Robert d'Oyly, Constable of Oxford Castle

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Robert d'Oyly (d'Ouilly), Constable of Oxford Castle

Also Known As: "Robert D'Oyley de Liseaux", "Robert Doyley", "Robert de Oiley", "Robert d'Oilly", "Robert D'Oyley", "Roberti De Oilgi"
Birthdate: (47)
Birthplace: Ouilly-le-Vicomte, Calvados, Lower Normandy, France
Death: Died in France?
Immediate Family:

Son of Gilbert d'Oilly, Sire de Oilleia la Ribaude and Frances Barney
Husband of Lady Ealdgyth de Wallingford
Father of Maud d'Oilly and Mabilia Chevauchesul
Brother of Nigel d'Oilly, 2nd Lord Hooknorton; Wido d'Oilly; Foulk d'Oyly; Ralph d'Oyly; Richard d'Oyly and 1 other

Occupation: Constable of Oxford Castle; No Male Heirs
Managed by: Pam Wilson
Last Updated:

About Robert d'Oyly, Constable of Oxford Castle

Robert D'Oyly

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Robert D'Oyly (also spelt Robert D'Oyley de Liseaux, Robert Doyley, Robert de Oiley, Robert d'Oilly, Robert D'Oyley and Roberti De Oilgi) was a Norman nobleman who accompanied William the Conqueror on the Norman Conquest, his invasion of England. He died in 1091.

Background

Robert was the son of Walter D'Oyly and elder brother to Nigel D'Oyly. D'Oyly is a Norman French name, from the place name Ouilly of the Calvados département in Normandy. He married Ealdgyth, the daughter of Wigod, the Saxon lord of Wallingford. After Wigod's death, William appointed Robert the lord of Wallingford, and ordered him to fortify Wallingford Castle between 1067 and 1071. It is believed he may have become the third High Sheriff of Berkshire around this time. He was made Baron Hocknorton.[1]

D'Oyly was a sworn brother-in-arms of Roger d'Ivry. The Domesday Book records that by 1086 D'Oyly and d'Ivry held a number of manors either partitioned between the two of them or administered in common.

His brother Nigel's son was Robert Doyley, the founder of Osney Priory, Oxford. He was also an ancestor of Henry D'Oyly, one of the major feudal barons of the Magna Carta.

"He was so powerful a man in his time, that no one durst oppose him", says one account.[which?] At Abingdon he was remembered as "a despoiler of churches and the poor until his miraculous conversion [to Christianity]".[citation needed] The latter was during the economic decline that Oxford experienced between 1066 and 1086 however it is noted that Robert's own properties suffered as much waste in this period.

Legacy

Robert was appointed High Sheriff of Oxfordshire and ordered the construction of many parts of Oxford, some of which still survive today. Oxford Castle was built under Robert's orders in 1071, and the collegiate church of St George's within the castle was founded by Robert in 1074. The church of St Peter-in-the-East was first mentioned in 1086 as a possession of Robert's although it is possible that he merely acquired it, along with St Mary Magdalen's Church, north of the former gate of Oxford's medieval wall.

The monks of Abingdon credited him with the construction of a series of stone bridges at Grandpont ("The Great Bridge"), which form a causeway over the River Thames. This now forms the major route between the city centre and the south, and the crossing point is near St Aldate's over Folly Bridge.[2] It is possible however that he merely fortified an older crossing point. Eights Reach, which now forms part of Shire Lake Stream in Christ Church Meadow is also attributed to Robert D'Oyly.[citation needed]

Possessions

Robert owned land in Oakley, Buckinghamshire. The village was valued at £6, and its land consisted of 5¾ hides.[citation needed] With Oakley’s clay soil the total cultivated land would have been around 550 acres (220 ha). Robert, also, held a tenure (or burgage) in Buckingham held by a man of Azor, the son of Tote, who paid sixteen pence annually and to the King, five pence.

The Manor of Iver became part of the possessions of Robert D'Oyly, who held Eureham (as Iver was called in the Domesday Book), for seventeen hides. The land was enough for thirty ploughs. It was estimated at £22, it had been exchanged for Padbury, with Robert Clarenbold of the Marsh. D'Oyly's daughter Maud married Miles Crispin, to whom the Manor of Iver descended.

