Robert de Brus, 2nd Lord of Annandale

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Robert de Brus

Also Known As: "The Cadet", "2nd Lord of /Annandale/", "Le Meschin", "Robert Le Meschin Brus.", "9754"
Birthdate: (87)
Birthplace: Annandale, Dumfries, Scotland
Death: 1190 (87)
Annandale, Dumfries, Scotland
Place of Burial: Gisborough Priory, North Riding, Yorkshire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Robert De Bruce, 1st Lord of Skelton and 1st Lord of Annandale and Agnes Brus, 2nd wife
Husband of Eufemia d'Aumale or de Picquigny, Niece of William Earl Albemarle
Father of William de Brus, 3rd Lord of Annandale; Robert lll de Brus, of Annandale; Euphemia Kirkpatrick (de Brus); Agatha de Bruce and Bernard de Brus, of Annandale
Half brother of Adam De Bruce De Bruce; Agatha Fitz Ribald and Adam de Brus, I, Lord of Skelton, Lord of Cleveland

Occupation: 2nd Lord of Annandale 1138-1196, le Meschin, 2nd Lord of Annandale, le Meschin (the Cadet)
Managed by: Jason Scott Wills
Last Updated:

About Robert de Brus, 2nd Lord of Annandale

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm (17 Dec 2017)

ROBERT [II] de Brus, son of ROBERT [I] de Brus & his [second] wife Agnes --- ([1135/40]-[17 Feb, 26 Aug, or 4 Dec] after [1170/90]). The manuscript history of the founders of Gysburne/Gisborough Priory names “Robertus de Bruse…miles de Normannia” and “Roberto de Bruse filio suo juniori”, adding that the latter was captured during the Anglo-Scottish wars[988]. The 1155 Pipe Roll records "Agnes de Bruis…p filio suo"[989]. As noted above, this suggests that Agnes was acting for her son, who was a minor at the time, in relation to the property for which the return was made. If this is correct, her son was presumably Robert [II] de Brus, who must have been considerably younger than his [half-]brother Adam [I], and so probably born from a different wife. If this is correct, he had reached the age of majority by 1157 when he is named without his mother in the Pipe Roll (see below). The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “primus Brus de Carleton…Robertus de Brus” granted “villam Anandiæ de regno Scotiæ…et…postea Hert et Hertnesse” to “Robertus filius eius junior”[990]. Lord of Annandale. The 1157 Pipe Roll records "Rob de Brus" in Northumberland[991]. “Robertus de Bruis et uxor mea Eufemia” donated property to the canons of Gysburne/Gisborough by charter dated to [1160/75][992]. The Red Book of the Exchequer refers to "Robertus de Brus v m" in Yorkshire in [1167/68][993]. “Robertus de Brus” donated property to the monks of Durham by charter dated to [1170/90], witnessed by “Roberto, Willelmo et Bernardo filiis meis…Hugone de Brus…”[994]. The obituary of Gysburne/Gisborough priory records the deaths “XIII Kal Mar” of "Roberti Brus de Anant", "VII Kal Sep" of "Roberti Brus de Anande", and "II Non Dec" of "Roberti Brus de Anande"[995]. Two of these three deaths presumably relate to Robert [II] and Robert [III] de Brus, as the same source separately records the deaths of Robert [I], Robert [IV] and Robert [V] de Brus (see above and below). It is not known to whom the third death refers as no other record has been found of another Robert de Brus before Robert [VI], who was not buried at Gysburne/Gisborough.

m EUPHEMIE, daughter of ---. “Robertus de Brus” notified his donation to the hospital of St Peter, York by charter dated to [1150/70], witnessed by “domina Eufemia…”[996]. “Robertus de Bruis et uxor mea Eufemia” donated property to the canons of Gysburne/Gisborough by charter dated to [1160/75][997]. Her origin is indicated by the charter dated to [1150/60] under which “W. comes Albemarle” granted property to “Eufemie nepti mee uxori Roberti de Brus”[998]. Domesday Descendants speculates that she was the daughter of Guillaume’s brother Enguerrand[999], although there seems no reason to choose one of his brothers over any of the others. Another possibility is that she was the daughter of Guillaume’s sister Mathilde, whose husband Guermond de Picquigny is recorded with a sister named Euphemie.

