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About Rodrigo el Cid Campeador Díaz de Vivar
Rodrigo Díaz (¿Vivar del Cid, provincia de Burgos?, c. 1048 – Valencia, 1099) fue un caballero castellano que llegó a dominar al frente de su propia mesnada el Levante de la Península Ibérica a finales del siglo XI de forma autónoma respecto de la autoridad de rey alguno. Consiguió conquistar Valencia y estableció en esta ciudad un señorío independiente desde el 17 de junio de 1094 hasta su muerte.
Se trata de una figura histórica y legendaria de la Reconquista, cuya vida inspiró el más importante cantar de gesta de la literatura española, "El Cantar de mio Cid". Ha pasado a la posteridad como el Campeador o el Cid (del árabe dialectal سيد sīdi, 'señor'). Por el apelativo «Campeador» fue conocido en vida, pues se atestigua desde 1098 en un documento firmado por el propio Rodrigo Díaz; el sobrenombre de «Cid», aunque se conjetura que pudieron usarlo sus coetáneos zaragozanos o valencianos. Aparece por vez primera en el Poema de Almería, compuesto entre 1147 y 1149. www.wikipedia.com
Title El Cid's charter of donation to the Cathedral of Valencia (1098). His signature is shown closeup in the image below.The name El Cid (Spanish: [el 'θid]) comes from the article el (meaning "the" in both Spanish and Arabic), and the dialectal Arabic word سيد sîdi or sayyid, which means "Lord" or "The Master". The title Campeador means "champion" or "challenger" in Spanish. Because of his exceeding prowess in arms, he was the natural challenger in single combats. In Spanish warfare, it was common for leaders of armies to pit two Champions against each other (similar to the story of David and Goliath) to determine the outcome of the conflict. This way neither side would lose a great number of men. The Cid was the champion of King Alfonso IV of Castile. He had gained the title of "Campeador" when he fought on behalf of Alfonso against the forces of Granada. He defeated his enemy disastrously, gathered much treasure, and captured Count García Ordóñez, leader of the Granadian army. He pulled Ordóñez' beard in the ultimate insult of those days, then returned to Burgos, the Castilian capital.
 Life and career El Cid's signature: Ego Ruderico, "I, Rodrigo". OriginsEl Cid was born 1043 AD in Vivar, also known as Castillona de Bivar, a small town about six miles north of Burgos, the capital of Castile. His father, Diego Laínez, was a courtier, bureaucrat, and cavalryman who had fought in several battles. Despite the fact that El Cid's mother's family was aristocratic, in later years the peasants would consider him one of their own. However, his relatives were not major court officials; documents show that El Cid's paternal grandfather, Lain, confirmed only five documents of Ferdinand I's, his maternal grandfather, Rodrigo Alvarez, certified only two of Sancho II's, and El Cid's own father confirmed only one.
 Service under Sancho II First paragraph of the Carmen Campidoctoris, the earliest literary treatment of El Cid's life, written by a Catalan partisan to celebrate El Cid's defeat of Berenguer Ramón.As a young adult in 1057, Rodrigo fought against the Moorish stronghold of Zaragoza, making its emir al-Muqtadir a vassal of Sancho. In the spring of 1063, Rodrigo fought in the Battle of Graus, where Ferdinand's half-brother, Ramiro I of Aragon, was laying siege to the Moorish town of Cinca which was in Zaragozan lands. Al-Muqtadir, accompanied by Castilian troops including El Cid, fought against the Aragonese. The party would emerge victorious; Ramiro I was killed and the Aragonese fled the field. One legend has said that during the conflict, El Cid killed an Aragonese knight in single combat, thereby receiving the honorific title Campeador.
When Ferdinand died, Sancho continued to enlarge his territory, conquering both Christian and the Moorish cities of Zamora and Badajoz. When Sancho learned that Alfonso was planning on overthrowing him in order to gain his territory, Sancho sent Cid to bring Alfonso back so that Sancho could speak to him.
 Service under Alfonso VISancho was assassinated in 1072, as the result of a pact between his brother Alfonso and his sister Urraca; In any case, since Sancho died unmarried and childless, all of his power passed to his brother Alfonso.