D'Oyly also owned a considerable amount of land in Oxfordshire and in Oxford itself recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086:

  • Oxford Castle, and the collegiate church of St George's within the castle, that was later acquired by Osney Abbey.
  • The Castle Mill in Oxford. This belonged to Ælfgar of Mercia before the Conquest and was escheated to the Crown in 1163 following the death of Henry D'Oyly.
  • The church of St Peter-in-the-East in Oxford, that now forms part of St Edmund Hall.
  • The church of St Mary Magdalen.
  • 42 dwellings both within and without the city wall of Oxford.
  • The settlements of Watlington, Goring, Bicester, Kidlington, Water Eaton and three manors in Hook Norton.
  • Land and dwellings in a further 22 Oxfordshire villages.

Family

With his wife Ealdgyth he had a daughter and heiress Maud who first married Miles Crispin (d. 1107), Lord of Wallingford, and afterwards Brien FitzCount, lord of Burgavennu (the faithful ally of the Empress Matilda), but leaving no issue, was succeeded by Nigel D'Oyly, her uncle, who was constable to William Rufus and Baron of Hocknorton. Robert and Ealdgyth were buried in the Abbey in Abingdon.[3]

References

  1. The Baronetage of England. Google Books. p. 401. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  2. Caton, Judi (1988). Oxford in Old Photographs. Alan Sutton Publishing. p. 60. ISBN 0-86299-462-4.
  3. Burke, John and Burke, Bernard. "Robert D'Oyly", A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland and Scotland, Scott, Webster, and Geary, 1841

Further reading

Crossley, Alan (1969). Victoria County History: A History of the County of Oxfordshire, Volume 4: The City of Oxford. Lipscomb, George (1847). The History and Antiquities of the County of Buckingham. London: J. & W. Robins. Salzman, L.F. (1939). Victoria County History: A History of the County of Oxfordshire, Volume 1.

External links

  • History of Norfolk
  • Robert D'Oyly at opendomesday

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISHNOBILITYMEDIEVAL3L-O.htm#RobertOillydied1142A From FMG Medlands

OILLY


Freeman suggests that this family originated in Ouilly-le-Vicomte, near Lisieux, in Normandy[1744]. The Chronique de Normandie, based on le Roman de Rou, names "le sire de Doully" among those who took part in the conquest of England in 1066[1745], but it is not possible to decide which of the persons named below is indicated.


1. RALPH de Oilly (-after 30 Nov 1074). "Ricardo filio Turstini Guz et Guillelmo Caritate, Fulkoque filio Gerardi Budel atque Radulfo de Ollei" are named as present in the charter dated 30 Nov 1074 under which Odo Bishop of Bayeux bought "la terre de Chernet" from "Herberto de Agnellis", with the consent of "suo domino Radulfo de Conchis"[1746].


2. WILLIAM de Oilly (-after [1078]). "…William de Oilli…" witnessed the charter dated to [1078] under which William I King of England confirmed a truce concerning a property dispute between Hugh Viator and the abbey of Mans Saint-Vincent[1747].


1. NIGEL de Oilly [I] . The Historia sancti Petri Gloucestriæ records the donation of "decimam de Cestretone" made "tempore Serlonis abbatis" [abbot from 1072 to 1104] made by "Robertus de Oleio filius Nigelli de Oleio"[1748]. The dating of this charter shows that Robert de Oilly [II] could not have been the donor. In that case, the document represents the only reference so far found to Nigel de Oilly [I], father of Robert de Oilly [I]. m -

