necesitados. Los cuatro quintos restantes pertenecían siempre a los combatientes. Cobró un rescate 45 onzas de plata por cada prisionero, rescate que fue repartido entre los necesitados. Muhammad, no llegó nunca a saciarse de comida alguna, en su casa no había sino lo necesario para pasar el día y para los invitados que a ella acudían.
La capitulación de La Meca y la derrota de las tribus enemigas Hunayn permitió a Mahoma tomar el control de Arabia. Sin embargo, Mahoma no constituyó ningún gobierno, sino que prefirió gobernar a través de las relaciones personales y los tratados con diferentes tribus.
La vida familiar de Mahoma
Desde 595 hasta 619, Mahoma sólo tuvo una esposa, Jadiya, una rica mujer de La Meca que contaba 27 años (40 según otras fuentes) cuando se casó. Después de su muerte contrajo matrimonio con Sawdah, y al poco tiempo con Aisha, hija de Abu Bakr —quien posteriormente sucedería a Mahoma—. Según algunos hadices, Aisha tenía 6 años de edad cuando fue prometida al profeta, que tenía 54, aunque el matrimonio se consumó cuando ella tuvo 9. Hay, sin embargo, estudiosos musulmanes que creen que dichos datos son erróneos y que Aisha era considerablemente mayor.
Pese a estas reinterpretaciones modernas de los hadices que adjudicarían a Aisha una edad más madura, una gran mayoría de los fieles musulmanes siguen aceptando actualmente las interpretaciones tradicionales. Esto último ha sido utilizado por críticos del islam, como Ibn Warraq, para sostener que los matrimonios infantiles que se siguen practicando en la actualidad en los países islámicos encuentran un argumento favorable en este posible precedente histórico
Más tarde se casó con Hafsa, con Zaynab (quien era mujer de su hijo adoptivo Zaid), Ramlah, hija de un líder que combatió a Mahoma, y con Umm Salama, viuda de un combatiente musulmán.
También se casó con una cristiana de nombre Mariyah Al-Qibtía (Mariyah, la copta) tuvo otro hijo con ella después de mudarse a Medina. Ese séptimo y último hijo se llamaba Ibrahim. Al igual que sus hermanos varones, Ibrahim falleció en su niñez; se dice que murió a los 17 o 18 meses de edad, y con una judía de nombre Safiah. Posteriormente tuvo varias otras esposas, de número impreciso entre éstas 9 reseñadas, que afirman casi todos los expertos como seguras, y las más de 20 que algunos le estiman. Algunas de estas mujeres eran esposas de seguidores de Mahoma muertos en batalla, mientras que otras eran hijas de sus aliados.
La muerte de Mahoma
Muerte de Mahoma en un manuscrito otomano de 1596.Después de una corta enfermedad, Mahoma falleció el 8 de junio de 632 en la ciudad de Medina a la edad de 63 años.
Abu Bakr, el padre de Aisha, la tercera mujer de Mahoma, fue elegido por los líderes de la comunidad musulmana como el sucesor de Mahoma, pues éste era el favorito de Mahoma. Cualquiera que hayan sido los hechos, lo cierto es que Abu Bakr se convirtió en el nuevo líder del islam. La mayor parte de su corto reinado la pasó combatiendo tribus rebeldes en lo que se conoce como las Guerras Ridda.
A la fecha de la muerte de Mahoma, había unificado toda la Península Arábica y expandido la religión islámica en esta región, así como en parte de Siria y Palestina.
Posteriormente los sucesores de Mahoma extendieron el dominio del imperio árabe a Palestina, Siria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Egipto, el Norte de África y Al-Andalus.
Descendientes de Mahoma
A Mahoma le sobrevivieron su hija Fátima y los hijos de ésta. Los chiíes afirman que el esposo de Fátima, Alí y sus descendientes, son los verdaderos líderes del islam. Los sunníes no aceptan esta afirmación, si bien respetan a los descendientes de Mahoma.
Los descendientes de Mahoma son conocidos por diferentes nombres, tales como sayyid y sharif. Muchos líderes y nobles de los países musulmanes, actuales y pasados, afirman ser descendientes de Mahoma con variables grados de credibilidad, tales como la dinastía fatimí del Norte de África, los idrisíes, la actual familia real de Marruecos y Jordania y los imanes ismaelitas que usan el título de Agha Khan.
Nabi Muhammad SAW berasal dari kabilah Quraisy, tepatnya keturunan Hasyim. Ayah beliau adalah Abdullah bin Abdul Muthalib, cucu Hasyim. Ibunda beliau adalah Aminah binti Wahab yang berasal dari keturunan Bani Zuhrah, salah satu kabilah Quraisy. Dimana Setelah menikah, Abdullah melakukan pepergian ke Syam. Ketika pulang dari pepergian itu, Rasulullah wafat di Madinah dan dikuburkan di kota itu juga.
Setelah beberapa bulan dari wafatnya sang ayah berlalu, Rasulullah adalah nabi pamungkas dari para nabi, yang lahir di bulan Rabi’ul Awal, tahun 571 Masehi di Makkah, dan dengan kelahirannya itu, dunia menjadi terang-benderang. Sesuai dengan kebiasaan para bangsawan Makkah, ibundanya menyerahkan Muhammad kecil kepada Halimah Sa’diyah dari kabilah Bani Sa’d untuk disusui. Beliau tinggal di rumah Halimah selama empat tahun. Setelah itu, sang ibu mengambilnya kembali.
Dengan tujuan untuk berkunjung ke kerabat ayahnya di Madinah, sang ibunda membawanya pergi ke Madinah. Dalam perjalanan pulang ke Makkah, ibundanya wafat dan dikebumikan di Abwa
, sebuah daerah yang terletak antara Makkah dan Madinah. Setelah ibunda beliau wafat, secara bergantian, kakek dan paman beliau, Abdul Muthalib dan Abu Thalib memelihara beliau. Pada usia dua puluh lima tahun, beliau menikah dengan Khadijah yang waktu itu sudah berusia empat puluh tahun. Beliau menjalani hidup bersamanya selama dua puluh lima tahun hingga ia wafat pada usia enam puluh lima tahun.
Pada usia empat puluh tahun, beliau diutus menjadi nabi oleh Allah. Ia mewahyukan kepada beliau al-Quran yang seluruh manusia dan jin tidak mampu untuk menandinginya. Ia menamakan beliau sebagai pamungkas para nabi dan memujinya karena kemuliaan akhlaknya.
Beliau hidup di dunia ini selama enam puluh tiga tahun. Menurut pendapat masyhur, beliau wafat pada hari Senin bulan Shafar 11 Hijriah di Madinah.