Almost immediately, Alfonso returned from exile in Toledo and took his seat as king of Castile and León. He was deeply suspected in Castile, probably correctly, of having been involved in Sancho's murder. According to the epic of El Cid, the Castilian nobility led by El Cid and a dozen "oath-helpers" forced Alfonso to swear publicly in front of Santa Gadea (Saint Agatha) Church in Burgos on holy relics multiple times that he did not participate in the plot to kill his brother. This is widely reported[who?] as truth, but contemporary documents on the lives of both Rodrigo Diaz and Alfonso VI of Castile and León do not mention any such event. El Cid's position as armiger regis was taken away and given to El Cid's enemy, Count García Ordóñez.
 ExileIn the Battle of Cabra (1079), El Cid rallied his troops and turned the battle into a rout of Emir Abdulallh of Granada and his ally García Ordóñez. However, El Cid's unauthorized expedition into Granada greatly angered Alfonso, and May 8, 1080, was the last time El Cid confirmed a document in King Alfonso's court. This is the generally given reason for El Cid's exile, although several others are plausible and may have been contributing factors: jealous nobles turning Alfonso against El Cid, Alfonso's own animosity towards El Cid, and an accusation of pocketing some of the tribute from Seville.
At first he went to Barcelona, where Ramón Berenguer II (1076–1082) and Berenguer Ramón II (1076–1097) refused his offer of service. Then he journeyed to the Taifa of Zaragoza where he received a warmer welcome by its diverse and well cultured inhabitants.
El Cid depicted on the title page of a sixteenth-century working of his story.According to Moorish accounts:
Andalusian Knights found El Cid their foe ill, thirsty and exiled from the court of Alfonso, he was presented before the elderly Yusuf al-Mu'taman ibn Hud and accepted command of the forces of the Taifa of Zaragoza as their Master.
However, the exile was not the end of El Cid, either physically or as an important figure. In 1081, El Cid, went on to offer his services to the Moorish king of the northeast Al-Andalus city of Zaragoza, Yusuf al-Mu'taman ibn Hud, and served both him and his successor, Al-Mustain II. He was given the title El Cid (The Master) and served as a leading figure in a vibrant Moorish force consisting of Muladis, Berbers, Arabs and Malians.
That kingdom was divided between al-Mutamin (1081–1085) who ruled Zaragoza proper, and his brother al-Mundhir, who ruled Lérida and Tortosa. El Cid entered al-Mutamin's service and successfully defended Zaragoza against the assaults of al-Mundhir, Sancho I of Aragón, and Ramón Berenguer II, whom he held captive briefly in 1082. In 1084, El Cid and the Moorish armies defeated Sancho of Aragon at the Battle of Morella near Tortosa. He was then troubled by the fierce conflicts between the Muladis of Badajoz and the Arabs of Seville.
In 1086, the Almoravid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula through and around Gibraltar began. The Almoravids, Berber residents of present-day North Africa, led by Yusuf ibn Tashfin, were asked to help defend the divided Moors from Alfonso. El Cid had probably commanded a large Moorish force during the great Battle of Sagrajas, which took place in 1086, near the Taifa of Badajoz. The Almoravid and Andalusian Taifas, including the armies of Badajoz, Málaga, Granada, Tortosa and Seville, defeated a combined army of León, Aragón and Castile.
Terrified after his crushing defeat, Alfonso recalled from exile the best Christian general: El Cid. It has been shown that El Cid was at court on July 1087; however, what happened after that is unclear.
 Conquest of ValenciaFile:El Cid ordering the Execution of Ahmed.jpg Engraving by Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville of El Cid ordering the execution of the instigator of the revolt and almoravid after his conquest of the city in 1094.Around this time, El Cid, with a combined Christian and Moorish army, began maneuvering in order to create his own fiefdom in the Moorish Mediterranean coastal city of Valencia. Several obstacles lay in his way. First was Berenguer Ramón II, who ruled nearby Barcelona. In May 1090, El Cid defeated and captured Berenguer in the Battle of Tébar (nowadays Pinar de Tévar, near Monroyo, Teruel). Berenguer was later released and his nephew Ramón Berenguer III married El Cid's youngest daughter Maria to ward against future conflicts.
Along the way to Valencia, El Cid also conquered other towns, many of which were near Valencia, such as Castejón and Alucidia.
El Cid gradually came to have more influence on Valencia, then ruled by al-Qadir. In October 1092 an uprising occurred in Valencia inspired by the city's chief judge Ibn Jahhaf and the Almoravids. El Cid began a siege of Valencia. A December 1093 attempt to break the siege failed. By the time the siege ended in May 1094, El Cid had carved out his own principality on the coast of the Mediterranean. Officially El Cid ruled in the name of Alfonso; in reality, El Cid was fully independent. The city was both Christian and Muslim, and both Moors and Christians served in the army and as administrators.
