About Rev. Adam White
ANTECEDENTS UNKNOWN. Could not possibly have belonged to a hard-line Catholic family like the Farnham/Swanbourne/Hutton/Aldershot Whites.
Adam White was a Presbyterian Minister. He graduated from Glasgow University with a Masters of Arts degree in 1648. A copy of the Manuscript of Matriculation is reproduced in "A Line of White", by Jack D. White. Adam White was arrested and served 6 years in Liffey Prison for preaching and serving the Sacrements other than that of the Church of England. Adam White was the second pastor of the Bushmills Presbyterian Church, Bushmills, County Antrim, Ireland,. The church is still an active church and he is buried in the Church cemertery.
- Born Adam White in 1627 Inveraray, On Loch, Scotland
- Died December 19, 1708 in Bushmilles, County Antrim, Ireland.
- Parents unknown
- Married Isabella White (1630-1693) in 1664
- Moses White (1665-1735)
- Hugh White (1671-1741)
- The White Family Archive
- Descendants of Adam White from the research of Rick White
- Descendants of Adam White - PDF file
Adam's faith was Presbyterian. Locations of Adam: Apr 1645 student at University of Glasgow 1648 graduated with Master of Arts degree 1661 evicted from Laggen Presbyterian Church at Fammet, Donegal Co., Ireland where he was a minister 1664 jailed at Lifford 1670 Pardoned by the King 1672 Minister of Ardstraw, Co Tyrone, Ireland 1688 Fled to Scotland 1692 Returned to Ireland & became a minister at Bushmilles, Co., Antrim, Ireland Adam studied Greeting Logic Ethics & Physics.He died abt 1708 in Bushmils, Antrim, Ireland. Bill Morrow summarized the following, relying largely on "A Line of White" by Jack D. White: Adam White was born in Scotland about 1627. His parents names are unknown. He attended Glasglow Univ. in Scotland, 1645-1648, graduating with a Masters of Art Degree. In 1654 he became a minister at Laggen Presbyterian Church at Fammet, County Donegal, Ireland. In 1661 he was evicted from his church as a result of a charge by the King of England, of conducting services contrary to the customs of the Church of England. He and 12 other ministers were removed from their positions in the church in a trial in 1662.
This was the time of the "Covenanters" and "Jacobites", names given those who opposed the Chruch of England's rules and practices. Covenantors were Presbyterians, so named due to Covenants which began in 1557 in Scotland. The name Presbyterian comes from "presbyters" (Greek for elder). They believed the community should govern their churches, not the Church of England. Groups of Presbyterians banded together in a covenant against the Church of England, to protect themselves. They were able over the years to gain certain freedom of religion. Jacobites were those people loyal to King James' descendants who were Catholic. The term comes from the latin translation of James, which is Jacob. Hence, followers and anybody opposed to the existing Royal family were called "Jacobites". England, Scotland and Ireland were split between Catholic and Church of England religions. Most English people favored Church of England religion since France & Spain (their enemies) were Catholic. But the Church of England wouldn't recognize other protestant religions. Since Adam was Presbyterian, he was in conflict with the Church of England religion and therefore faced oppression.
He was confined to jail at Lifford in 1664. It is thought that his son Moses was born 1665 shortly after he began his confinement. Son Hugh was probably born one year after his release, about 1671. Adam was pardoned by the King in 1670. By 1672 he was minister of Ardstraw, in County Tyrone, Ireland. Oppression of the Covenanters began again, so in 1668 he had to flee to Scotland. In 1690 King William agreed to a law to establish the Church of Scotland under a Presbyterian system. In 1692 he returned to Ireland and became a minister at Bushmilles, County Antrium, Ireland. He died in 1708 at Bushmilles, County Antrim, Ireland.
Descendants of Adam White
from the research of Rick White
Rick White Research
Rick White has done extensive research on the White family. This web page is based on his research of Adam White of Scotland and Ireland. His White research includes many families of Decatur and Henderson Counties including Bartholomew, Bowman, Brigance, Butler, Campbell, Carrington, Duck, Harrell, Jackson, Lockhart, Lomax, Myracle, Pearcy, Parsons, Rogers, Sykes, Teague, Todd, Vise, Welch, White, and Yarbro.
