Ranulf I, Duc d'Aquitaine Comte de Poitiers

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Ranulf I, Duc d'Aquitaine Comte de Poitiers

Also Known As: "Rainulf", "Rainulphe", "Rannoux", "Rannulf", "Ramnulf", "Ranulph", "and Ranulph"
Birthdate: (46)
Birthplace: Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou-Charentes, France
Death: July 02, 866 (42-50)
Brissarthe, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France (killed in battle near Brissarthe )
Immediate Family:

Son of Gérard, count of Auvergne
Husband of Bilchilde van Maine and NN du Maine
Father of Gauzbert (Josbert); Ranulf II, duc d'Aquitaine and Ebles de Poitiers, abbé de Saint Denis
Brother of NN wife Foulques de Limoges
Half brother of Gerard d'Auvergne

Occupation: Hertug, 839 bis 866 ein Graf von Poitou und von 841 bis 866 Abt von Saint-Hilaire-de-Poitiers, Comte, d'Angoulême, de Poitiers, du Poitou, Duc, d'Aquitaine, Abbé laïc, de Saint-Hilaire, de Poitie, Count of Poitou, Duc d'Aquitaine, Comte de Poitou
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
Last Updated:

About Ranulf I, Duc d'Aquitaine Comte de Poitiers

Ranulf I (also Ramnulf, Rannulf, and Ranulph; 820 – 866) was a Count of Poitiers (from 835) and Duke of Aquitaine (from 852).

Ranulf is generally considered to have been the son of Gerard, Count of Auvergne, and one of his wives--possibly Hildegard or Rotrude, daughter of Louis the Pious and Ermengard.

The identity of Ranulf's mother is contested, and possible contenders are two daughters of Louis I 'the Pious' (and this granddaughters of Charlemagne): d'Aquitaine and Rotrude d'Aquitaine.

Few details are known about Ranulf I, except that he died in 866 in Aquitaine from wounds received in the Battle of Brissarthe against the Vikings (in which Robert the Strong also died). Ranulf I, is the 32nd Great-Grandfather to Queen Elizabeth II.

Marriage and children

He married ?? (possibly Adaltrude, daughter of Rorgon I of Maine and Rothrude. See below.)

He may have been married more than once.

Children attributed to him are:

  • Ranulf II, who inherited Poitou and later acquired Aquitaine (d 890)
  • Gauzbert, (died in battle, 892)
  • Ebalus (Abbot, d. 892)

Included below is a translation from the French wikipedia about the various hypotheses regarding the identities of Ranulf's wife. For original text, see farther below.

Family

Certainties:

1. According to Ademar of Chabannes, Ranulf is the son of Gerard, Comte d'Auvergne, and nephew of William

2. The Vita Pii Hludovici indicates that Gerard d'Auvergne was the son of Pepin I of Aquitaine.

3. The monk and chronicler Abbo de Fleury, in De Bellis et Parisiacae urbis Odonis comitis, says that Eble, Abbot of St-Denis, son of Ranulf I, is the nepos of the Abbot Gauzlin, identified with a son's namesake, Comte Rogon I du Maine. The name of Count Gauzbert, another son of Ranulf I, strengthens this kinship with the counts of Maine.

4. Ademar of Chabannes states that in the early 850s, Ranulf, Comte de Poitiers and Raino, Comte d'Herbauges, his "consanguineus", fought the Vikings who attacked Briliaco Villa. Raino or Ragenold is also known as Rorgonide: it was to him that the King entrusted the guardianship of his child Gauzfrid du Maine, who died in 878.

5. Finally, Ademar of Chabannes states that Comte d'Aurillac Gerard, who was awarded guardianship of Ebles Manzer, son of Ranulf II, decided to entrust his cousin William the Pious to Ranulf II.

The Standard Assumption:

Leon Levillain compiled the standard genealogical table that is still accepted by historians.

Otto-Gerhart Oexle corrected this genealogical table slightly, recalling that no text has named the mother of Ranulf II, no more than to say that Bilichilde was remarried after becoming a widow, to Bernard of Poitevin. the wife of Ranulf I might also well be a sister of Bilichilde, perhaps named Adaltrude.

The Settipani hypothesis

Christian Settipani noted that this construction poses several problems:

1. The date of birth of Ranulf I: If his mother Raingarde quickly gave a son to Pepin I of Aquitaine, he could hardly have been born before 838, when his mother would have been no more than 15. The date of birth makes it unlikely that the appointment of Ranulf as Comte de Poitiers took place in 839 (according to Ademar of Chabannes) or even 854: we do not appoint a nobleman of 16 to the head of a county especially exposed to the incursions of Vikings. Some historians have considered gener to mean "brother," but the context further militates in favor of "son." The conclusion of Christian Settipani is to say that Ranulf I comes from a first marriage of Gerard d'Auvergne.