 DeathEl Cid and his wife Jimena Díaz lived peacefully in Valencia for three years until the Almoravids besieged the city. El Cid was fighting one of the men when he was shot in the heart with an arrow. Valencia's troops were losing spirit when Jimena thought if she set the corpse of El Cid atop his horse Babieca, the morale of Valencia's troops would soar. Alfonso ordered the city burned to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Almoravids. Valencia was captured by Masdali on May 5, 1102 and it did not become a Christian city again for over 125 years. Jimena fled to Burgos with her husband's body. Originally buried in Castile in the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña, his body now lies at the center of the Burgos Cathedral.
 Warrior and general Battle tacticsDuring his campaigns, El Cid often ordered that books by classic Roman and Greek authors on military themes be read aloud to him and his troops, for both entertainment and inspiration before battle. El Cid's army had a novel approach to planning strategy as well, holding what might be called brainstorming sessions before each battle to discuss tactics. They frequently used unexpected strategies, engaging in what modern generals would call psychological warfare — waiting for the enemy to be paralyzed with terror and then attacking them suddenly; distracting the enemy with a small group of soldiers, etc. (El Cid used this distraction in capturing the town of Castejón as depicted in Cantar de Mio Cid (The Song of my Cid)). El Cid accepted or included suggestions from his troops. In The Song the man who served him as his closest adviser was his vassal and kinsman Álvar Fáñez "Minaya" (meaning "My brother", a compound word of Spanish possessive Mi (My) and Anaia, the basque word for brother), although the historical Álvar Fáñez remained in Castile with Alfonso VI.
Taken together, these practices imply an educated and intelligent commander who was able to attract and inspire good subordinates, and who would have attracted considerable loyalty from his followers, including those who were not Christian. It is these qualities, coupled with El Cid's legendary martial abilities, which have fueled his reputation as an outstanding battlefield commander.
 Babieca Tomb of Babieca at the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña.Babieca or Bavieca was El Cid's warhorse. Several stories exist about El Cid and Babieca. One well-known legend about El Cid describes how he acquired the stallion. According to this story, Rodrigo's godfather, Pedro El Grande, was a monk at a Carthusian monastery. Pedro's coming-of-age gift to El Cid was his pick of a horse from an Andalusian herd. El Cid picked a horse that his godfather thought was a weak, poor choice, causing the monk to exclaim "Babieca!" (stupid!) Hence, it became the name of El Cid's horse. Another legend states that in a competition of battle to become King Sancho's "Campeador", or champion, a knight on horseback wished to challenge El Cid. The King wished a fair fight and gave El Cid his finest horse, Babieca, or Bavieca. This version says Babieca was raised in the royal stables of Seville and was a highly trained and loyal war horse, not a foolish stallion. The name in this instance could suggest that the horse came from the Babia region in León, Spain. In the poem Carmen Campidoctoris, Babieca appears as a gift from "a barbarian" to El Cid, so its name could also be derived from "Barbieca", or "horse of the barbarian".
Regardless, Babieca became a great warhorse, famous to the Christians, feared by El Cid's enemies, and loved by El Cid, who allegedly requested that Babieca be buried with him in the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña. His name is mentioned in several tales and historical documents about El Cid, including The Lay of El Cid.
 Swords TizonaA weapon traditionally identified as El Cid's sword, Tizona, used to be displayed in the Army Museum (Museo del Ejército) in Toledo. In 1999, a small sample of the blade underwent metallurgical analysis which confirmed that the blade was made in Moorish Córdoba in the eleventh century and contained amounts of Damascus steel.
In 2007 the Autonomous Community of Castile and León bought the sword for 1.6 million Euros, and it is currently on display at the Museum of Burgos.
El Cid also had a sword called Colada.
 Marriage and familyEl Cid was married in July 1075 to Alfonso's kinswoman Jimena Díaz. The Historia Roderici calls her a daughter of a Count Diego of Oviedo, a person unknown to contemporary records, while later poetic sources name her father as an otherwise unknown Count Gomez de Gormaz.