Robert [II] de Brus & his wife had three children:

1. ROBERT [III] de Brus (-[17 Feb, 26 Aug, or 4 Dec] 1191). “Robertus de Brus” donated property to the monks of Durham by charter dated to [1170/90], witnessed by “Roberto, Willelmo et Bernardo filiis meis…Hugone de Brus…”[1000]. He succeeded his father as Lord of Annandale. The Red Book of the Exchequer, listing scutage payments in [1190/91], records "Adam de Brus…Robertus de Brus" paying "vii l x s, xv milites" and "l s, v milites", respectively, in Yorkshire[1001]. Two of these three deaths presumably relate to Robert [II] and Robert [III] de Brus, as the same source separately records the deaths of Robert [I], Robert [IV] and Robert [V] de Brus (see above and below). It is not known to whom the third death refers as no other record has been found of another Robert de Brus before Robert [VI], who was not buried at Gysburne/Gisborough. m (1183) as her first husband, ISABEL, illegitimate daughter of WILLIAM I "the Lion" King of Scotland & his mistress --- Avenell. The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1183 of "William king of the Scots…his daughter Isabella" and "Robert de Brus"[1002]. She married secondly (Haddington early 1191) Robert de Ros. The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1191 of "the king of Scots…his daughter Ysembel (the widow of Robert de Brus)" and "Robert de Ross" at Haddington[1003].

2. WILLIAM de Brus (-before 4 Dec 1214). The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Willielmus filius eius” succeeded “Robertus Brus”[1004]. “Robertus de Brus” donated property to the monks of Durham by charter dated to [1170/90], witnessed by “Roberto, Willelmo et Bernardo filiis meis…Hugone de Brus…”[1005]. He succeeded his brother as Lord of Annandale. The Red Book of the Exchequer, listing scutage payments in [1194/95], records "Willelmus de Brus" paying "x s, dimidium militem" in Cumberland[1006]. The obituary of Gysburne/Gisborough priory records the deaths “XVII Kal Aug” of "Willmii Brus de Anand" and "Kal Aug" of "Willmi Brus primi Prioris"[1007]. [1008]m as her first husband, CHRISTINA, daughter of ---. Christina was the sister of Eva, second wife of Robert de Quincy (see ENGLAND EARLS, WINCHESTER), as shown by the undated charter under which "Eua quondam uxor Roberti de Quinci" donated property "de Edmundesten" to Melrose abbey, for the souls of "dominorum meorum Robti de Quinci et Walteri de Berkeley et Rolandi fratris mei et Johis filii mei et Christine sororis mee"[1009]. The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Cristina uxor Willelmi de Brus, Robertus de Brus filius eius"[1010]. She married secondly (before 4 Dec 1214) as his second wife, Patrick Earl of Dunbar. "Patricius comes de Dumbar" donated land "iuxta Emudestu" to Melrose abbey, for the souls of "Ade comitisse quondam uxoris mee…et Christine comitisse uxoris mee et…Patricii filii mei et omnium filiorum meorum et filiarum", to Melrose abbey by undated charter[1011]. William de Brus & his wife had two children:

a) ROBERT [IV] de Brus “the Noble” (-[1 Apr] 1245). The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus secundus” succeeded “Willielmus Brus”[1012]. Lord of Annandale. - see below.

b) [EUPHEME (-1267). Her parentage is suggested by MacEwan[1013]. If correct, she was her husband’s step-sister, daughter of his father’s second wife by her first husband. "Eufemia comitissa" donated revenue from land in "Kirkinfyde" to Dryburgh monastery, for the soul of "domini mei Patricii comitis", by undated charter[1014]. The Chronicle of Lanercost records the death in 1267 of "domina mater domini comitis Patricii de Dunbar, Eufemia…magistri Patricii qui apud Marsilium obiit"[1015]. m (1213 or before) PATRICK de Dunbar, son of PATRICK Earl of Dunbar & his first wife Ada of Scotland (-Marseilles [May/Dec] 1248). He succeeded his father in 1232 as Earl of Dunbar.]

3. BERNARD de Brus . “Robertus de Brus” donated property to the monks of Durham by charter dated to [1170/90], witnessed by “Roberto, Willelmo et Bernardo filiis meis…Hugone de Brus…”[1016].

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Robert II de Brus, The Cadet, (died 1194) was a 12th century Norman noble and Lord of Annandale. He was the son, perhaps the second son,[1] of Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale.

The elder de Brus' allegiances were compromised when David invaded England in the later 1130s, and he had renounced his fealty to David before the Battle of the Standard in 1138. The younger Robert however remained loyal and took over his father's land in Scotland, whilst the English territories remained with the elder Robert and passed to the latter's elder son Adam. Bruce family tradition has it that Robert II was captured by his father at the battle and given over to King Stephen of England.