2. Ranulf I's marriage to a daughter of Rorgon I Comte du Maine inducing a link of kinship between Ranulf and Raino/Ragenold by marriage does not correspond to the different meanings of consanguineus. The conclusion of Christian Settipani is that Ranulf was the cousin of the Counts of Maine and not his wife. He proposes that the mother of Ranulf was a woman of the Counts of Maine.. The Latin word nepos means "nephew", but can also mean "grandson". According to this latter meaning, the others being excluded, the mother of Ranulf is the daughter of Rorgon I and Rothrude, rather than Bilichilde. For historical reasons, he suggests that this is Adaltrude.

3. Finally, the reconstruction does not take into account the kinship relationship between Ranulf II and William the Pious. Christian Settipani proposes that the mother of Ranulf II was the aunt of William the Pious. He assumes a paternal aunt to explain the transmission of the first name of Guillaume, although this name already existed in the family in the brother of Gerard d'Auvergne.


Medlands

GERARD (-killed in battle Fontenoy 25 Jun 841). Comte d'Auvergne. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Ebroinus…Pictavensis episcopo Flateram…Reginardus comes, Gerardus itidem comes et gener quondam Pippini regis [et] Ratharius…comes Pippini gener" [in 839][269].

x m firstly ---. An earlier marriage is indicated by the chronology of the family of Gérard´s known wife, which shows that his son Ramnulf could not have been born from that marriage. Comte Gérard & his first wife had one child:

a) RAMNULF [Rainulf] ([815]-killed in battle near Brissarthe Oct 866). He was installed as RAINULF I Comte de Poitou in [839]. The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Ramnulfum filium Girardi comitis Arvernis, nepotem Willelmi fratris Girardi" was installed as Comte de Poitou after "Emeno…comes Pictavinus" was expelled by Emperor Louis for supporting the accession of Pepin II King of Aquitaine after the death of the latter's father [in 838][274]. He was installed as Duke of Aquitaine in 852. The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Rannulfus…comes Pictavensis et Raino comes Arbatilicensis consanguineus eius" fled after being defeated by the Vikings at "Briliaco villa", the event being dated from the context to the early 850s[275]. The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Ramnulfus comes…Pictavensis et Raino comes Arbaticensis, consanguineus eius" fled from the Vikings who attacked "Briliaco villa" in 852[276]. He was a supporter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks. The Annales Bertiniani name "Ramnulfus" among those wounded in the Viking attack in 866, and later dying from his wounds[277]. The Adonis Continuatio records that "Robertus quoque atque Ramnulfus…inter primos ipsi priores" were killed by the Vikings in 866[278].

m ([845]) [NN du Maine] --- du Maine, daughter of RORICO [I] Comte du Maine & his wife Bilechildis. Her origin is indicated by Abbo's De Bellis Parisiacæ which names "Ebolus…Abba" as nepos of "Gauzlinus…pontificis"[279], the latter being reported in other sources as the son of Rorico [I] Comte du Maine. It is possible that the wife of Comte Rainulf was Comte Rorico's daughter named [Bilichildis], whose [first] husband Bernard Comte en Poitou was killed in battle in 844. Comte Rainulf I & his wife had three children:

i) RAINULF ([845/50]-after Jul 892). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes specifies that "Ramnulfus…comes Pictaviensis" was "consanguineus…Willelmi…comitis Arvernis"[280]. The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis also states that "Ramnulfus consanguineus erat Willelmi Pii Aquitanorum Ducis et Arveniæ Comitis"[281]. The relationship between Rainulf and Duke Guillaume has not yet been traced. After the death of Rainulf's father in 866, he and his brothers were deprived of their inheritance. It appears that no-one was at that time installed as Comte de Poitou, the county being administered by Louis King of Aquitaine, son of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the Franks[282]. He appears to have been finally installed as RAINULF II Comte de Poitou in [878], judging by his heading the list of confirmants of his brother's Apr 878 donation to the church of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers[283]. After the death of Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks, Comte Rainulf had custody of the late king's youngest son Charles, who later succeeded as Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks[284]. After the deposition of Emperor Karl III in Nov 887, Comte Rainulf claimed the succession to the kingdom of Aquitaine and supported the candidature of Guy of Spoleto as King of the Franks[285]. He was appointed Duke of Aquitaine in 888. Regino names "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio" when recording their battle against "Waltgerius comes" in Jul 892[286]. The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the death in 890 of "Ramnulfus comes Pictavinus"[287], but the year is incorrect if Regino correctly names Rainulf in Jul 892. m [ERMENGARDE, daughter of ---] (-1 Jul after 890). The name of the wife of Comte Rainulf II is not known with certainty. "Gauzberto comite, Ramnulfus comes, Ermengarde…" subscribed the charter dated Apr 878 under which "Gauzbertus comes" donated property "in pago Santonico…in villa…Dorodonno" to the church of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers[288]. Richard suggests that Ermengarde must have been the wife of one of the named counts because of the order of the signatures[289]. Richard rejects the hypothesis that Adda "coniunx Ramnulf", whose tomb was discovered at Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, was the wife of Comte Rainulf II[290]. Mistress (1): ---. The name of Comte Rainulf's mistress is not known.