Tradition states that when El Cid first laid eyes on her, he was enamored of her great beauty. Together El Cid and Jimena had three children. Their daughters Cristina and María both married into the high nobility; Cristina to Ramiro, Lord of Monzón, grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre via an illegitimate son; María, first (it is said) to a prince of Aragon (presumably the son of Peter I) and second to Ramón Berenguer III, count of Barcelona. El Cid's son Diego Rodríguez was killed while fighting against the invading Muslim Almoravids from North Africa at the Battle of Consuegra (1097).
El Cid's own marriage and those of his daughters raised his status by connecting him to the peninsular royalty; even today, most European monarchs and many commoners of European ancestry descend from El Cid, through Cristina's son, King García Ramírez of Navarre and to a lesser extent via a granddaughter Jimena of Barcelona, who married into the Counts of Foix.
 References Wikimedia Commons has media related to: El Cid
 BibliographySimon Barton and Richard Fletcher. The world of El Cid, Chronicles of the Spanish reconquest. Manchester: University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7190-5225-4 hardback, ISBN 0-7190-5226-2 paperback. Gonzalo Martínez Díez, "El Cid Histórico: Un Estudio Exhaustivo Sobre el Verdadero Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar", Editorial Planeta (Spain, June 1999). ISBN 84-08-03161-9 Richard Fletcher. "The Quest for El Cid". ISBN 0-19-506955-2 Kurtz, Barbara E. El Cid. University of Illinois. I. Michael. The Poem of El Cid. Manchester: 1975. C. Melville and A. Ubaydli (ed. and trans.), Christians and Moors in Spain, vol. III, Arabic sources (711-1501). (Warminster, 1992). Joseph F. O'Callaghan. A History of Medieval Spain. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975 Peter Pierson. The History of Spain. Ed. John E. Findling and Frank W. Thacheray. Wesport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1999. 34-36. Bernard F. Reilly. The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI, 1065-1109 Princeton, New Jersey: University Press, 1988. The Song of El Cid. Translated by Burton Raffel. Penguin Classics, 2009. R. Selden Rose and Leonard Bacon (trans.) The Lay of El Cid. Semicentennial Publications of the University of California: 1868-1918. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997. Steven Thomas. 711-1492: Al-Andalus and the Reconquista. M. J. Trow,El Cid The Making of a Legend, Sutton Publishing Limited, 2007. Henry Edwards Watts. "The Story of El Cid (1026-1099)" in The Christian Recovery of Spain: The Story of Spain from the Moorish Conquest to the Fall of Grenada (711-1492 AD). New York: Putnam, 1894. 71-91. Cantar de mío Cid - Spanish (free PDF) Poema de Mio Cid, Códice de Per Abbat in the European Library (third item on page) T.Y. Henderson. "Conquests Of Valencia"  Sources and external linksInformation about The Route of El Cid - English  Notes
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El Cid Ruy Diaz cafô con doña Ximena Gomez hija del Conde don Gomez Señor de Gormaz nieta del Rey de Leõ, en quien tuvo a don Diego Rodriguez, que murio en batalla con los Moros en Confuegra, y dize la hiftoria, que no dexò fucefsion. No obftante que è vifto el teftamento de don Alonfo Martinez Olivera, de quien en la tercera parte hago memoria, tuvo mas dos hijas doña Sol, que cafô (como efcrive Hieronymo de Çurita en los Anales libr. 1 capi. 33) con el Infante don Pedro hijo de el Rey don Pedro heredero de Aragon, y no dexô fucefsion. Y a doña Elvira, q cafô (como efcrive Eftevan de Garivay en el libr. 11 cap. 24) con el Infante don Ramiro Sãchez de Navarra hijo del Rey don Sãcho Garcia, de cuyo matrimonio fuceden todos los Reyes Chriftianos. Las Armas del Cid Ruy Diaz, dizen fueron en Efcudo roxo vna Vanda verde con Perfiles de oro. Y en efta conformidad vfan della oy los del linage de Mendoça, y los del linage de Antolinez. Y della haze memoria en fu Nobiliario Herna Mexia Veyntiquatro de Iaen lib. 3 capi. 25. A la qual acrecentaron los de Antolinez