--. The name of Nigel’s wife is not known. Nigel [I] & his wife had three children:

a) ROBERT de Oilly [I] (-[Sep 1093/99]). The Historia sancti Petri Gloucestriæ records the donation of "decimam de Cestretone" made "tempore Serlonis abbatis" [abbot from 1072 to 1104] made by "Robertus de Oleio filius Nigelli de Oleio"[1749]. The Chronicle of Abingdon records a precept addressed by William I King of England to "Lanfranco archiepiscopo, Roberto de Oilleio et Rogero de Pistri" in favour of the monastery of Abingdon[1750]. An undated manuscript records that “Robertus de Oili primus et Nigellus de Oili fratres…germani” came to England with William "the Conqueror", that "Robertus” died "absque sobole" and that "Nigellus anno 1129 genuit Robertum secundum qui cum Editha uxore" founded Oseney abbey[1751]. "…Robert d’Oilli minister" witnessed the charter dated 1067 under which William I King of England donated the vill of Cullacliffe to Wulfstan Bishop of Worcester[1752]. "…Ivo Taillebois, Robert de Oilli" witnessed the spurious charter, purportedly dated 25 Dec [1071/75], under which William I King of England donated Chelsea to the monks of Westminster[1753]. Constable of Oxford. The Chronicle of Abingdon names "Robertus de Oileio" as castellan of Oxford and constable of Oxford[1754]. An undated manuscript records that “Robertus de Oili” built "castellum Oxonii” in 1072 and that "Robertus de Oili et Rogerus de Iveri" built the church of St George in Oxford castle in 1074[1755]. The mid-15th century English translation of the cartulary of Oseney records that "Robert Doylly" founded St George’s church, Oxford castle with the consent of "Aldithe my wiffe and my brethren Nigelle & Gilberte"[1756]. "…Eudo, Adam brother of Eudo…Richard de Meri, Geoffrey de Sai, Robert de Oilli" witnessed the charter dated 1084 under which William I King of England confirmed a donation by Roger de Albini to Lessay Holy Trinity[1757]. Domesday Book records “Robert d’Oilly” holding Chaddleworth, Letcombe Basset and Great Shefford in Eagle Hundred, and Ardington in Wantage Hundred, in Berkshire, Tiscott in Tring in Hertfordshire, "Robert d’Oilly and Roger d’Ivry" holding Stowe in Buckinghamshire from the bishop of Bayeux in Buckinghamshire and Arncott from the abbot of Abingdon St Mary in Oxfordshire, Robert holding other property in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire[1758]. The joint holding with Roger d’Ivry suggests a family relationship. "…Rotbertus de Oili…" witnessed the charter dated 27 Jan 1091 under which William II King of England confirmed the status of Bath abbey[1759]. “…Rotberti de Oleio…” witnessed the charter dated [May 1092] under which William II King of England confirmed previous grants to Lincoln cathedral[1760]. “…Rotberti de Oleio…” witnessed the charter dated Sep 1093 under which William II King of England donated property to Lincoln cathedral[1761]. m EALDGYTH, daughter of WIGOD of Wallingford & his wife ---. "Robertus de Olleyo" donated the church of St Mary Magdalen in Oxford to the church of St George in Oxford Castle, with the consent of “Alditha uxore mea et fratribus meis Nigello et Gilberto”, by undated charter[1762]. The mid-15th century English translation of the cartulary of Oseney records that "Robert Doylly" founded St George’s church, Oxford castle with the consent of "Aldithe my wiffe and my brethren Nigelle & Gilberte"[1763]. The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "Wygodus de Walengheford" held the honour of Wallingford in Berkshire under King Harold II and that his daughter married

"Roberto Doilli"[1764]. Robert & his wife had one child:

i) MATILDA de Oilly (-[after 1150]). The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "Roberto Doilli…filiam Mathillidem" inherited the honour of Wallingford in Berkshire and married "Milo Crispinus", and after his death "Briennio filio comitis", adding that the latter had no heirs by her[1765]. "Milo Crispin…et uxor eius Matildis" donated land "apud Colebroc" to Abingdon monastery by charter dated to [1107][1766]. Empress Matilda permitted "Milon com Heref" to hold the castle and honour of Abergavenny, from "Bri fil com et Matild de Walengeford uxor sue" by charter dated [Jul 1141/Dec 1142][1767]. According to the Complete Peerage, the inquisition in the Testa de Nevill, which supposedly confirms her second marriage, is "of too late a date to be implicitly relied on"[1768]. According to Domesday Descendants[1769], Brien’s wife was the daughter of Miles Crespin and his wife Matilda de Oilly. This would account for her holding the honour of Wallingford. The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "Briennius et…Mathillis uxor eius" retired to monasteries ("reddiderunt se religioni") during the reign of King Stephen and that Henri Duke of Normandy, son of Empress Matilda, acquired the honour of Wallingford[1770]. Bracton notes a claim, dated 1225, by "Henricus de Oilly" against "Willelmum Basset" for "feodum dim. militis…in Hispedena", the plaintiff claiming that it was held by "Matillis de Oylli […Briennius filius Comitis…uxor sua]…tempore H. Regis patris Imperatricis" who died without heirs, inherited by "Roberto de Oylli…Henrici de Oylli patri istius Henrici"[1771].