"Muhammed Prophet Of Islam PBUH An-Hazrat Abul-Qasim Muhammed -ie- Mustafa Ahmed-ie -Mujtaba (S.A.W.S) Sahib-It Taj-Ie-Wal Merajie Huzoor Sarwar-Ie Konain Khatim-Un Nabaieen Wa-Katmul- Mursaleen Wo Rahmat-Ul- Lil Alaaimeen Alaihis Sallat Was Sallam ( Prophet of Islam)".............Syed's are the direct descendants of The Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) Of Islam. The Prophet's daughter Syeda Bibi Fatima-tuz- Zahra (R.A) was married to Ali ibne Abu-Talib (R.A), (Fourth Caliph of Caliphate of Rashideen) and who was also the youngest cousin of the Prophet of Islam. The other descendants of Ali ibne Abu-Talib from his other wifes are named as Alawi's ( Although syed's are Hashmi Sadaat's ( for info: Descendents when started using the surname "Syed" then they stopped using the word Hashimi in past after the era of Prophet Of Islam ) and Alavi's are Hashmi Alavi's ). The Prophet Of Islam's tree goes far back to the prophet Ismail (Ishmael) son of Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (Whose father was Taric but not Azar->Who was Ibrahim' uncle) It Is a respectful and honorable that as Muslims in good faith we all uses numerous honorable names for (Muhammed Prophet Of Islam PBUH An-Hazrat Aboul-Qasim Muhammed -ie- Mustafa Ahmed-ie -Mujtaba (S.A.W.S) Sahib-It Taj-Ie-Wal Merajie Huzoor Sarwar-Ie Konain Khatim-Un Nabaieen Wa-Katmul- Mursaleen Wo Rahmat-Ul- Lil Alaaimeen Alaihis Sallat Was Sallam ( Prophet of Islam) and many more that are assigned attributes by Allah (God the Almighty) in our Holy Book (Qur'an) to our Prophet. Qur'an is also wrongly miss-spelled as Koran.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Sa‘id or saeed ( means happy / farrah ) or Zayd.
Sayyed's (Arabic: سيد) (plural sādah / sadaat where 't' is a silent letter in Arabic: سادة) literally means Mister. As an honorific title given to males accepted as who are the descendants of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husain ibn Ali, who were also the sons of the prophet's daughter Fatima tuz Zahra (also named as Hussany and Hosseiny Syed's " Alai-Rasool" )and his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib ( Ali's descendent's are also called as "Aulad-ie-Ali"). Daughters of sayyids are given the titles Sayyeda, Syarifah, or Sharifah. Children of a Sayyida mother but a non-Sayyid father cannot be attributed the title of Sayyed; however, Syed's may also claim the title ' Mir' but never Mirza (out of question) In the Arab world or any where else in the world as matter itself.
The Alevi use seyyid (the Turkish form) as an honorific before the names of their saints ( only if they are direct descendants of the prophet of Islam). El Cid, the name given to a famous Spanish knight of the 11th century C.E., is derived from Al-Sayyid (as-sayyid/Mister/Ustaaz / moallim). As-Sayyid / Mister / his highness is also used as title or a different form of address to denote a prince or superior in the Sultanate of Oman and rest of the muslim world or else matters in this current era only ( nothing as such related to the word " Syed" who are the descendents of Prophet Of Islam ).
Arabic Sayyid, Sayyidi, Sayyed, Sayid, Saiyyid, Saiyid, Sidi Arab world Azerbaijani Seyid, Seyyid Azerbaijan, Iran Baluchi Sayyid, Syed, Sayeed, Sayyed, Sayid Baluchistan region Indonesia Sayyid, Syed, Sayid Indonesia Kurdish Seyid, Syed, Seyyid, Seyit Kurdish region Malay Syed, Sheikh Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore Pashto Sayed, Syed, Said Afghanistan & Northwest Pakistan Persian Said, Sayyed, Sayed, Saeyd, Seyyed, Seyed, Saiyed, Saeid, Siyyid Iran & Afghanistan Punjabi Sayed, Syed Pakistan, India Seraiki, Sindhi Sayed, Syed Pakistan Turkish Seyed, Seyit, Seyyid, Seyyed Turkey, Azerbaijan and Central Asia Bosnian Seid, Sait, Sead Bosnia and Herzegovina Urdu, Marathi, Hindi, Assamese, Konkani, Kannada, Bhojpuri, Telugu, Tamil, Bengali, Malayalam, Gujarati Syed, Saiyad, Saiyed, Sayyid, Saiyed, Saiyid, Sayyed, Sayid South Asia Spanish Cid Al-Andalus Other Siyyid
The prophet of the Muslim faith
Muhammad From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). For other uses, see Muhammad (disambiguation). Page semi-protected Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh
The name Muhammad in traditional Thuluth calligraphy by the hand of Hattat Aziz Efendi Born ca. 570/571 Mecca, Arabia (present day Saudi Arabia) Died June 8, 632 (age 63) Medina, Arabia Cause of death Illness Religion Muslim Spouse see below Parents
Father: Abd Allah Mother: Aminah bint Wahb
A series of articles on
Muhammad callig.gif Prophet of Islam Muhammad
Life Companions · Family tree · In Mecca · In Medina · Conquest of Mecca · The Farewell Sermon · Succession
Career Diplomacy · Family · Wives · Military career
Succession Farewell Pilgrimage · Pen and paper · Saqifah · General bay'ah
Views by subject Slavery · Jews · Christians
Perspectives Muslim (Poetic and Mawlid) · Medieval Christian · Historicity · Criticism · Depictions v · d · e This article is part of the series: Islam Allah-eser-green.png Beliefs[show] Practices[show] Texts and laws[show] History and leadership[show] Culture and society[show] Islam and other religions[show] Other[show] v · d · e
Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh (Arabic: محمد; Transliteration: Muḥammad;[n 1] pronounced [mʊˈħæmmæd] ( listen); also spelled Muhammed or Mohammed)[n 2][n 3] (ca. 570/571 – June 8, 632), (Monday, 12th Rabi' al-Awwal, Year 11 A.H.) is the founder[n 4] of the religion of Islam, and is considered by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: Allah|الله Allāh), the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets, and, by most Muslims,[n 5] the last prophet of Islam as taught by the Qur'an. Muslims thus consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith (islām) of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets. He was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general, and, according to Muslim belief, an agent of divine action.
Born in 570 in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic beliefs it was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām) is the only way (dīn)[n 6] acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets. Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes; he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his remaining followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to 10,000, conquered Mecca. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; and he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.