Generation No. 1
1. ADAM1 WHITE was born Abt. 1627 in Scotland, and died December 19, 1708 in Bushmills, County Antrim, Ireland.
Notes for ADAM WHITE: Scottish and Irish sources reveal the following data concerning the life and ministry of the Reverend Adam White, putative ancestor of Moses and Hugh White of Delaware and Pennsylvania. Adam White was born in Scotland circa 1620-1625. He was educated at Glasgow University and received a Master of Arts degree in 1648. He was ordained - Clondevaddock (Fannet), 1654. He received 100 pounds a year from the Proctorate, 1655. Deposed for non-conformity, 1661, but continued to minister. Excommunicated and imprisoned in Lifford, 1664-1670 for disobeying a summons issued by Leslie, Bishop of Raphoe. Resigned September 18, 1672. Installed Ardstraw. Fled to Scotland, 1688. Resigned 1692. Installed Billy, near Dunluce, 1692. Died December 19, 1708.
The exodus from Scotland to Ulster continued for some years. In July, 1635, a James Blair of Ayrshire, wrote: "Above ten thousand persons, have , within two years past, left this country - between Aberdeen and Inverness, and gone over to Ireland. They have come by the hundred, through this town, and three hundred shipped together on one tide."
The founders of the Presbyterian Church in Ulster, were Clergymen, who took refuge, driven from Scotland and England, by the persecuting spirit, abroad then, against Puritans. But in 1637, the Calvinists Confession of Faith was altered. Bishops tinged with Puritanism, were deposed. High churchmen were placed in their stead. Conformity to the Established Church was enforced with pains and penalties. Deputy Wentworth imposed on the Ulster Presbyterians an oath of passive obedience - which became. known as the Black Oath. All Scots were disarmed, less they be inclined to stage a Rising.
The Scots in the Laggan came under the sway of Bishop Leslie of Raphoe - "who came down heavy on them." He summoned four Ministers to his court, excommunicated them and sent them to prison, where they were kept for six years. They were- John Hart, Thomas Waite, Adam White, and William Semple.
A Presbyterian Minister discovered "administrating the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, was fined £100. Some fled back to Scotland. Others, though they could not exercise their ministry, though their stipends were sequestered, changed their apparel to that of countrymen, taking what opportunities they could to preach in barns or glens."
The Established Church declared all marriages null and void that were not solemnised in their Church. So many had to be kept quiet.
From "The Scot in Ulster." By John Harrison.
The preceding was taken from the book Representative Descendants of the Scotch-Irish Brothers Moses and Hugh White, by William B. White.
Further, it is important to note, as does William B. White that "there is no specific, direct statement to the effect that Adam White was the father or grandfather of Hugh [and Moses] White the immigrant[s]." There is "no definitive evidence to identify the names of their parents." Much has been speculated and conjectured in this regard but no one has yet to come forward with the necessary evidence linking Adam White to the two brothers. Hopefully, given time, something veracious will surface.
White is a common name throughout the world. In Ireland it stems mainly from the "le Whytes" who came to Ireland with the Anglo-Normans; there were also Whites who came from England. The name in Irish is either spelled de Faoite or Mac Faoitigh. The Whites can be found in Down, Limerick, Sligo and Wexford.
History of the White Surname (Information provided by the Ulster Historical Foundation who completed an in-depth search on our Ancestors (in October, 1999) and Rickey E. White (© 11-10-1997 appearing here with permission). The surname White/Whyte is one of the fifty most common names found in Ireland. The surname White is of several possible origins: 1) Old English hwit, meaning 'white', denoting a person with fair complexion or light colored hair, 2) Old English wiht, denoting a person who lived by a bend in a river or road, and 3) Old English wait, a 'look-out post'.
White is one of the twenty-five most common names in England and Wales. Of Welsh origin, it is believed to have been taken from the ancient word Gwyn or Wynne, meaning "White." It is believed to have been given to its original bearer because of the color of his skin or hair. It is variously found in ancient records in the forms of White, Whyte, Whitt, and Wight.
In Lowland Scotland the name comes from the Old English hwit, but in the Scottish Highlands, it is derived from the Gaelic name MacBille Bhain, "son of the fair youth or servant". White and Whyte were adopted by both MacGregors and Lamonts as colour names and is one of the fifty most common in Scotland.