m [firstly] MILES Crispin, son of --- (-1107).

[m secondly BRIEN FitzCount, [illegitimate son of ALAIN IV "Fergant" Duke of Brittany & his mistress ---] ([1090/1100]-after [1141/42]).]

b) NIGEL de Oilly [II] . An undated manuscript records that “Robertus de Oili primus et Nigellus de Oili fratres…germani” came to England with William "the Conqueror", that "Robertus” died "absque sobole" and that "Nigellus anno 1129 genuit Robertum secundum qui cum Editha uxore" founded Oseney abbey[1772]. The mid-15th century English translation of the cartulary of Oseney records that "Robert Doylly" founded St George’s church, Oxford castle with the consent of "Aldithe my wiffe and my brethren Nigelle & Gilberte"[1773]. "Robertus de Olleyo" donated the church of St Mary Magdalen in Oxford to the church of St George in Oxford Castle, with the consent of “Alditha uxore mea et fratribus meis Nigello et Gilberto”, by undated charter[1774].

c) GILBERT de Oilly . The mid-15th century English translation of the cartulary of Oseney records that "Robert Doylly" founded St George’s church, Oxford castle with the consent of "Aldithe my wiffe and my brethren Nigelle & Gilberte"[1775]. "Robertus de Olleyo" donated the church of St Mary Magdalen in Oxford to the church of St George in Oxford Castle, with the consent of “Alditha uxore mea et fratribus meis Nigello et Gilberto”, by undated charter[1776].


Two brothers. It is unlikely that their father could have been Robert de Oilly [I], otherwise it is unclear why Wallingford would have passed to Robert [I]’s daughter Matilda. It is likely that they were sons of either Nigel de Oilly [II] or of his brother Gilbert. An undated manuscript records that “Robertus de Oili primus et Nigellus de Oili fratres…germani” came to England with William "the Conqueror", that "Robertus” died "absque sobole" and that "Nigellus anno 1129 genuit Robertum secundum qui cum Editha uxore" founded Oseney abbey[1777]. This document indicates that Nigel [III] was the same person as Nigel [II] who is named above. The difficulty relates to the brother who is named Guy in charters quoted below, but named Gilbert in the sources which are quoted above. It is not known whether all these sources relate to the same person.

1. GUY de Oilly (-after Sep 1093). "…Rogerio comite, Widone de Oilleio…" witnessed a charter dated 1078 which records a donation to Saint-Vincent du Mans[1778]. Domesday Book records “Guy d’Oilly” holding land in Wigginton in Oxfordshire[1779]. “…Widonis de Olei…” witnessed the charter dated [May 1092] under which William II King of England confirmed previous grants to Lincoln cathedral[1780]. “…Widonis de Olei…” witnessed the charter dated Sep 1093 under which William II King of England donated property to Lincoln cathedral[1781]. William II King of England confirmed that land held by “Wido de Oileio” from Robert Bishop of Lincoln had been returned to "Nigello fratri suo" for his life, by charter dated to [1093/1100], witnessed by "…N. Oili"[1782].