The revelations (or Ayat, lit. "Signs of God")–which Muhammad reported receiving until his death–form the verses of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Qur'an, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld by Muslims. They discuss Muhammad and other prophets of Islam with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever their names are mentioned. While conceptions of Muhammad in medieval Christendom and premodern times were largely negative, appraisals in modern history have been far less so. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized by followers and opponents over the centuries. He is revered as a true prophet and Manifestation of God in the Baha'i Faith. Contents [hide]
1 Names and appellations in the Qur'an 2 Sources for Muhammad's life 2.1 Qur'an 2.2 Early biographies 2.3 Hadith 2.4 Non-Arabic sources 3 Pre-Islamic Arabia 4 Life 4.1 Life in Mecca 4.1.1 Childhood and early life 4.2 Wives and children 4.3 Beginnings of the Qur'an 4.4 Opposition 4.5 Isra and Mi'raj 4.6 Last years in Mecca before Hijra 4.7 Hijra 4.7.1 Migration to Medina 4.7.2 Establishment of a new polity 4.7.3 Beginning of armed conflict 4.7.4 Conflict with Mecca 4.7.5 Siege of Medina 4.7.6 Truce of Hudaybiyyah 4.8 Final years 4.8.1 Conquest of Mecca 4.8.2 Conquest of Arabia 4.8.3 Farewell pilgrimage and death 4.9 Aftermath 5 Early reforms under Islam 6 Slaves 7 Legacy 7.1 Muslim views 7.2 Other views 7.2.1 Non-western views 7.2.2 European and Western views 7.2.3 Other religious traditions 8 Criticism 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 12.1 Encyclopedias 13 Further reading 14 External links 14.1 Non-Muslim biographies 14.2 Muslim biographies
Names and appellations in the Qur'an
The name Muhammad means "Praiseworthy" and occurs four times in the Qur'an. The Qur'an addresses Muhammad in the second person not by his name but by the appellations prophet, messenger, servant of God ('abd), announcer (bashir), warner (nathir), reminder (mudhakkir), witness (shahid), bearer of good tidings (mubashshir), one who calls [unto God] (dā‘ī) and the light-giving lamp (siraj munir). Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped (al-muzzammil) in Qur'an 73:1 and the shrouded (al-muddaththir) in Qur'an 74:1. In the Qur'an, believers are not to distinguish between the messengers of God and are to believe in all of them (Sura Al-Baqara 2:285). God has caused some messengers to excel above others 2:253 and in Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 He singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets". The Qur'an also refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy" (Arabic: أحمد, Sura As-Saff 61:6). Sources for Muhammad's life The Qur'an is the primary source for details about Muhammed's life. Main articles: Historiography of early Islam and Historicity of Muhammad
Being a highly influential historical figure, Muhammad's life, deeds, and thoughts have been debated by followers and opponents over the centuries, which makes a biography of him difficult to write. Qur'an Wiki letter w cropped.svg This section requires expansion.
Muslims regard the Qur'an as a holy book and the primary source of knowledge about Muhammed as a historical figure. The Qur'an has a few allusions to Muhammad's life. The Encyclopaedia of Islam says that the Qur'an responds "constantly and often candidly to Muhammad's changing historical circumstances and contains a wealth of hidden data." Early biographies Main article: Prophetic biography
Next in importance are historical works by writers of the 3rd and 4th centuries of the Muslim era. These include the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad (the sira literature), which provide further information on Muhammad's life.
The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written ca. 767 (150 AH). The work is lost, but was used verbatim at great length by Ibn Hisham and Al-Tabari. Another early source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi (death 207 of Muslim era), and the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi (death 230 of Muslim era).
Many scholars accept the accuracy of the earliest biographies, though their accuracy is unascertainable. Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between the traditions touching legal matters and the purely historical ones. In the former sphere, traditions could have been subject to invention while in the latter sphere, aside from exceptional cases, the material may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". Hadith Hadith collections Mosque02.svg
[show]Sunni [show]Shi'a [show]Ibadi [show]Mu'tazili This box: view · talk · edit Main article: Hadith
In addition, the hadith collections are accounts of the verbal and physical traditions of Muhammad that date from several generations after his death. Hadith compilations are records of the traditions or sayings of Muhammad. They might be defined as the biography of Muhammad perpetuated by the long memory of his community for their exemplification and obedience.
Western academics view the hadith collections with caution as accurate historical sources. Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in later periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. Although usually discounted by historians, oral tradition plays a major role in the Islamic understanding of Muhammad. Non-Arabic sources Wiki letter w cropped.svg This section requires expansion.
The earliest documented Christian knowledge of Muhammad stems from Byzantine sources. They indicate that both Jews and Christians saw Muhammad as a deceiving prophet, or at least certain circles did. In the Doctrina Jacobi nuper baptizati of 634, Muhammad is portrayed as being "deceiving[,] for do prophets come with sword and chariot?, [...] you will discover nothing true from the said prophet except human bloodshed." Another Greek source for Muhammad is the 9th-century writer Theophanes. The earliest Syriac source is the 7th-century writer John bar Penkaye. Pre-Islamic Arabia Main articles: Pre-Islamic Arabia and Jahiliyyah Approximate locations of some of the important tribes and Empire of the Arabian Peninsula at the dawn of Islam (approximately 600 CE / 50 BH).
The Arabian Peninsula was largely arid and volcanic, making agriculture difficult except near oases or springs. The landscape was thus dotted with towns and cities, two prominent ones being Mecca and Medina. Medina was a large flourishing agricultural settlement, while Mecca was an important financial center for many surrounding tribes. Communal life was essential for survival in the desert conditions, as people needed support against the harsh environment and lifestyle. Tribal grouping was encouraged by the need to act as a unit, this unity being based on the bond of kinship by blood. Indigenous Arabs were either nomadic or sedentary (or bedouins), the former constantly travelling from one place to another seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the latter settled and focused on trade and agriculture. Nomadic survival was also dependent on raiding caravans or oases, the nomads not viewing this as a crime.
In pre-Islamic Arabia, gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, their spirits being associated with sacred trees, stones, springs and wells. As well as being the site of an annual pilgrimage, the Kaaba shrine in Mecca housed 360 idol statues of tribal patron deities. Aside from these gods, the Arabs shared a common belief in a supreme deity called Allah (literally "the god"), who was remote from their everyday concerns and thus not the object of cult or ritual. Three goddesses were associated with Allah as his daughters: Allāt, Manāt and al-‘Uzzá. Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia, including Christians and Jews. Hanifs – native pre-Islamic Arab monotheists – are also sometimes listed alongside Jews and Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia, although their historicity is disputed amongst scholars. According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad himself was a Hanif and one of the descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham. Life Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina, Saudi Arabia, is the site of Muhammad's tomb. Life in Mecca
Timeline of Muhammad in Mecca Important dates and locations in the life of Muhammad in Mecca c. 569 Death of his father, Abdullah c. 570 Possible date of birth, April 26: Mecca 576 Death of his mother, Amina 578 Death of his grandfather c. 583 Takes trading journeys to Syria c. 595 Meets and marries Khadijah 610 First reports of Qur'anic revelation c. 613 Begins spreading message of Islam publicly c. 614 Begins to gather following in Mecca c. 615 Emigration of Muslims to Ethiopia 616 Banu Hashim clan boycott begins c. 618 Medinan War 619 Banu Hashim clan boycott ends 619 The year of sorrows: khadija and Abu Talib die c. 620 Isra and Mi'raj 622 Emigrates to Medina (Hijra)
This box: view · talk · edit Main article: Muhammad in Mecca
Muhammad was born and lived in Mecca for the first 52 years of his life (570–622) which was divided into two phases, that is before and after declaring the prophecy. Childhood and early life See also: Year of the Elephant, Mawlid, and Family tree of Muhammad
Muhammad was born in the month of Rabi' al-awwal in 570. He belonged to the Banu Hashim, one of the prominent families of Mecca, although it seems not to have been prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime. Tradition places the year of Muhammad's birth as corresponding with the Year of the Elephant, which is named after the failed destruction of Mecca that year by the Aksumite king Abraha who had in his army a number of elephants. Recent scholarship has suggested alternative dates for this event, such as 568 or 569.