Historically, it is said that the White family derives its descent from Roderick the Great 877 A.D., whose descendant, Rhys ap Tudor, King of South Wales, was slain in 1093; and from Otho, who lived in the time of Edward the Confessor, about 1042. Otho was the father of Walter Fitz Otho, who had Gerald Fitz Walter, who married Nesta, daughter of Rhys ap Tudor.
Nesta and Gerald Fitz Walter were the parents of Maurice Fitz Gerald, who had Walter White, the first known bearer of this surname. This Walter was Knighted by Henry II in 1171. Robert White, of this line, was a Knight of Yorkshire in 1303. In 1394 Johannes White of North Colyngham, Nottinghamshire, is named in the list of the landed gentry of 1428. Robert White, merchant and mayor of the staple of Calais, made his home at various times in the counties of Hampshire, Kent, and Surrey in the middle of the fifteenth century.
Robert, son of Robert of Calais, had two sons, Thomas and John. Thomas, son of Robert, married Agnes Richards and had four sons, George, John, Richard and Thomas, Jr. He was granted three manors in Somerset in 1556 by the king. John, son of Robert, bought lands in Tuxford, Nottinghamshire, and had a son, Thomas, who married Ann Cecil, eldest sister of William, Lord Burleigh.
Two members of the White family removed to Ireland about the year 1171. They were Walter White and his brother William (?). Others of the family later made their homes in England. Scots often named children by following a simple set of rules. Don't use these as a firm guide (there were often variations, for all sorts of reasons) but you may find that some of your ancestors used these too:
1st son named after father's father 2nd son named after mother's father 3rd son named after father 1st daughter named after mother's mother 2nd daughter named after father's mother 3rd daughter named after mother The exodus from Scotland to Ulster continued for some years. In July, 1635, a James Blair of Ayrshire, wrote:
"Above ten thousand persons, have , within two years past, left this country - between Aberdeen and Inverness, and gone over to Ireland. They have come by the hundred, through this town, and three hundred shipped together on one tide."
The founders of the Presbyterian Church in Ulster, were Clergymen, who took refuge, driven from Scotland and England, by the persecuting spirit, abroad then, against Puritans.
But in 1637, the Calvinists Confession of Faith was altered. Bishops tinged with Puritanism, were deposed. High churchmen were placed in their stead. Conformity to the Established Church was enforced with pains and penalties. Deputy Wentworth imposed on the Ulster Presbyterians an oath of passive obedience - which became. known as the Black Oath. All Scots were disarmed, less they be inclined to stage a Rising.
The Scots in the Laggan came under the sway of Bishop Leslie of Raphoe - "who came down heavy on them." He summoned four Ministers to his court, excommunicated them and sent them to prison, where they were kept for six years. They were- John Hart, Thomas Waite, Adam White and William Semple.
A Presbyterian Minister discovered "administrating the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, was fined £100.Some fled back to Scotland. Others, though they could not exercise their ministry, though their stipends were sequestered, changed their apparel to that of countrymen, taking what opportunities they could to preach in barns or glens."
The Established Church declared all marriages null and void that were not solemnised in their Church. So many had to be kept quiet.
From "The Scot in Ulster." By John Harrison.
At the Restoration, in which they heartily co-operated, there were in Ulster seventy ministers in fixed charges, with nearly eighty parishes or congregations containing one hundred thousand persons. There were five presbyteries holding monthly meetings and annual visitations of all the congregations within their bounds, and coming together in general synod four times a year. Entire conformity with the Scottish Church was maintained, and strict discipline was enforced by pastoral visitations, kirksessions and presbyteries.
After the Restoration the determination of the government to put down Presbyterianism was speedily felt in Ireland. In 1661 the lords justices forbade all unlawful assemblies, and in these they included meetings of presbytery as exercising ecclesiastical jurisdiction not warranted by the law. Bishop Jeremy Taylor was forward in this work of persecution. The ministers refused to take the Oath of Supremacy without the qualification suggested by Usher. Their parishes were declared vacant, and episcopal clergy appointed to them. The ejected ministers were forbidden to preach or administer the sacraments. In Ulster sixty-one ministers were ejected. Of seventy only seven conformed. Under Ormonde, in 1665, ministers were again permitted to revive Wales.