2. NIGEL de Oilly [III] of Hook Norton, Oxfordshire (-[after 1103/06]). William II King of England confirmed that land held by “Wido de Oileio” from Robert Bishop of Lincoln had been returned to "Nigello fratri suo" for his life, by charter dated to [1093/1100], witnessed by "…N. Oili"[1783]. "…Nigel de Oilli…" witnessed the charter dated to [1094/98] under which William II King of England confirmed the donation to the abbey of Sainte-Marie de la Sauve Majeure by Hugues de Montgommery[1784]. The Chronicle of Abingdon records a donation by "Nigellus de Oilli…uxoris meæ Agnetis…Roberti filii mei" of "terram de Abbefelda"[1785]. "…Nigelli [de Oilli]…" witnessed the charter dated to [1103/06] [marked "A forgery" in the compilation] under which Henry I King of England confirmed the status of Durham abbey[1786]. Henry I King of England confirmed property ot Eynsham abbey by charter dated 25 Dec 1109, including the donation of "decimam unam hidam terre" by "Nigellus de Oleio"[1787]. m AGNES, daughter of ---. The Chronicle of Abingdon records a donation by "Nigellus de Oilli…uxoris meæ Agnetis…Roberti filii mei" of "terram de Abbefelda"[1788]. Nigel [III] & his wife had [three] children:

a) ROBERT de Oilly [II] (-1142). The Chronicle of Abingdon records a donation by "Nigellus de Oilli…uxoris meæ Agnetis…Roberti filii mei" of "terram de Abbefelda"[1789]. - see below.

b) FULK de Oilly (-after 25 Dec 1139). "Robertus de Oilio" donated property to Eynsham abbey by charter dated to [1130/35], witnessed by "Roberto filio Reg[is] et Edida uxore mea et Fulcone fratre meo…"[1790]. "…Rob[erto] de Oilli et fulco[e] fr[atr]e suo…" witnessed the charter dated 25 Dec 1139 which King Stephen granted for Salisbury Cathedral[1791].

c) [HENRY (-after [1150/55]). "…Henricus filius Nigelli…" witnessed the charter dated to [1150/55] under which "Philippus de Kime" confirmed the donations by "patris mei" of the churches of Bullington and Langton by Wragby[1792]. It is not certain that Henry was the son of Nigel de Oilly. However, the same charter was witnessed by "Rogerus de Oli" (parentage not yet ascertained, see below), which indicates a connection between the donor and the Oilly family.]

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

From British History Online

In 1068 the estate, later known as WATLINGTON manor, was held for 8 hides by Robert d'Oilly, Constable of Oxford castle. (fn. 102) He died without male heirs and most of his land went to his brother Nigel d'Oilly, (fn. 103) but Watlington may have been granted earlier to his daughter Maud, who married firstly Miles Crispin, custodian of Walling ford castle, and secondly Brian FitzCount, who became Constable of the castle and lord of Wallingford honor on the death of Miles Crispin. (fn. 104) Watlington was later held as a fee of Wallingford honor and in 1297 was regarded as being in the bailiwick of the honor. (fn. 105) Its independent status, however, is shown by the fact that when grants were made of the honor, specific grants were usually made of Watlington. This situation may have arisen because of the early history of Watlington manor. Maud's possession was evidently disputed by Nigel d'Oilly (d. c. 1115) and, according to a statement in a lawsuit of 1225, his son Robert (II) d'Oilly came to an agreement with Maud, the lady of Wallingford honor, by which Watlington and Ipsden were to revert to Robert and his heirs if she died without heirs. (fn. 106) Robert certainly included in 1129 the advowson of Watlington among the foundation properties of Oseney Abbey, and his grant was confirmed by Henry I between 1129 and 1133. (fn. 107) The family supported the Empress Maud in the civil wars of Stephen's reign and seems to have lost Watlington after the rout of Winchester in 1141. (fn. 108) Robert (II) d'Oilly died in 1142 and although his son Henry (I) d'Oilly confirmed the grant of the advowson to Oseney, it is doubtful if he ever obtained possession of Watlington manor; the estate was forfeited to King Stephen, who gave it to William de Chesney. (fn. 109)

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Robert d'Oyly, Constable of Oxford Castle's Timeline

1044
1044
Ouilly-le-Vicomte, Calvados, Lower Normandy, France
1062
1062
Age 18
Noyers, Yonne, Bourgogne, France
1089
1089
Age 45
Chard, Somerset, , England
1091
1091
Age 47
France?