Muhammad's father, Abdullah, died almost six months before he was born. According to the tradition, soon after Muhammad's birth he was sent to live with a Bedouin family in the desert, as the desert-life was considered healthier for infants. Muhammad stayed with his foster-mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old. Some western scholars of Islam have rejected the historicity of this tradition. At the age of six Muhammad lost his mother Amina to illness and he became fully orphaned. He was subsequently brought up for two years under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe. When Muhammad was eight, his grandfather also died. He now came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of Banu Hashim. According to Watt, because of the general disregard of the guardians in taking care of weak members of the tribes in Mecca in the 6th century, "Muhammad's guardians saw that he did not starve to death, but it was hard for them to do more for him, especially as the fortunes of the clan of Hashim seem to have been declining at that time."
While still in his teens, Muhammad accompanied his uncle on trading journeys to Syria gaining experience in the commercial trade, the only career open to Muhammad as an orphan. According to tradition, when Muhammad was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Meccans' caravan to Syria, he met a Christian monk or hermit named Bahira who is said to have foreseen Muhammed's career as a prophet of God.
Little is known of Muhammad during his later youth, and from the fragmentary information that is available, it is hard to separate history from legend. It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian ocean and the Mediterranean Sea." Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين), meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator. His reputation attracted a proposal from Khadijah, a forty-year-old widow in 595. Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one. Wives and children Main articles: Muhammad's wives and Ahl al-Bayt
Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two periods: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca (from 570 to 622), and post-hijra in Medina (from 622 until 632). Muhammad is said to have had thirteen wives or concubines. (There are differing accounts on the status of some of them as wife or concubine.) All but two of his marriages were contracted after the migration to Medina. Part of a series on Islam Muhammadwives.png Umm-al-Momineen Wives of Muhammad
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
Sawda bint Zamʿa
Aisha bint Abi Bakr
Hafsa bint Umar
Zaynab bint Khuzayma
Hind bint Abi Umayya
Zaynab bint Jahsh
Juwayriya bint al-Harith
Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan
Rayhana bint Zayd
Safiyya bint Huyayy
Maymuna bint al-Harith
At the age of 25, Muhammad married the wealthy Khadijah bint Khuwaylid who was 40 years old at that time. The marriage lasted for 25 years and was a happy one. Muhammad relied upon Khadija in many ways and did not enter into marriage with another woman during this marriage. After the death of Khadija, it was suggested to Muhammad by Khawla bint Hakim that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha, daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca. Muhammad is said to have asked her to arrange for him to marry both.
Traditional sources dictate that Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad but the marriage was not consummated until she was nine or ten years old. While majority of traditional sources indicate Aisha was 9 (and therefore a virgin) at the time of marriage, a small number of more recent writers have variously estimated her age at 15 to 24.
Nine of Muhammad's wives survived him. Aisha, who became known as Muhammad's favourite wife in Sunni tradition, survived him by many decades and was instrumental in helping bring together the scattered sayings of Muhammad that would form the Hadith literature for the Sunni branch of Islam.
After migration to Medina, Muhammad (who was now in his fifties) married several women. These marriages were contracted mostly for political or humanitarian reasons. The women were either widows of Muslims who had been killed in battle and had been left without a protector, or belonging to important families or clans whom it was necessary to honor and strengthen alliances with.
Muhammad did his own household chores and helped with housework, such as preparing food, sewing clothes and repairing shoes. He is also said to have had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him.
Khadijah is said to have borne Muhammad four daughters-(Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, Zainab bint Muhammad, Fatimah Zahra)-and two sons-(Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad and Qasim ibn Muhammad) who both died in childhood. All except two of his daughters, Fatimah and Zainab, died before him. Shi'a scholars contend that Fatimah was Muhammad's only daughter. Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son named Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, but the child died when he was two years old.
Muhammad's descendants through Fatimah are known as sharifs, syeds or sayyids. These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'as place much more emphasis and value on their distinction. Beginnings of the Qur'an Part of a series on the Quran Decorative Qur'an cover Mus'haf Sura · Ayah Quran reading Tajwid · Hizb · Tarteel Quranic guardian · Manzil Qari' · Juz' · Rasm Ruku' · Sujud Translations List of translations English translations History Meccan suras Medinan suras Tafsir Persons related to verses Justice · Asbab al-nuzul Naskh · Biblical narratives Tahrif · Bakkah · Muqatta'at Esoteric interpretation Quran and Sunnah Literalism · Miracles Science · Female figures Perspectives Shia · Criticism · Desecration Surah of Wilaya and Nurayn Tanazzulat · Qisas Al-Anbiya House of the Quran v · d · e See also: History of the Qur'an and Wahy
At some point Muhammad adopted the practice of meditating alone for several weeks every year in a cave on Mount Hira near Mecca. Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to Mount Hira, the angel Gabriel appeared to him in the year 610 and commanded Muhammad to recite the following verses: The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation.
Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created- Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,- He Who taught (the use of) the pen,- Taught man that which he knew not. —Qur'an, sura 96 (Al-Alaq), ayat 1-5
According to some traditions, upon receiving his first revelations Muhammad was deeply distressed. After returning home, Muhammad was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal. Shi'a tradition maintains that Muhammad was neither surprised nor frightened at the appearance of Gabriel but rather welcomed him as if he had been expecting him. The initial revelation was followed by a pause of three years during which Muhammad further gave himself to prayers and spiritual practices. When the revelations resumed he was reassured and commanded to begin preaching: "Thy Guardian-Lord hath not forsaken thee, nor is He displeased.". A depiction of Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the book Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, published in 1307 AD, Ilkhanate period.