Children of ADAM WHITE are: 2. i. MOSES2 WHITE, b. Abt. 1665, Scotland; d. March 12, 1735, New Castle, DE. 3. ii. HUGH WHITE, b. Abt. 1671, Ireland; d. 1741, Chester, PA.
Generation No. 2
2. MOSES2 WHITE (ADAM1) was born Abt. 1665 in Scotland, and died March 12, 1735 in New Castle, DE. He married ISABELLA COCHRAN, daughter of WILLIAM COCHRAN. Notes for MOSES WHITE:
Moses White was born in Scotland about 1675 and died in New Castle, Delaware in 1735. He, his brother Hugh, and their families arrived in Pennsylvania as immigrants before November 4, 1722. David White, the eldest son of Moses, told his descendants that his parents were Presbyterian Covenanters in Scotland during the third and final "Covenanter War" in which Britain sent troops to kill members of the Presbyterian Church and destroy their organization. The brief historical perspective which follows will help as a backdrop to the White's immigration to America. Scottish immigration to America was sporadic but continuous depending largely on the political climate in Scotland and England. Large scale immigration usually took place at a time of the Scottish peoples attempts to establish independent colonies in Nova Scotia, New Jersey, and South Carolina. Other immigration came with Scottish government attempts to get rid of political unrest resulting in the expulsion to the colonies of a large number of political prisoners. The Scottish attempts at independent colonies failed or were forced to merge with the English efforts. This resulted in rather disproportionately large numbers of Scots in the early colonial efforts. H. E. Egerton, in his book on British Colonial Policy, estimated that by 1762 about one-third of the European inhabitants were Scots .
Banishment to the colonies was originally only possible if convicted of a major crime by the Scottish Privy Council. In 1671 the Court of Judiciary was given the same power. Several events brought great numbers of banished persons to the colonies. The aftermath of the Scottish Civil War sent thousands of soldiers as prisoners to Virginia, New England, and the West Indies. In May of 1656 some 1200 were shipped out of Scotland by Cromwell rule.
Calvinism made great inroads into the souls of the Scots under the preaching of John Knox in the late 1500's. He believed, as John Calvin, that the world was divided into the elect and the damned. The Roman Church was to him, a "harlot . . . altogether polluted with all kinds of spiritual fornication." He also detested women rulers of Europe, and in particular, Mary Queen of Scots. By 1638 Protestantism had taken a firm hold and the Scottish ministry and laity signed the National Covenant. This Covenant reaffirmed the Presbyterian faith and ritual which was counter to the new canon being imposed by the English King Charles. The new Covenant urged that the local church was separate from the state. It also believed that oaths of loyalty should only be given to God not to man or government, and especially not to an English king. Charles considered Presbytery as "not a religion for gentlemen." It is a constant source of astonishment to the modern reader how little Charles knew about the deep roots of Presbyterianism that had been planted in Scotland and how strongly the Covenanters would fight all attempts to return Scotland to episcopacy. His years in exile had taught him very little.
As King of Scotland, Charles signed two Covenants in 1649 merely to secure his own coronation. When he restored James VI's method of himself choosing the Committee of Articles, he not only tried to strengthen his position in relation to Parliament, but also to bring back the bishops and restore the system of patronage that chose ministers. All ministers chosen since 1649 were required to resign and to reapply for their posts from the bishops and lairds. One-third of all Scottish ministers refused and held services in defiance of the law. Troops were sent to enforce the regulations but their presence only made the Calvinist Covenanters more eager to serve their God in their own way. In 1679, claiming to be obeying a command from on high, they murdered Archbishop Sharp.
The government decided to intervene to bring the rebels to heel. Charles ordered the dispersal of the Glasgow Assembly which was charged with treason and sent a 21,000 man army, under the command of James, Duke of Monmouth (an illegitimate son of the King), to Scotland. The so called "Covenanters" raised an army of 26,000 men of nationalistic and religious fervor. The Covenanters were defeated at Bothwell Brig and the survivors were dealt with severely. Some 1700 men and women were banished to the plantations of the colonies. The reaction and counter-reactions that followed gave the period of the 1680's the title of "The Killing Time."