A legend tells that in the 1140s, Robert II was visited at Annan by St Malachy. St Malachy asked Robert to pardon a thief, but Robert hung him anyway, and for this the River Annan destroyed part of his castle and the de Brus line received a curse from the holy man. Robert made Lochmaben the centre of his lordship and constructed a new caput there.

Robert was buried at Guisborough Priory in North Riding, Yorkshire, a monastery founded by his father Robert I de Brus. As his eldest son, Robert, predeceased him, he was succeeded by his second son William.

He married Euphemia, a daughter of Ingleram de Aumale, who's father was Stephen, Count of Aumale. They had five known children,

  • Robert (d. 1191), eldest son.
  • William (d. 1212).
  • Bernard.
  • Agatha.
  • Euphemia

Footnotes

^ Burke's The Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire 1883: 80

References

Burke, Messrs. John and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, with their Descendants, etc., London, 1848: vol.1, pedigree XXXIV.

Flower, William, Norroy King of Arms, The Visitation of Yorkshire, 1563/4, (edited by Charles B. Northcliffe, M.A., of Langton) London, 1881, p.40.

Duncan, A.A.M., ‘Brus , Robert (I) de, lord of Annandale (d. 1142)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 , accessed 14 Nov 2006

Duncan, A. A. M., ‘Brus , Robert (II) de, lord of Annandale (d. 1194?)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 , accessed 14 Nov 2006

Oram, Richard, David: The King Who Made Scotland, (Gloucestershire, 2004)


See the extensive discussion of Robert de Brus and his role in the history of England and Scotland in Ruth Margaret Blakeley's book, "The Brus Family in England and Scotland, 1100-1295." Much of this book is available on line through Googlebooks at http://books.google.com/books?id=_c95jpY_joAC&printsec=frontcover.

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William Fraser, Introductions and Illustrations of the Annandale Family Book ...Edinburgh, 1894. pp. 4ff. The book is available online at https://books.googleusercontent.com/books/content?req=AKW5QadcgpQYISNXWctyKBciS9qEiJslyyu-0dI0hiD8Cfm8COefAe6cgk6S2wFnrNjUfazbX8mvCLpRIyzGM8wNvPEELiLVcc-79f5wymdMinwCF-qJRlaz1NQrLBxs81VXU59ZQyuMqbQORAFP7V6ljz2KI0b-PttRPDy4VfdtDnQfWvHyCLjsrhbzuc-YKpYThdT9s4ZYlR1g2mbph3nO_gOYDNHaDmBl5uUAsQPDDwFS4Gjv-q_9JIA3BXKUMO6W5Te4L5dPKlWZ18QjjAQ17_jaJyViaszRp_z3VGzdrX6usY2AWXI

During the frequent residence in England of King David the First before his succession as King of Scotland, he had formed an intimate personal friendship with Robert the Bruce, the acquirer of Annandale. David probably supposed that the experience of Bruce in governing his own English lordships would conduce to the good rule and civilisation of the extensive Border lordship of Annandale, which formed the middle or third division of the county of Dumfries. The other two divisions of that county are Nithsdale on the west, and Eskdale on the east. But whatever were the real motives, whether of private friendship or public policy, of King David in making such a munificent grant, Bruce soon entered into possession of the district of Annandale, and governed it successfully from 1124 till the year 1138, when the Battle of the Standard, which was fought on 22d August that year on Cutton Moor, near Northallerton, changed the relations between King David and his favourite grantee of Annandale. The latter almost passionately endeavoured to dissuade the king against his ill-advised war with England. Bruce's address to his sovereign on that occasion was more in the style and language of an independent sovereign than a subject of Scotland as lord of Annandale. But his advice and his entreaties were disregarded, and the war proved disastrous to the Scots. Bruce did not long survive that battle, having died in May 1141, after governing Annandale for seventeen years.

His second son, also named Robert, succeeded to Annandale, and was the second Robert Brace of Annandale from 1141 to 1190. He made charter grants of the lauds and fishings in Annandale to his friends and followers, as appears from the charters still preserved.