Comte Rainulf II & his wife had [one child]:

(a) [RAINULF [III] (-[901]). Rainulf is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[291] as the legitimate son of Comte Rainulf II but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. He is not named by Besly[292], nor by Richard[293]. Both authors state that Eble was the only child of Comte Rainulf II.]

Comte Rainulf II had one illegitimate son by an unknown Mistress:

(b) EBALUS [Eble] "Mancer" ([870/75]-[932/34]). The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Eblum" as son of "Ramnulfus…comes Pictaviensis", another manuscript specifying that he was born "ex concubina"[294]. He succeeded his father in 890 as EBLE "Mancer" Comte de Poitou.

ii) GAUZBERT [Josbert] (-killed in battle late 892). Regino names "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio" when recording their battle against "Waltgerius comes" in Jul 892[295]. "Gauzbertus comes" donated property "in pago Santonico…in villa…Dorodonno" to the church of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers by charter dated Apr 878, subscribed by "Ramnulfus comes…"[296]. Regino names "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio" when recording their battle against "Waltgerius comes" in Jul 892[297]. He was killed during the siege of one of his castles by Eudes King of France[298]. The death of "frater quoque eius [Ebulus] Gotbertus" is recorded in late 892 in the Annales Vedastini[299].

iii) EBALUS [Eble] (857-killed in battle 2 Oct 892). Abbo's De Bellis Parisiacæ names "Ebolus…Abba" as nepos of "Gauzlinus…pontificis"[300], the latter being reported in other sources as the son of Rorico [I] Comte du Maine. Regino names "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio" when recording their battle against "Waltgerius comes" in Jul 892[301]. Abbé de Saint-Germain, Paris 881. Abbé de Saint-Denis 886. He was appointed Chancellor of France by King Eudes [Capet] after the latter's accession in 888[302]. Abbé de Saint-Hilaire-de-Poitiers 889. Eudes King of France confirmed the properties of "abbas Ebolus…Hilarii" by charter dated 30 Dec 889[303]. King Eudes deprived him of the chancellorship in 892 after Eble refused to abandon the cause of his nephew Comte Eble[304]. He was killed at the siege of the castle either of Brillac en Poitou or of Loudun[305].

xx m secondly --- [MATHILDE [d´Aquitaine]], daughter of PEPIN I King of Aquitaine [Carolingian] & his wife Ringardis. Her affiliation is indicated by the Vita Hludovici which names "Gerardus…comes et gener quondam Pippini necnon Ratherius similiter comes Pippini gener"[270]. If this is correct, the two counts were much older than their wives. Some authors have therefore suggested that "brothers-in-law" is a more accurate translation of generes and that the two counts were therefore married to two daughters of Emperor Louis I[271]. Settipani[272] argues that this is incompatible with the context in which the term is used in the Vita. The Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium names "Mathildem filiam Pippini Aquitaniæ regis…Geraldi aviam" and his parents "patre Geraldo Auriliaci comite…matre Adaltrude" when recording the birth of "Geraldum" in 855[273].

Comte Gérard & his [first/second] wife had one child:

b) daughter . She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[306] as the daughter of Comte Gerard and wife of "Fulko de Limoges" but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified, nor the identify of her husband ascertained. m FOULQUES de Limoges, son of --- (-[886]).

Comte Gérard & his second wife had [one child]:

c) GERARD (-before 879). The Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium names "Mathildem filiam Pippini Aquitaniæ regis…Geraldi aviam" and his parents "patre Geraldo Auriliaci comite…matre Adaltrude" when recording the birth of "Geraldum" in 855[307]. Comte [d´Aurillac]. Gérard is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[308] as the son of Comte Gérard but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. “Gerardus comes” exchanged “æcclesia...Rovariam...in pago Lemovicino in vicaria Flaviniacense” for “villam...in pago Biturico in vicaria Nirondense...Coiacus” with Stodilus Bishop of Limoges by charter dated 28 Jul 855[309].] m ADALTRUDE, daughter of ---. The Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium names "Mathildem filiam Pippini Aquitaniæ regis…Geraldi aviam" and his parents "patre Geraldo Auriliaci comite…matre Adaltrude" when recording the birth of "Geraldum" in 855[310].

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/AQUITAINE.htm#RainulfIPoitoudied866





            
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Ranulf I, Duc d'Aquitaine Comte de Poitiers's Timeline

820
820
Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou-Charentes, France
835
835
- October 866
Age 15
Poitiers, Poitou, France
841
841
- October 866
Age 21
St-Hilaire, France
854
854
- October 866
Age 34
Aquitaine, France
855
855
Age 35
Poitiers, Poitou, Aquitaine (Present Poitou-Charentes), (Present France)
866
July 2, 866
Age 46
Brissarthe, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France
866
Age 46
Duke of Aquitaine
????
????