The failure of the Jacobite Rebellions of 1715 and 1745 brought another 1,600 Scottish men, women, and children to America. To give readers a reference point in history and to help the reader better appreciate the life and times of our ancestors I have here included an account of the Rise and Fall of the Jacobite Rebellion by Mark Monaghan:
"The word Jacobite comes from the Jacob's, or James' from the Royal House of Stuart. The followers of the James' (James V through to VII) were therefore known as Jacobites.
The situation was like this: England had been ruled by Protestant Queen Elizabeth I, she was succeeded by James I of England (James VI of Scotland). Catholic and Protestant divide not only in England but also in Scotland, Ireland, and to a lesser degree France and Germany was the worst it had ever been. Support within all these countries for one family over another was across the board. Protestant support in Scotland and England was heavier than that of the Catholics. Both countries were under the rule of the Stuarts and this did not run well with the protestant parliament of the more powerful English. The Stuarts were eventually exiled and forced to retire to France due to the support of the Act of Union in 1707 which basically forced Scotland to accept a situation that was not in their favor. Queen Anne died without an heir and the Act of Union, amongst other things, allowed the German House of Hanover to take the crown. This was something that the English desperately wanted, as it was regarded then that Catholicism was closer to evil than good.
For 40 years the Stuarts in France, the legitimate Blood line, descended from Scottish blood, had been stating their claims to the throne's of both Scotland and England and Ireland. But religion and politics were one, and the Stuarts were out.
With the Act of Union in place, and the Hanovarian head placed beneath the crown, England was happy and the rest just had to fall in line.
James VIII (the old pretender) had a lot of support from within France, Ireland, Scotland and even England. But he never took it upon himself to really do anything about it. When his son was born, hopes for a new Stuart king fueled the passions of already unhappy followers. Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) started to realize by the age of 13 that he could fulfill a dream and place his head under the crown and regain the throne that was rightfully theirs in the first place, or so he thought. And many agreed.
Now 23 years old, and with the blessing of his father and the support of a French invasion force, he decided to make his claim and lead the House of Stuart back to the crown. He traveled to Scotland to rally support but along the way there was a change of heart from the French support and they left him unsupported. Knowing that there was little he could do without military might, he of course did very little, but in rallying support from the Scots, Irish and English he hoped to provoke the French into taking the opportunity which they almost had done just before.
When he arrived in the Highlands, songs, poems and stories that the Prince was here gained momentum and his army of faithful Highlanders began to emerge. Men, women and children rallied behind his standard and shock waves began to make it's way to London. Some supported him by taking the call to arms, and others supported the Stuart claim by simply casting a blind eye and neither supporting him or opposing him, and in sense by doing nothing they did in fact help him dramatically. With a fairly healthy army of Highlanders, Charles made his way south to Edinburgh which he entered with no opposition. He did however meet his first opponent south of Edinburgh in Prestonpans Pans, where he swiftly defeated Cove's army of 4,000 men. Celebration was in order and a great party was underway at Hollyrood House in Edinburgh. London quivered at the thought of the Highlanders on the march again, and it seemed like Charles was doing exactly what he had threatened to do. Scotland was theirs now, and it would be easy to stay and keep Scotland, under the Stuarts theirs. Charles disagreed and knew that his only option was to take England or Nothing. It may have been easy to march through Scotland, but he knew that maybe not now, but eventually the English would mass a mighty army and push him back out. His only choice was to move south.
News spread to London and England feared that at any moment an invasion force from France would indeed take them from the South. The English king, George II made his plans and rallied his own army together which was made up of his own British troops, Dutch troops, German support (remember they were Hanovarians) and mercenaries from all over. Amongst those put in charge were General Wade, and William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. In order to dampen the fears that their southern subjects may have had regarding French invasion and the already marching Jacobite Rebels, they set the propaganda machine in place. The most prominent and telling statement that was made at this time was the insertion of a new verse in the British National Anthem, The verse is as follows sung to the tune of God save the Queen:
God grant that Marshal Wade, May by Thy Mighty aid, Victory bring, May he sedition hush, And like a torrent rush, Rebellious Scots to crush, God save the King.