According to Welch these revelations were accompanied by mysterious seizures, and the reports are unlikely to have been forged by later Muslims. Muhammad was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages. According to the Qur'an, one of the main roles of Muhammad is to warn the unbelievers of their eschatological punishment (Qur'an 38:70, Qur'an 6:19). Sometimes the Qur'an does not explicitly refer to the Judgment day but provides examples from the history of some extinct communities and warns Muhammad's contemporaries of similar calamities (Qur'an 41:13–16). Muhammad is not only a warner to those who reject God's revelation, but also a bearer of good news for those who abandon evil, listen to the divine word and serve God. Muhammad's mission also involves preaching monotheism: The Qur'an demands Muhammad to proclaim and praise the name of his Lord and instructs him not to worship idols apart from God or associate other deities with God.
The key themes of the early Qur'anic verses included the responsibility of man towards his creator; the resurrection of dead, God's final judgment followed by vivid descriptions of the tortures in hell and pleasures in Paradise; and the signs of God in all aspects of life. Religious duties required of the believers at this time were few: belief in God, asking for forgiveness of sins, offering frequent prayers, assisting others particularly those in need, rejecting cheating and the love of wealth (considered to be significant in the commercial life of Mecca), being chaste and not to kill newborn girls. Opposition See also: Persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and Migration to Abyssinia
According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad's wife Khadija was the first to believe he was a prophet. She was soon followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr, and adopted son Zaid. Around 613, Muhammad began his public preaching (Qur'an 26:214). Most Meccans ignored him and mocked him, while a few others became his followers. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners.
According to Ibn Sad, the opposition in Mecca started when Muhammad delivered verses that condemned idol worship and the Meccan forefathers who engaged in polytheism. However, the Qur'anic exegesis maintains that it began as soon as Muhammad started public preaching. As the number of followers increased, he became a threat to the local tribes and the rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Kaaba, the focal point of Meccan religious life, which Muhammad threatened to overthrow. Muhammad’s denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba. The powerful merchants tried to convince Muhammad to abandon his preaching by offering him admission into the inner circle of merchants, and establishing his position therein by an advantageous marriage. However, he refused.
Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment of Muhammad and his followers. Sumayyah bint Khabbab, a slave of a prominent Meccan leader Abu Jahl, is famous as the first martyr of Islam, having been killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. Bilal, another Muslim slave, was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion. Apart from insults, Muhammad was protected from physical harm as he belonged to the Banu Hashim clan. After being persecuted by the Meccans, some of the early converts to Islam sought refuge in the Aksumite Empire (shown above).
In 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Aksumite Empire and founded a small colony there under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Aṣḥama ibn Abjar.
An early hadith known as "The Story of the Cranes" (translation: قصة الغرانيق, transliteration: Qissat al Gharaneeq) was propagated by two Islamic scholars, Ibn Kathir al Dimashqi and Ibn Hijir al Masri, where the former has strengthened it and the latter called it fabricated (see Science of hadith). The hadith describes Muhammad's involvement at the time of migration in an episode which historian William Muir called the "Satanic Verses". The account holds that Muhammad pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah, praising them, and appealing for their intercession. According to this account, Muhammad later retracted the verses at the behest of Gabriel.[n 7] Islamic scholars have weakened the hadith and have denied the historicity of the incident as early as the tenth century. In any event, relations between the Muslims and their pagan fellow-tribesmen were already deteriorated and worsening.
In 617 the leaders of Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important Quraysh clans, declared a public boycott against Banu Hashim, their commercial rival, to pressurize it into withdrawing its protection of Muhammad. The boycott lasted three years but eventually collapsed as it failed in its objective. Isra and Mi'raj Main article: Isra and Mi'raj The Al-Aqsa Mosque, adjacent to the Dome of the Rock (along the southern wall of al-Haram ash-Sharif), is the site from which Muhammad is believed to have travelled to heaven and returned.
Islamic tradition relates that in 620, Muhammad experienced the Isra and Mi'raj, a miraculous journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel in one night. In the first part of the journey, the Isra, he is said to have travelled from Mecca on a winged horse to "the farthest mosque" (in Arabic: masjid al-aqsa), which Muslims usually identify with the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. In the second part, the Mi'raj, Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoken with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Ibn Ishaq, author of the first biography of Muhammad, presents this event as a spiritual experience whereas later historians like Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir present it as a physical journey.
When he was transported to Heaven, he reported seeing an angel with "70,000 heads, each head having 70,000 mouths, each mouth having 70,000 tongues, each tongue speaking 70,000 languages; and every one involved in singing God's (Allah's) praises." After calculation this would mean the angel spoke 24 quintillion (2.401 × 1019) languages for the praise of Allah. This description is similar word for word to the description of an angel seen by Moses in "The Revelation of Moses" 
Some western scholars of Islam hold that the oldest Muslim tradition identified the journey as one traveled through the heavens from the sacred enclosure at Mecca to the celestial al-Baytu l-Maʿmur (heavenly prototype of the Kaaba); but later tradition identified Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Jerusalem. Last years in Mecca before Hijra Muhammad's visit to Ta'if was his first attempt to spread Islam beyond Mecca.
Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle Abu Talib both died in 619, the year thus being known as the "year of sorrow". With the death of Abu Talib, the leadership of the Banu Hashim clan was passed to Abu Lahab, an inveterate enemy of Muhammad. Soon afterwards, Abu Lahab withdrew the clan's protection from Muhammad. This placed Muhammad in danger of death since the withdrawal of clan protection implied that the blood revenge for his killing would not be exacted. Muhammad then visited Ta'if, another important city in Arabia, and tried to find a protector for himself there, but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger. Muhammad was forced to return to Mecca. A Meccan man named Mut'im b. Adi (and the protection of the tribe of Banu Nawfal) made it possible for him safely to re-enter his native city. Persian manuscript miniature depicting Muhammad, from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh, approximately 1315, illustrating the episode of the Black Stone.
Many people were visiting Mecca on business or as pilgrims to the Kaaba. Muhammad took this opportunity to look for a new home for himself and his followers. After several unsuccessful negotiations, he found hope with some men from Yathrib (later called Medina). The Arab population of Yathrib were familiar with monotheism because a Jewish community existed there. Converts to Islam came from nearly all Arab tribes in Medina, such that by June of the subsequent year there were seventy-five Muslims coming to Mecca for pilgrimage and to meet Muhammad. Meeting him secretly by night, the group made what was known as the "Second Pledge of al-
Aqaba", or the "Pledge of War" Following the pledges at Aqabah, Muhammad encouraged his followers to emigrate to Yathrib. As with the migration to Abyssinia, the Quraysh attempted to stop the emigration. However, almost all Muslims managed to leave.