King William the Lion confirmed to this second Robert Bruce of Annandale all the land which his father and himself held in the dale of Annan by the same marches by which his father held it, and he after his father, to himself and his heirs in fee and heritage, as freely as ever his father or he himself held that land of King David, the grandfather of King William, or of King Malcolm his brother. That confirmation charter excepted the rights of the king's royalty, which are enumerated as causes of treasure trove, murder, assault aforethought, rape, arson, robbery, which are reserved to the king. King William also granted to Bruce that these causes should be brought into court by one of the men of his fief to be chosen by the king, and pleaded before his justices. The grantee is to take the like customs as are exacted at Roxburgh, except the assize of his barony. That charter bears no date, but it must have been granted between 1165, when King William succeeded his brother King Malcolm, and 1191, when Robert Bruce the son of the grantee is proved to have been dead. The confirmation of King William now recited bears to have been granted at "Locmaban." l

CHARTERS BY THE BRUCES OF ANNANDALE. 

William De Bruce, The Fourth Of Annandale.

The Christian name of Robert prevailed so much in the Bruce family as to be almost hereditary in the eight generations which existed between the father of the Robert Bruce, first of Annandale, and his descendant Robert Bruce of Annandale and King of Scotland. The fourth Lord of Annandale appears to have been on the same terms of intimacy with King William as had subsisted between King David and the first Bruce of Annandale. William Bruce granted several charters of lands in Annandale, which are printed in this work.

The fifth Bruce of Annandale was Robert, who succeeded his father William Bruce. Robert married the Princess Isabel, second daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, younger brother of King William the Lion.

This royal marriage ultimately led to the descendant of the Bruces becoming King of Scotland.

The sixth Bruce of Annandale was Robert, who was the eldest son and successor of his father Bobert and the Princess Isabel his wife. In the year 1249-50 he was one of the Lords Justices of the common pleas of England. At first sight such a position indicates incompatibility with the ownership of Annandale. But the connections of the Bruces with England were from the first fully more prominent than with Scotland. The Lord Justice was afterwards made Sheriff of Cumberland and Governor of Carlisle, and in the following year, 1255, he was made one of the Regents of Scotland. He sat in the parliament at Brigham on 18th July 1290 as Lord Of Annandale. On the death of Margaret of Norway in the same year, Brace entered his claim to the crown of Scotland as nearest heir to King Alexander the Third. But his claim was repelled by King Edward the First on 17th November 1292. This Eobert Bruce is best known in history as the Competitor. He resigned his right in favour of his son Robert Bruce, who had become Earl of Carrick, and died at his castle of Loch1nabeu in 1295, aged 85.

There are several charters of special interest granted by the Bruces. The charter by Robert de Bruce in favour of Ivo and his heirs appears as the foundation charter of the family of Kirkpatrick. The charter bears no date, but, from the names of the witnesses, it must have been granted about the year 1190 by the second Robert Bruce of Annandale. It is very brief, as will be seen from an exact facsimile here introduced.1 The third charter is by William Bruce, either the son or the brother of Eobert Bruce, the granter of the charter to Ivo. Like the first charter, this one bears no date; but, from the names of the witnesses mentioned in it, it was probably granted between the years 1194 and 1214. But while in the first charter Ivo is designated simply by his Christian name, he is in the second charter designated "Ivo of Kirkpatrick."2 This is an instance of a person in the twelfth century, having only a Christian and no surname, taking a surname in addition to his Christian name from lauds acquired by him and transmitting the surname to his successors.1

1 Charter printed p. 1 of this volume. 2 Ibid. i<\,. 2, 3 of this volume.

Another of the Bruce charters is granted by Robert Bruce to Roger Crispin of the land of Cnoculeran. This charter is not dated, but was probably granted between the years 1215, when the granter succeeded to his father, William Bruce, and when Robert himself died in 1245. The two seals of the granter are still appended to the charter, both bearing the well-known saltire of the Bruce, and the lion passant in chief. Drawings of both these seals are given on the back of the lithograph of the charter. The ink in which that charter is written is even yet, after the lapse of six centuries, as clear and glossy as when it was originally engrossed. This will be seen from the facsimile here introduced. The charter is printed in this volume.

Egbert Bruce, Earl Of Carrick, Father Of King Eobert.