Meanwhile Charles and his army had now been in England for 26 days and were in Derby, 120 miles from London. It was guessed by Cumberland that the Prince would have actually marched down through Wales in order to pick up more support and to favor the higher ground. He was wrong. When news arrived that Charles was in Derby while Wade was far off in Wales, London feared the worst. This was the closest the Charles would ever get to actually achieving his dream. If it were not for the next card which was about to be played, The House of Stuart could have moved forces into London with only a small London militia as opposition. Cumberland sent a spy to the Highlanders camp with news that a force of 30,000 men were heading straight for them. Little did Charles know that this news was in fact a lie, but he took it for gospel and on advice from his council of supporters they decided that they should return home.
At this time his troops had been on the move for weeks. Far from home and far from supplies: although there was no opposition there was also no support, and so supplies were in demand. Winter was upon them and all were in favor of a return home and the wait for spring. And this is what they did. But on their long march back to Scotland they didn't realize that this move gave Cumberland the chance to move across the country and follow on behind them. 6th of September - Black Friday. Charles made the retreat with his army of just over 5,000 and behind him an army of 30,000 which he believed awaited him if he should decide to change his mind. Even he knew that this was his only real choice given the information at hand. Making his way to Stirling his men still had it within them to take on the English at Falkirk and beat what opposition there was there. However it left his men without ammunition and sapped what little strength they had left. In the bleak cold of winter his army made camp at Stirling and took respite there for 5 weeks while the Prince moved on to Glasgow.
Time passed and they slowly made their way through the hills back home to the Highlands. They had barely made camp in Inverness when news arrived that Cumberland had made camp in Nairn: about 15 miles away. Exhausted, freezing, starving, out of supplies and ammunition some of his army went home to their families and some stayed. Charles thought he would take the upper hand and strike first. He sent 1,500 of his best troops to make a night march on Cumberland's camp. In the morning they returned after having no success and later that morning on April 16th 1746 Cumberland's army marched onto the moors at Culloden and faced his foe.
Just over 4,000 Jacobite supporters stood in the snow driven moors in mid morning, some had been up all night after their night march, all were starving, tired and worse for wear. A mixture of Clans, Irish and men from the ages of 51 years to as young as 13 stood in front of a veteran force of over 9,000 well supplied infantry and cavalry.
Cumberland's troops were made up of English veterans fresh from Europe and over 4,000 Scots: more Scots were facing Charles than were standing next to him. For many though it was more a case of Clan revenge than a fight for a crown. One example is the Chisholms. On both sides Clansman faced Clansman - Chisholm faced Chisholm - and even brother faced brother.
The Duke's army had canon and riffle-musket. Each man equipped with enough ammunition for at least 24 rounds. On the Prince's side they were armed with musket-pistols - and no ammunition. He too had 3lb canons - but supplied with 4lb shot. It was back to the old ways - The Highland Charge. A little after 12:30 that afternoon the Princes side fired what canon they had and waited for the return volley - which came swiftly. His troops were cut down in the dozen by the onslaught of Cumberland's artillery. Disemboweled by the flying balls of 4lb steel, arms legs and heads were scattered amongst the bunched up and freezing Jacobites. It all lasted for minutes and when the smoke cleared all that was left to do was to run or charge - the Jacobites outnumbered by at least 2 to 1 Charged on the right flank of Cumberland's lines. For a brief spell the Duke's troops on the right were scattered, but soon closed ranks on the charging Highlanders and began the massacre, in turn scattering the Highlanders across 'Cumberland's Bloody Killing Field'.
By 1:00, only 30 minutes later it was all over and those Highlanders, who could, ran for cover and back to their homes. By Cumberland's own estimate, some 2,000 Highlanders lay dead on Culloden Moor. These figures have never been seriously challenged and neither has the figure of 300 dead and injured from his side. A more exact figure has been put forward of 1,500 Highlanders but still only 300 of the Duke's men.
The memories of Culloden still run deep in the blood of Highlanders the world over because this battle was not the end - it was just the beginning!
Cumberland gave orders for "No Quarter Given": in other words 'none shall live'. His army marched on and killed every wounded Highlander left on the field - and then made his way to Inverness to carry on the fight. Raiding homes looking for Jacobites, all were labeled as one and swiftly put either to the end of a musket - bayonet - hangman's rope or burnt alive in their homes. Women, children, old and young, his orders were "No Quarter Given" - and none was.