Hijra Timeline of Muhammad in Medina c. 622 Emigrates to Medina (hijrah) 623 Caravan Raids begin 623 Al Kudr Invasion 624 Battle of Badr: Muslims defeat Meccans 624 Battle of Sawiq, Abu Sufyan escapes capture 624 Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa 624 Invasion of Thi Amr, Muhammed raids Ghatafan tribes 624 Assassination of Khaled b. Sufyan & Abu Rafi 625 Battle of Uhud: Meccans defeat Muslims 625 Tragedy of Bir Maona and Al Raji 625 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad, successfully terrifies enemy to cause retreat 625 Banu Nadir expelled after Invasion 625 Invasion of Nejd, Badr and Dumatul Jandal 627 Battle of the Trench 627 Invasion of Banu Qurayza, successful siege 628 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, gains access to Kaaba 628 Conquest of the Khaybar oasis 629 First hajj pilgrimage 629 Attack on Byzantine Empire fails: Battle of Mu'tah 630 Bloodless conquest of Mecca 630 Battle of Hunayn 630 Siege of Ta'if 631 Rules most of the Arabian peninsula 632 Attacks the Ghassanids: Tabuk 632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage 632 Wasal (June 8): Medina This box: view · talk · edit Main article: Hijra (Islam) Migration to Medina Main article: Muhammad in Medina
A delegation consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad as a neutral outsider to Medina to serve as chief arbitrator for the entire community. There was fighting in Yathrib mainly involving its Arab and Jewish inhabitants for around a hundred years before 620. The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the Battle of Bu'ath in which all clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal conceptions of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases. The delegation from Medina pledged themselves and their fellow-citizens to accept Muhammad into their community and physically protect him as one of themselves.
Muhammad instructed his followers to emigrate to Medina until virtually all his followers left Mecca. Being alarmed at the departure of Muslims, according to the tradition, the Meccans plotted to assassinate Muhammad. With the help of Ali, Muhammad fooled the Meccans who were watching him, and secretly slipped away from the town with Abu Bakr. By 622, Muhammad emigrated to Medina, a large agricultural oasis. Those who migrated from Mecca along with Muhammad became known as muhajirun (emigrants). Establishment of a new polity Wikisource has original text related to this article: Medina Charter Main article: Constitution of Medina
Among the first things Muhammad did in order to settle down the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was drafting a document known as the Constitution of Medina, "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca, which specified the rights and duties of all citizens and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including that of the Muslim community to other communities, specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book"). The community defined in the Constitution of Medina, Ummah, had a religious outlook but was also shaped by practical considerations and substantially preserved the legal forms of the old Arab tribes. It effectively established the first Islamic state.
The first group of pagan converts to Islam in Medina were the clans who had not produced great leaders for themselves but had suffered from warlike leaders from other clans. This was followed by the general acceptance of Islam by the pagan population of Medina, apart from some exceptions. According to Ibn Ishaq, this was influenced by the conversion of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (a prominent Medinan leader) to Islam. Those Medinans who converted to Islam and helped the Muslim emigrants find shelter became known as the ansar (supporters). Then Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants and the supporters and he chose Ali as his own brother. Beginning of armed conflict Main article: Battle of Badr
Following the emigration, the Meccans seized the properties of the Muslim emigrants in Mecca. Economically uprooted and with no available profession, the Muslim migrants turned to raiding Meccan caravans as an act of war, deliberately initiating armed conflict between the Muslims and Mecca. Muhammad delivered Qur'anic verses permitting the Muslims to fight the Meccans (see sura Al-Hajj, Qur'an 22:39–40). These attacks pressured Mecca by interfering with trade, and allowed the Muslims to acquire wealth, power and prestige while working towards their ultimate goal of inducing Mecca's submission to the new faith. Alt text
Expeditions of Muhammad Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)
Caravan Raids – Waddan – Buwat – Safwan – Dul Ashir – Badr – Kudr – Sawiq – Banu Qaynuqa – Ghatafan – Bahran – Uhud – Al-Asad – Banu Nadir – Invasion of Nejd – Invasion of Badr – 1st Jandal – Trench – Banu Qurayza – 2nd Banu Lahyan – Banu Mustaliq – Thi Qerd – Hudaybiyyah – Khaybar – Conquest of Fidak – 3rd Qura – Dhat al-Riqa – Mu'tah – Banu Baqra – Mecca – Hunayn – Autas – Ta'if – Hawazan – Tabouk
Sariyyah (expeditions which he ordered) Nakhla – Nejd – 1st Banu Asad – 1st Banu Lahyan – Al Raji – Bir Maona – Assassination of Abu Rafi – Maslamah – 2nd Banu Asad – 1st Banu Thalabah – 2nd Banu Thalabah – Dhu Qarad – Jumum – Al-Is – 3rd Banu Thalabah – 1st Qura – 2nd Jandal – Fidak – 2nd Qura – Uraynah – Hisma – Umar – Abu Bakr – Banu Murrah – Banu Uwal – Yemen – 3rd Fadak – Banu Sulaym – Kadid – v · d · e
In March of 624, Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. The Muslims set an ambush for them at Badr. Aware of the plan, the Meccan caravan eluded the Muslims. Meanwhile, a force from Mecca was sent to protect the caravan, continuing forward to confront the Muslims upon hearing that the caravan was safe. The Battle of Badr began in March of 624. Though outnumbered more than three to one, the Muslims won the battle, killing at least forty-five Meccans with only fourteen Muslims dead. They also succeeded in killing many Meccan leaders, including Abu Jahl. Seventy prisoners had been acquired, many of whom were soon ransomed in return for wealth or freed. Muhammad and his followers saw in the victory a confirmation of their faith. The Qur'anic verses of this period, unlike the Meccan ones, dealt with practical problems of government and issues like the distribution of spoils.
The victory strengthened Muhammad's position in Medina and dispelled earlier doubts among his followers. As a result the opposition to him became less vocal. Pagans who had not yet converted were very bitter about the advance of Islam. Two persons, Asma bint Marwan and Abu 'Afak had composed verses taunting and insulting the Muslims. They were killed by persons belonging to their own or related clans , but nothing was said and no blood-feud followed.
Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa, one of three main Jewish tribes. Following the Battle of Badr, Muhammad also made mutual-aid alliances with a number of Bedouin tribes to protect his community from attacks from the northern part of Hijaz. Conflict with Mecca Main article: Battle of Uhud
The attack at Badr committed Muhammad to total war with Meccans, who were now anxious to avenge their defeat. To maintain their economic prosperity, the Meccans needed to restore their prestige, which had been lost at Badr. In the ensuing months, Muhammad led expeditions on tribes allied with Mecca and sent out a raid on a Meccan caravan. Abu Sufyan subsequently gathered an army of three thousand men and set out for an attack on Medina. Mount Uhud, in north of Medina, was the site of the second battle between Muslim and Meccan forces.