Robert Bruce, the seventh Lord of Annandale, augmented his territorial possessions by a romantic marriage with Marjory,2 Countess of Carriuk in her own right. The marriage took place in 1271. Obscurity hangs over that marriage as well as the inheritance of the dignity of Earl of Carrick. The countess appears to have been recognised as owner of the earldom. But no patent of the peerage is known to exist, and the terms of the limitations are not in any known record. After his marriage Bruce appears as Earl of Carrick. But whether he was so styled in virtue of the courtesy in his wife's title, or under a new creation in his own right, does not appear. Of that marriage were bom twelve children, five sons and seven daughters. The daughters and their marriages are stated by Mrs. Gumming Bruce in her recent work, "The Bruces and the Cumyns." A question has often been raised as to the birthplace of King Robert the Bruce. Some writers contend for Lochmaben Castle. But as his father and mother lived at the castle of Turnbery in Carrick, where the Countess's numerous family of sons and daughters appear to have been born, the probability is that the king was also born there.1

A charter was granted by the seventh Lord of Annandale, also under the title of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick and Lord of Annandale, to Sir William of Carlyle, knight, of a piece of land for the increase of the land of Kynemund, which is minutely described.2

Another charter was granted by " Robertus de Bruys, comes de Carrik, et dominus Vallis Anandie," to Alexander de Kethe, of the granter's tenement in Langforgrund. The charter bears no date. The granter's seal is still appended and entire. The shield bears the Bruce saltire and a chief. These were the armorial bearings of the Bruces before the marriage with the Countess of Carrick. Bruce took the name and style of Earl of Carrick ; but he continued to carry his own arms without any addition or impaling those of his wife. The legend reads " S. Roberti de Brvs." s This charter has been lithographed for this work and is here introduced. It is printed at length in the Appendix along with a translation. The handwriting is a very favourable specimen of a charter of the thirteenth century.

The eighth Bruce of Annandale was the most renowned and illustrious of them all, the hero of Bannockburn, Robert the First, King of Scotland; and among the numerous charters granted by him to his successful comrade in arms, James, Lord of Douglas, knight, was one of the whole land of Polbuthy [Polmoodie], within the vale of Moffat. The land was to be held by the grantee and his heirs of the king and his heirs for rendering twelve broad arrows yearly. The charter bears date at Abirbrothoc, 15th December 1318.The original charter is still preserved in the Douglas charter-chest, and by the kind permission of the Earl of Home, Baron Douglas of Douglas, a lithograph of it is here introduced. The charter itself is also printed.1 Polbuthy forms part of the extensive Annandale estates, and contains the highest mountain range in the south of Scotland.

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The Lord of Annandale was a sub-comital lordship in southern Scotland (Annandale) established by David I of Scotland by 1124 for his follower Robert de Brus. The following were holders of the officers:

Robert II de Brus, le Meschin (the Cadet) (fl. 1138, died c. 1189 or 1194), was a 12th century Norman noble and 2nd Lord of Annandale. He was the son, perhaps the second son,[1] of Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale.

The elder de Brus' allegiances were compromised when David I invaded England in the later 1130s, and he had renounced his fealty to David before the Battle of the Standard in 1138. The younger Robert however remained loyal and took over his father's land in Scotland, whilst the English territories remained with the elder Robert and passed to the latter's elder son Adam. Bruce family tradition has it that Robert II was captured by his father at the battle and given over to King Stephen of England.

A legend tells that in the 1140s, Robert II was visited at Annan by St Malachy. St Malachy asked Robert to pardon a thief, but Robert hung him anyway, and for this the River Annan destroyed part of his castle and the de Brus line received a curse from the holy man. Robert made Lochmaben the centre of his lordship and constructed a new caput there.

He married Euphemia de Crosebi or Crosbj of Aumale, daughter of Sir Adam de Crosebi or Crosbj. They had five known children:

  • Robert (d. 1191), eldest son.
  • William (d. 1212).
  • Bernard.
  • Agatha.
  • Euphemia.

Robert was buried at Gisborough Priory in the North Riding, Yorkshire, England, a monastery founded by his father Robert I de Brus. As his eldest son, Robert, predeceased him, he was succeeded by his second son William.

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Robert de Brus, 2nd Lord of Annandale's Timeline

1103
1103
Annandale, Dumfries, Scotland
1138
1138
Age 35
supported the case of King David at battle of the Standard
1150
1150
Age 47
Annandale, Dumfrieshire, Scotland
1156
1156
Age 53
Annandale, Dumfrieshire, Scotland
1190
1190
Age 87
Annandale, Dumfries, Scotland
1194
1194
Age 87
Gisborough Priory, North Riding, Yorkshire, England
1200
1200
Age 87
Annandale, Dumfries-shire, Scotland
1932
September 20, 1932
Age 87
AZ