The slaughter did not end their on that day, and this is the significance of the Jacobites in Scottish history: particularly Highland history. For months his army moved around the Highlands clearing out any threat once and for all that Highlander should ever pick up a Broadsword against England. It can be quoted from English parliament in reply to Cumberland's reports that they sent message saying "It will be no great mischief if all should fall". The support for Cumberland's ethnic cleansing was total. Some 500 years before Culloden it is also documented that King Edward (Longshanks) I of England said "The trouble with Scotland is that it is full of Scots". Famous words that were spoken not only by Longshanks, but by every conquering Englishman who set foot on Scottish soil. It was now 1746, and these same words were again being echoed by these gentlemen, albeit in a different sentence, but basically saying the same thing.
5 months passed and it was decided that the hunt for the Jacobites, (which by this time there were more than likely none left as well as every other Highlander who wasn't even there), should be calmed down and this is when the Prince made his escape back to France. In London they celebrated the defeat of the Highland people once and for all, and the German composer Handel wrote one of his most famous works 'See the conquering hero come' - referring to The Duke of Cumberland.
The Highland people were wiped out. Over the coming years they were cleared out of their homes to make way for their lands to be used for profitable sheep farming. For 4 generations the Highlanders were scattered to the corners of the world - Europe, India, and the New World 'America'. Sold as slaves they worked on the lands in the southern parts of America, and one account even tells us that in Barbados a ship load of Highlanders were traded for 10 tons of sugar.
Their culture was demolished, their native language - Gaelic - was banned and marked as a hanging offence if spoken, the wearing of tartan was also made a hanging offence and even the Bible was not allowed to be learnt in their own language, never mind written.
These times are known to many who live in Scotland as the 'Highland Clearances'. English schools were put in place and the process of conversion began. Finally the English dream of a conquered Scotland was theirs."
David White, son of Moses White, was the ancestor of the founders of the White Furniture Company of Mebane, NC. David told his descendants that his parents were Presbyterian Covenanters in Scotland during the third and final "Covenanter War" in which Britain sent troops to kill members of the Presbyterian Church and destroy their organization. David was old enough to remember the killings followed by the journey to America. David's line preserved the family's coat of arms, and it was displayed on the catalog of the White Furniture Company of Mebane. The coat of arms is listed in Burke's "The General Armory 1884, England, Scotland, and Wales. It was issued to Sir John White, Lord Mayor of London when he was knighted in 1563.
After arriving in America the White brothers (Moses and Hugh) and their families moved to Neshaminy, Pennsylvania where they joined the Dutch Reform Church. The newcomers from "Eerlant" (Ireland) were received by certificate on November 4, 1722. Eventually, the new group became so aggressive that the Dutch withdrew and the church became Presbyterian. Within a year Hugh White moved to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania where he reared his sons, Hugh, John, Henry, and Moses (II).
Moses White (I) moved his family to New Castle, Delaware, where he became a schoolmaster in Bucks County. He died soon after writing his will on March 12, 1735. He named his children, all of them adults at the time, in his will, presumably in order of birth.
Moses White provided that his estate be divided equally among his six children. Noting that his sons, Joseph, James, and John were unmarried, he provided that if one of them died before marrying, then the deceased's share of his estate would be divided among the survivors.
Like many Scotch-Irish of the period, the children of Moses and Hugh White tended to move south along the Appalachian barrier in search of land. "Of the eight sons of Hugh and Moses White, two made significant contributions to North Carolina and American history," writes Professor Robert Ramsey.
IMMIGRATION: 1719-1722 PENNSYLVANIA, Chester County, Donegal Township. 1719 immigration to Chester County, Pennsylvania. On record in 1722 in Donegal Township: Robert McFarland and sons Robert and James (Presbyterian). Also families recorded were: Robert Wilkins and his sons Thomas, William, Peter, and John; Gordon Howard and his sons Thomas and Joseph; Hugh, Henry and Moses White. Came from lands west of River Foyle (Tyrone County?), Ireland. SOURCE: "Scotch Irish Pioneers in Ulster and America" by Charles Knowles Bolton 1910. Page 271. Children of MOSES WHITE and ISABELLA COCHRAN are: 4. i. DAVID3 WHITE, b. Abt. 1695, Ireland. ii. JANE WHITE, b. 1708; m. [-- ?--] EDWARDS. 5. iii. JOSEPH WHITE, b. Abt. 1710, Ireland; d. February 11, 1808, Anson County, NC. 6. iv. JAMES WHITE, b. 1711. v. MARY WHITE, b. 1713; m. [-- ?--] JONES. 7. vi. JOHN WHITE, b. 1719. 3. HUGH2 WHITE (ADAM1)1 was born Abt. 1671 in Ireland, and died 1741 in Chester, PA. He married JANE [--?--]. Notes for HUGH WHITE: Hugh and Moses WHITE (brothers) came to Bucks Co., PA, from Ireland (County Antrim) about 1722. Records of the North and Southampton Dutch Reformed Church at Neshaminy Creek, Bucks Co., PA, show that on November 4, 1722, a group of "newcomers from Ireland" became members. Among those listed were the two WHITE brothers.