A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers a day later. The next morning, at the Muslim conference of war, there was dispute over how best to repel the Meccans. Muhammad and many senior figures suggested that it would be safer to fight within Medina and take advantage of its heavily fortified strongholds. Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying their crops, and that huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim prestige. Muhammad eventually conceded to the wishes of the latter, and readied the Muslim force for battle. Thus, Muhammad led his force outside to the mountain of Uhud (where the Meccans had camped) and fought the Battle of Uhud on March 23. Although the Muslim army had the best of the early encounters, indiscipline on the part of strategically placed archers led to a Muslim defeat, with 75 Muslims killed including Hamza, Muhammad's uncle and one of the best known martyrs in the Muslim tradition. The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims further, but marched back to Mecca declaring victory. They were not entirely successful, however, as they had failed to achieve their aim of completely destroying the Muslims. The Muslims buried the dead, and returned to Medina that evening. Questions accumulated as to the reasons for the loss, and Muhammad subsequently delivered Qur'anic verses 3:152 which indicated that their defeat was partly a punishment for disobedience and partly a test for steadfastness.
Abu Sufyan now directed his efforts towards another attack on Medina. He attracted the support of nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina, using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness, promises of booty, memories of the prestige of the Quraysh and use of bribes. Muhammad's policy was now to prevent alliances against him as much as he could. Whenever alliances of tribesmen against Medina were formed, he sent out an expedition to break them up. When Muhammad heard of men massing with hostile intentions against Medina, he reacted with severity. One example is the assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, a chieftain of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir who had gone to Mecca and written poems that helped rouse the Meccans' grief, anger and desire for revenge after the Battle of Badr. Around a year later, Muhammad expelled the Banu Nadir from Medina. Muhammad's attempts to prevent formation of a confederation against him were unsuccessful, though he was able to increase his own forces and stop many potential tribes from joining his enemies. Siege of Medina Main article: Battle of the Trench
With the help of the exiled Banu Nadir, the Quraysh military leader Abu Sufyan had mustered a force of 10,000 men. Muhammad prepared a force of about 3000 men and adopted a new form of defense unknown in Arabia at that time: the Muslims dug a trench wherever Medina lay open to cavalry attack. The idea is credited to a Persian convert to Islam, Salman the Persian. The siege of Medina began on March 31 627 and lasted for two weeks. Abu Sufyan's troops were unprepared for the fortifications they were confronted with, and after an ineffectual siege lasting several weeks, the coalition decided to go home. The Qur'an discusses this battle in sura Al-Ahzab, ayat (verses) 9-27, 33:9–27. During the battle, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, located at the south of Medina, had entered into negotiations with Meccan forces to revolt against Muhammad. Although they were swayed by suggestions that Muhammad was sure to be overwhelmed, they desired reassurance in case the confederacy was unable to destroy him. No agreement was reached after the prolonged negotiations, in part due to sabotage attempts by Muhammad's scouts. After the coalition's retreat, the Muslims accused the Banu Qurayza of treachery and besieged them in their forts for 25 days. The Banu Qurayza eventually surrendered and all the men, apart from a few who converted to Islam, were beheaded, while the women and children were enslaved. Walid N. Arafat and Barakat Ahmad have disputed that the Banu Qurayza were killed on quite such a large scale. Arafat disputes large-scale killings and argued that Ibn Ishaq gathered information from descendants of the Qurayza Jews, who embellished or manufactured the details of the incident. Arafat relates the testimony of Ibn Hajar, who denounced this and other accounts as "odd tales" and quoted Malik ibn Anas, a contemporary of Ibn Ishaq, whom he rejected as a "liar", an "impostor" and for seeking out the Jewish descendants for gathering information about Muhammad's campaign with their forefathers.[n 8] Ahmad argues that only some of the tribe were killed, while some of the fighters were merely enslaved. Watt finds Arafat's arguments "not entirely convincing", while Meir J. Kister has contradicted[clarification needed] the arguments of Arafat and Ahmad.
In the siege of Medina, the Meccans exerted their utmost strength towards the destruction of the Muslim community. Their failure resulted in a significant loss of prestige; their trade with Syria was gone. Following the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad made two expeditions to the north which ended without any fighting. While returning from one of these (or some years earlier according to other early accounts), an accusation of adultery was made against Aisha, Muhammad's wife. Aisha was exonerated from the accusations when Muhammad announced that he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses. Truce of Hudaybiyyah Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Although Muhammad had already delivered Qur'anic verses commanding the Hajj, the Muslims had not performed it due to the enmity of the Quraysh. In the month of Shawwal 628, Muhammad ordered his followers to obtain sacrificial animals and to make preparations for a pilgrimage (umrah) to Mecca, saying that God had promised him the fulfillment of this goal in a vision where he was shaving his head after the completion of the Hajj. Upon hearing of the approaching 1,400 Muslims, the Quraysh sent out a force of 200 cavalry to halt them. Muhammad evaded them by taking a more difficult route, thereby reaching al-Hudaybiyya, just outside of Mecca. According to Watt, although Muhammad's decision to make the pilgrimage was based on his dream, he was at the same time demonstrating to the pagan Meccans that Islam does not threaten the prestige of their sanctuary, and that Islam was an Arabian religion. Imprint of Muhammad's seal, used in letters sent to other heads of state. (Graphically enhanced.)
Negotiations commenced with emissaries going to and from Mecca. While these continued, rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators, Uthman bin al-Affan, had been killed by the Quraysh. Muhammad responded by calling upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee (or to stick with Muhammad, whatever decision he made) if the situation descended into war with Mecca. This pledge became known as the "Pledge of Acceptance" (Arabic: بيعة الرضوان , bay'at al-ridhwān) or the "Pledge under the Tree". News of Uthman's safety, however, allowed for negotiations to continue, and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh. The main points of the treaty included the cessation of hostilities; the deferral of Muhammad's pilgrimage to the following year; and an agreement to send back any Meccan who had gone to Medina without the permission of their protector.
Many Muslims were not satisfied with the terms of the treaty. However, the Qur'anic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) (Qur'an 48:1–29) assured the Muslims that the expedition from which they were now returning must be considered a victorious one. It was only later that Muhammad's followers would realise the benefit behind this treaty. According to Welch, these benefits included the inducing of the Meccans to recognise Muhammad as an equal; a cessation of military activity posing well for the future; and gaining the admiration of Meccans who were impressed by the incorporation of the pilgrimage rituals.
After signing the truce, Muhammad made an expedition against the Jewish oasis of Khaybar, known as the Battle of Khaybar. This was possibly due to it housing the Banu Nadir, who were inciting hostilities against Muhammad, or to regain some prestige to deflect from what appeared to some Muslims as the inconclusive result of the truce of Hudaybiyya. According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad also sent letters to many rulers of the world, asking them to convert to Islam (the exact date is given variously in the sources). Hence he sent messengers (with letters) to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire (the eastern Roman Empire), Khosrau of Persia, the chief of Yemen and to some others. In the years following the truce of Hudaybiyya, Muhammad sent his forces against the Arabs on Transjordanian Byzantine soil in the Battle of Mu'tah, in which the Muslims were defeated. Final years Conquest of Mecca Main articles: Conquest of Mecca and Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca A depiction of Muhammad advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown. The destruction of idols at the Kaaba by Muhammad, in L'Histoire Merveilleuse en Vers de Mahomet, anonymous 16th or 17th-century illustration. An anonymous artist's illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibits intercalary months during the Farewell Pilgrimage, found in a 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex).