ocho Afpas de oro en campo roxo, por averfe hallado en la conquifta de Baeça. Y afsi fe vee en los Efcudos viejos del arco del Alcaçar de aquella ciudad. Fueron Martin Antolinez, y pero Bermudez fu hermano, y Nuño Guftios de Lincuella aquellos tres famofos Cavalleros, que en la villa de Carrion en prefencia de el Rey don Alonfo (que ganô a Toledo) fe combatieron en Eftacada con los Infantes de Carrion don Fernando y don Diego hijos del Conde don Gonçalo Gonçalez Señor de Carrion yernos del Cid, y con el Conde don Suero Gonçalez tio de los Infantes, por el vltraje que hizieron a las hijas del Cid en los Robledos de Cortes, donde los Infantes y el Conde fueron vencidos, y eftos tres Cavalleros quedaron con la victoria. Llevava Martin Antolinez para efte combate contra el Infante don Fernando la famofa efpada del Cid llamada Colada, q fu Mageftad tiene, y fe mueftra en Madrid en fu Real Sala de Armeria. En cuya hoja de la vna parte eftã efculpidas quatro letras, que dizen Si Si. Y en la otra parte otras quatro, que dizen No No. Efta efpada dize la general hiftoria, que ganô el Cid al Conde de Barcelona, en la batalla que vuo con el Rey don Pedro de Aragon. Refierela Garivay en el cap. 16 del libr. 11. Y el Arçobifpo de Toledo. Y la general hiftoria, aunque en los Anales de Aragon en el cap. 22 en el lib. 2 fe cõtradize el tiempo defta batalla. La otra efpada llamada Tizona (que el Cid ganô del Rey Bucar Señor de Tunez, quando le vencio en la batalla) llevava Pero Bermudez con la qual vencio al Infante don Diego. Y en memoria defte combate, y del Palenque donde fue la batalla, q eftava cercado de Cadenas, vfaron los de el apellido de Bermudez vna orla de Cadenas azules en campo de oro en torno del Efcudo, que fon quinze Iaqueles de oro y negro. Del qual linage à avido, y ay principales Cavalleros en el Reyno de Galizia. Martin Antonlinez de Burgos y fu hijo Martin Antolinez y otros de fu linage refiere la hiftoria del Cid, que eftan fepultados en el Monafterio de San Pedro de Cardeña, en cuya Capilla eftà el fepulcro y cuerpo del Cid. Y a lo q afirman Autores graves, no averfe vfado en Caftilla Efcudos de Armas en eftos tiempos, yo foy de opinion, que pues no fe puede negar, que en aquel tiempo fe vfavãn los Pavefes, fe deve creer, que en fu pintura lleuavan alguna Devifa, ya que no vfaffen della en fus Sellos ni Sepulcros, y que efta fueffe la que el Cid vfô en fu Paves. Y afsi aunque en los Previlegios y Sepulcros del Rey don Alonfo, que ganò a Toledo, ni en los Reyes fus anteceffores vemos Armas en el Paves fuyo que fe mueftra en el Monafterio de Sahagun, fe veen, como referi en el capit. 42 del libr. 1. Y efta razon fe fatisfaze, para no deshazer la comun opinion, de que el Cid vfô defta Devifa confervada y continuada en eftos dos linages de Mendoça, y Antolinez decendientes de fu tronco. Y la mifma Devifa fe puede entender, que vfô el Cid en fu Pendon, fi fe deve dar credito en efto a la general hiftoria, en ella dize en el cpa. 3 del lib. 4 que muerto el Cid pufieron fu cuerpo en San Pedro de Cardeña por mandado de el Rey don Alonfo en vn Tabernaculo labrado de oro y azul, y en el las Señales de los Reyes de Caftilla, y de Navarra, y Cid. Y efte es claro argumento de la mucha antiguedad de las Armas, Devifas, ô Blafones en eftos Reynos. Y no fatisfaze, no hallarfe efculpidas en los fepulcros, pues el propio lugar para que ellas fe inftituyeron, fue para los Pendones, y Efcudos. Y vfar de eftas Señales en la guerra, es antiguo en todas las edades, y en los Sepulcros fabemos quan moderno es, como efcrevire en otro lugar. NOBLEZA DEL ANDALVZIA Por Gonçalo Argote de Molina, Sevilla 1588. De Anton Antolinez Alcalde de Baeça, y de fus Armas, y del linage del Cid Ruy Diaz de Bivar, y de los Antolinez y Bermudez. Cap. CXX. Pág. 130
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- El Cid Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. 1043 – 1099)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rodrigo el Cid Campeador Díaz de Vivar's Timeline
Vivar del Cid, Burgos, Castile and León, Spain
July 10, 1099
July 10, 1099
National Hero of Spain