In 1725, Hugh and his wife Isabella were living in Donegal Township, Chester Co., PA (later Dauphin Co.). In 1726, Hugh moved to Mount Joy and settled on Little Chickaslunga Creek in the Susquehanna River Valley. He received a land grant of 300 acres on December 20, 1738 in Lancaster Co., PA and probably died shortly after the purchase.
Moses WHITE moved to New Castle, DE and became a school teacher. Hugh White resided along Little Chiques creek, near the Paxtang road. He left sons Hugh, John Henry, and Moses. One of his sons was Col. Hugh White, of the West Branch valley, in the Revolutionary War. John Tyler lived along Little Chiques creek, near where Myers' stone bridge now is. Jonah Davenport, who crossed the mountains to trade with the Indians at the Ohio as early as 1727, settled on three hundred acres of land near where Bainbridge now is, in 1720. He sold to James Logan, whose heirs sold to the Groffs, Works, and Scotts. The latter sold to James Galbraith. James Cunningham settled near the spring at Donegal church in 1720, taking up several hundred acres of land adjoining the glebe on the north. In 1730 he sold to John Gass. Subsequent owners of the tract, which has been several times divided, include McClelland, McCleery, Kerr, Willson, Cameron, Garber, Hoover. A State hatching house occupied part of the tract. A son of James Cunningham had a distinguished Revolutionary record; he (Col. James Cunningham) commanded the flying camp at the battle of King's Bridge, and at the battle of Long Island. He was a member of the Supreme Executive Council from this county. In later life he was a land surveyor, and laid out the soldiers' lands west of the Allegheny. He died in Lancaster, about 1801.
Hugh White resided along Little Chiques creek, near the Paxtang road, prior to 1726; his sons were Hugh, John, Henry, and Moses. The last-named took patent for 168 acres of land in Mount Joy township in 1741, though he probably had been in possession for many years earlier. He had two sons, Hugh and William; Hugh married the daughter of John Allison, and was a colonel during the Revolution. William took patent for a large tract in Mount Joy in 1741. William Paterson was probably one of the first settlers in Rapho township, taking up about 300 acres in the southern part; his descendants are still in the township
Children of HUGH WHITE and JANE [--?--] are: 8. i. MOSES3 WHITE, b. Abt. 1696, Ireland; d. October 05, 1757, Rapho Township, Lancaster County, PA. 9. ii. HENRY WHITE, b. Abt. 1698, Ireland; d. 1789, Waxhaws, Lancaster County, SC. 10. iii. THOMAS WHITE, b. Abt. 1701; d. 1779, Lancaster County, PA. 11. iv. ROBERT WHITE, b. Abt. 1705, Ireland. 12. v. ISAAC WHITE, b. Abt. 1706, Ireland; d. 1782. 13. vi. JOSEPH WHITE, b. Abt. 1708, Ireland; d. 1785, South Carolina. 14. vii. WILLIAM WHITE, b. Abt. 1712; d. South Carolina. 15. viii. COL. STEPHEN WHITE, b. Abt. 1715, Ireland; d. 1803, Union District, SC. ix. JAMES WHITE, b. Abt. 1717, Ireland. More About JAMES WHITE: Baptism: April 01, 1722, Pennsylvania
Rev. Adam White's Timeline
Loch Fyne, Argyll, Inveraray, Scotland
Adam White (abt. 1627 - abt. 1708) (born Inveraray, on Loch Fyne, Argyll Scotland; died Bushmills, County Antrim, Ireland
County Antrim, Ireland
December 19, 1708
Bushmills, Antrim, Ireland
Bushmills, County Antrim, UK