The truce of Hudaybiyyah had been enforced for two years. The tribe of Banu Khuza'a had good relations with Muhammad, whereas their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had an alliance with the Meccans. A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuza'a, killing a few of them. The Meccans helped the Banu Bakr with weapons and, according to some sources, a few Meccans also took part in the fighting. After this event, Muhammad sent a message to Mecca with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them. These were that either the Meccans paid blood money for those slain among the Khuza'ah tribe; or, that they should disavow themselves of the Banu Bakr; or, that they should declare the truce of Hudaybiyyah null.
The Meccans replied that they would accept only the last condition. However, soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Sufyan to renew the Hudaybiyyah treaty, but now his request was declined by Muhammad.
Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign. In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with an enormous force, said to number more than ten thousand men. With minimal casualties, Muhammad took control of Mecca. He declared an amnesty for past offences, except for ten men and women who had mocked and ridiculed him in songs and verses. Some of these were later pardoned. Most Meccans converted to Islam and Muhammad subsequently destroyed all the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba. The Qur'an discusses the conquest of Mecca. Conquest of Arabia Main articles: Battle of Hunayn and Battle of Tabouk
Soon after the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad was alarmed by a military threat from the confederate tribes of Hawazin who were collecting an army twice the size of Muhammad's. The Banu Hawazin were old enemies of the Meccans. They were joined by the Banu Thaqif (inhabiting the city of Ta'if) who adopted an anti-Meccan policy due to the decline of the prestige of Meccans. Muhammad defeated the Hawazin and Thaqif tribes in the Battle of Hunayn.
In the same year, Muhammad made the expedition of Tabuk against northern Arabia because of their previous defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah as well as reports of the hostile attitude adopted against Muslims. Although Muhammad did not make contact with hostile forces at Tabuk, he received the submission of some local chiefs of the region.
A year after the Battle of Tabuk, the Banu Thaqif sent emissaries to Medina to surrender to Muhammad and adopt Islam. Many bedouins submitted to Muhammad in order to be safe against his attacks and to benefit from the booties of the wars. However, the bedouins were alien to the system of Islam and wanted to maintain their independence, their established code of virtue and their ancestral traditions. Muhammad thus required of them a military and political agreement according to which they "acknowledge the suzerainty of Medina, to refrain from attack on the Muslims and their allies, and to pay the Zakat, the Muslim religious levy." Farewell pilgrimage and death Main article: The Farewell Pilgrimage
At the end of the tenth year after the migration to Medina, Muhammad carried through his first truly Islamic pilgrimage, thereby teaching his followers the rites of the annual Great Pilgrimage (Hajj). The tombstone of Muhammad in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, Medina)
After completing the pilgrimage, Muhammad delivered a famous speech known as The Farewell Sermon. In this sermon, Muhammad advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs such as adding intercalary months to align the lunar calendar with the solar calendar. Muhammad abolished all old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for all old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community. Commenting on the vulnerability of women in his society, Muhammed asked his male followers to “Be good to women; for they are powerless captives (awan) in your households. You took them in God’s trust, and legitimated your sexual relations with the Word of God, so come to your senses people, and hear my words ...”. He also told them that they were entitled to discipline their wives but should do so with kindness. Muhammad also addressed the issue of inheritance by forbidding false claims of paternity or of a client relationship to the deceased and also forbidding his followers to leave their wealth to a testamentary heir. He also upheld the sacredness of four lunar months in each year. According to Sunni tafsir, the following Qur'anic verse was delivered in this incident: “Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam as a religion for you.”(Qur'an 5:3) According to Shia tafsir, it refers to appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib at the pond of Khumm as Muhammad's successor, this occurring a few days later when Muslims were returning from Mecca to Medina.
A few months after the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and suffered for several days with head pain and weakness. He died on Monday, June 8, 632, in Medina, at the age of 63. With his head resting on Aisha's lap he murmured his final words soon after asking her to dispose of his last worldly goods, which were seven coins:
Rather, God on High and paradise. —Muhammad
He is buried where he died, which was in Aisha's house and is now housed within the Mosque of the Prophet in the city of Medina. Next to Muhammad's tomb, there is another empty tomb that Muslims believe awaits Jesus. Aftermath See also: Rashidun, Muslim conquest, and Succession to Muhammad Conquests of Muhammad and the Rashidun.
Muhammad united the tribes of Arabia into a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life. With Muhammad's death, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, Muhammad's friend and collaborator. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated the successor by Muhammad at Ghadir Khumm. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to make an expedition against the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces because of the previous defeat, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode referred to by later Muslim historians as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".
The pre-Islamic Middle East was
About Prophet Muhammad of Islam (PBUH) (Persian)
محمد بن عبدالله پیامبر مسلمانان
در باب ریشه این قوم باید گفت که آنها همچون پیامبر اسلام از مردی به نام عبدالمناف از طایفه قریش نشأت میگیرند. از دو پسر این شخص یکی به نام هاشم جد خاندان هاشمی و پیامبر اسلام بود و دیگر عبدالشمس پدر امیه که جد خاندان بنی امیه بود.
در ابتدای قرن هفتم میلادی اعقاب امیه یکی از خانوادههای پرنفوذ اعراب مکه بودند. در این زمان بود که محمد بن عبدالله از خاندان هاشم اعلام پیامبری کرد. هنگامی که محمد در سال۶۲۲ میلادی به مدینه مهاجرت کرد و در پی آن نبردهایی با مکیان داشت با اعضای خانواده امویان که در سمت سپاه مکه بودند، جنگید. از این میان ابوسفیان بن حرب پدر معاویه اولین حاکم امویان رهبری سپاه مکه را بر عهده داشت. مدینه بر سر راه شام قرار داشت و تجارت با شام مهم ترین منبع درآمد خانواده بنی امیه بود. محمد با بستن این مسیر توانست سرانجام ابوسفیان را ناتوان کرده و منجر به سقوط مکه شد. ابوسفیان کمی قبل از فتح مکه توسط مسلمانان ناگزیر به دین اسلام درآمد. در نهایت با این تغییر جهت، ضمن بازگشت صلح به دو خانواده رقیب اموی و هاشمی در قریش، باعث شد که امویان بتوانند در سیاست آینده حکومت اسلامی- عربی نوپا نقش مهمی بازی کنند. معاویه پسر ابوسفیان کمی بعد به عنوان کاتب وحی درآمد. بعد از مرگ محمد، معاویه در نبردهای سپاه اسلام علیه امپراتوری روم شرقی در آسیای صغیر (سوریه یا شام)شرکت کرد و موفق به فتح دمشق شد.